Article VI, Virginia Constitution
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| Text of Section 1:
Judicial Power; Jurisdiction
The judicial power of the Commonwealth shall be vested in a Supreme Court and in such other courts of original or appellate jurisdiction subordinate to the Supreme Court as the General Assembly may from time to time establish. Trial courts of general jurisdiction, appellate courts, and such other courts as shall be so designated by the General Assembly shall be known as courts of record.
The Supreme Court shall, by virtue of this Constitution, have original jurisdiction in cases of habeas corpus, mandamus, and prohibition; to consider claims of actual innocence presented by convicted felons in such cases and in such manner as may be provided by the General Assembly; in matters of judicial censure, retirement, and removal under Section 10 of this article, and to answer questions of state law certified by a court of the United States or the highest appellate court of any other state. All other jurisdiction of the Supreme Court shall be appellate. Subject to such reasonable rules as may be prescribed as to the course of appeals and other procedural matters, the Supreme Court shall, by virtue of this Constitution, have appellate jurisdiction in cases involving the constitutionality of a law under this Constitution or the Constitution of the United States and in cases involving the life or liberty of any person.
The General Assembly may allow the Commonwealth the right to appeal in all cases, including those involving the life or liberty of a person, provided such appeal would not otherwise violate this Constitution or the Constitution of the United States.
Subject to the foregoing limitations, the General Assembly shall have the power to determine the original and appellate jurisdiction of the courts of the Commonwealth.
- The amendment ratified November 4, 1986, and effective December 1, 1986 — In paragraph two, after "mandamus, and prohibition," deleted "and" and added to the sentence ," and to answer questions of state law certified by a court of the United States . . .."
- The amendment ratified November 4, 1986, and effective December 1, 1986 — In paragraph three, after "relating to the State revenue.," added the last sentence "The General Assembly may also allow the Commonwealth . . .."
- Amendment 2, Rights of Victims (1996) was ratified November 5, 1996, and effective January 1, 1997 — Deleted the third paragraph: "No appeal shall be allowed to the Commonwealth . . ." and added a next-to-the-last paragraph: "The General Assembly may allow the Commonwealth . . .."
- Amendment 1 (2002) was ratified November 5, 2002, and effective November 15, 2002 - In paragraph two, after "mandamus, and prohibition," deleted the comma and added ;" to consider claims of actual innocence presented by convicted felons in such cases and in such manner as may be provided by the General Assembly;" and after "article," deleted the comma and added a semicolon.
| Text of Section 2:
The Supreme Court shall consist of seven justices. The General Assembly may, if three-fifths of the elected membership of each house so vote at two successive regular sessions, increase or decrease the number of justices of the Court, provided that the Court shall consist of no fewer than seven and no more than eleven justices. The Court may sit and render final judgment en banc or in divisions as may be prescribed by law. No decision shall become