Article I, New Jersey Constitution
|New Jersey Constitution|
|Preamble • I • II • III • IV • V • VI • VII • VIII • IX • X • XI|
Article I has been amended five times, most recently in 2013.
- Paragraph 2 was amended effective January 1, 1994.
- Paragraph 9 was amended effective December 4, 1973.
- Paragraph 12 was amended effective December 3, 1992.
- Paragraph 22 was added to the Article, effective December 5, 1991.
- Paragraph 23 was added to the Article, effective January 1, 2014.
| Paragraph 1:
1. All persons are by nature free and independent, and have certain natural and unalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and of pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness.
| Paragraph 2:
2. a. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people, and they have the right at all times to alter or reform the same, whenever the public good may require it.
b. The people reserve unto themselves the power to recall, after at least one year of service, any elected official in this State or representing this State in the United States Congress. The Legislature shall enact laws to provide for such recall elections. Any such laws shall include a provision that a recall election shall be held upon petition of at least 25% of the registered voters in the electoral district of the official sought to be recalled. If legislation to implement this constitutional amendment is not enacted within one year of the adoption of the amendment, the Secretary of State shall, by regulation, implement the constitutional amendment, except that regulations adopted by the Secretary of State shall be superseded by any subsequent legislation consistent with this constitutional amendment governing recall elections. The sufficiency of any statement of reasons or grounds procedurally required shall be a political rather than a judicial question.
| Paragraph 3:
3. No person shall be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshipping Almighty God in a manner agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience; nor under any pretense whatever be compelled to attend any place of worship contrary to his faith and judgment; nor shall any person be obliged to pay tithes, taxes, or other rates for building or repairing any church or churches, place or places of worship, or for the maintenance of any minister or ministry, contrary to what he believes to be right or has deliberately and voluntarily engaged to perform.
| Paragraph 4:
4. There shall be no establishment of one religious sect in preference to another; no religious or racial test shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust.
| Paragraph 5:
5. No person shall be denied the enjoyment of any civil or military right, nor be discriminated against in the exercise of any civil or military right, nor be segregated in the militia or in the public schools, because of religious principles, race, color, ancestry or national origin.
| Paragraph 6:
6. Every person may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right. No law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all prosecutions or indictments for libel, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact.
| Paragraph 7:
7. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue except upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the papers and things to be seized.
| Paragraph 8:
8. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense, unless on the presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases of impeachment, or in cases now prosecuted without indictment, or arising in the army or navy or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger.
| Paragraph 9:
9. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate; but the Legislature may authorize the trial of civil causes by a jury of six persons. The Legislature may provide that in any civil cause a verdict may be rendered by not less than five-sixths of the jury. The Legislature may authorize the trial of the issue of mental incompetency without a jury.
| Paragraph 10:
10. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury; to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel in his defense.
| Paragraph 11:
11. No person shall, after acquittal, be tried for the same offense. All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses when the proof is evident or presumption great.
| Paragraph 12:
12. Excessive bail shall not be required, excessive fines shall not be imposed, and cruel and unusual punishments shall not be inflicted. It shall not be cruel and unusual punishment to impose the death penalty on a person convicted of purposely or knowingly causing death or purposely or knowingly causing serious bodily injury resulting in death who committed the homicidal act by his own conduct or who as an accomplice procured the commission of the offense by payment or promise of payment of anything of pecuniary value.
| Paragraph 13:
13. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any action, or on any judgment founded upon contract, unless in cases of fraud; nor shall any person be imprisoned for a militia fine in time of peace.
| Paragraph 14:
14. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
| Paragraph 15:
15. The military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power.
| Paragraph 16:
16. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, except in a manner prescribed by law.
| Paragraph 17:
17. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
| Paragraph 18:
18. The people have the right freely to assemble together, to consult for the common good, to make known their opinions to their representatives, and to petition for redress of grievances.
| Paragraph 19:
19. Persons in private employment shall have the right to organize and bargain collectively. Persons in public employment shall have the right to organize, present to and make known to the State, or any of its political subdivisions or agencies, their grievances and proposals through representatives of their own choosing.
| Paragraph 20:
20. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. Individuals or private corporations shall not be authorized to take private property for public use without just compensation first made to the owners.
| Paragraph 21:
21. This enumeration of rights and privileges shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people.
| Paragraph 22:
22. A victim of a crime shall be treated with fairness, compassion and respect by the criminal justice system. A victim of a crime shall not be denied the right to be present at public judicial proceedings except when, prior to completing testimony as a witness, the victim is properly sequestered in accordance with law or the Rules Governing the Courts of the State of New Jersey. A victim of a crime shall be entitled to those rights and remedies as may be provided by the Legislature. For the purposes of this paragraph, "victim of a crime" means: a) a person who has suffered physical or psychological injury or has incurred loss of or damage to personal or real property as a result of a crime or an incident involving another person operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of drugs or alcohol, and b) the spouse, parent, legal guardian, grandparent, child or sibling of the decedent in the case of a criminal homicide.
| Paragraph 22:
23. All workers employed in the State have a right to be paid wages that are not oppressive or unreasonable and are sufficient to safeguard their health, efficiency, and general well-being and to protect them, as well as their employers, from the effects of serious and unfair competition resulting from wage levels detrimental to their health, efficiency and well-being. Following the establishment of an appropriate minimum wage rate, the making of regular, annual cost-of-living adjustments in that minimum wage will benefit workers by reducing the impact of inflation on them and benefit employers by providing small, manageable, incremental increases in the minimum wage which will end the historic pattern of large, sudden, disruptive increases in the minimum wage in very short time periods in between long periods without increases. Every employer shall, beginning the January 1 next following the date of the approval of this amendment by the people pursuant to Article IX of the Constitution, pay each employee a wage rate of not less than the rate required by the “New Jersey State Wage and Hour Law,” P.L.1966, c.113 (C.34:11-56a et seq.) on that date, or $8.25 per hour, whichever is more, for the first 40 hours of working time in any week and one and one half times the employee's regular hourly wage for each hour of working time in excess of 40 hours in any week. On the September 30 next following the date of the approval of this amendment, and on September 30 of each subsequent year, the State minimum wage rate shall be increased effective the following January 1 by any increase during the one year prior to that September 30 in the consumer price index for all urban wage earners and clerical workers for all items as calculated by the federal government. If, at any time, the federal minimum hourly wage rate set by section 6 of the federal "Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938" (29 U.S.C. s.206) is raised to a level higher than the minimum wage set by this paragraph, the minimum wage set by this paragraph shall be immediately increased to the level of the federal minimum wage, and all subsequent increases based on increases in the consumer price index pursuant to this paragraph shall be applied to the minimum wage as increased to match the federal minimum wage. If the minimum wage required by the provisions of the “New Jersey State Wage and Hour Law,” P.L.1966, c.113 (C.34:11-56a et seq.) is increased by amendment of that law, all subsequent increases based on increases in the consumer price index pursuant to this paragraph shall be applied to the minimum wage as increased by the amendment of that law. The minimum wage requirements and overtime requirements of this paragraph shall apply to all categories of employees who were, on the date of the approval of this amendment, subject to the minimum wage requirements and overtime requirements of the “New Jersey State Wage and Hour Law,” P.L.1966, c.113 (C.34:11-56a et seq.), and those minimum wage or overtime requirements shall not apply to the respective categories of employees who were exempt from those minimum wage or overtime requirements on that date, except that that act may be amended to extend the scope of that act to categories of employees that were previously exempted from the minimum wage or overtime requirements. All remedies, penalties or other measures provided by that act as of that date for violations of the provisions of that act, and any remedies, penalties or other measures for violations of that act which are subsequently added by amendment to that act, shall be applicable to violations of this paragraph. No provision of this paragraph or the “New Jersey State Wage and Hour Law,” P.L.1966, c.113 (C.34:11-56a et seq.) shall be construed as prohibiting, at any level of government, the establishment, by collective bargaining agreement, law, or other means, of requirements or standards regarding wage rates, overtime, or other terms and conditions of employment which are more favorable to employees, or provide greater protections or rights to employees, than the requirements or standards of this paragraph, including prevailing wage and other requirements or standards pertaining to public contracts.
- Added to the Constitution in 2013 through Public Question 2
Amendments of Article 1
Article I, paragraph 2 amended effective January 1, 1994; paragraph 9 amended effective December 4, 1973; paragraph 12 amended effective December 3, 1992; paragraph 22 added effective December 5, 1991; paragraph 23 added effective January 1, 2014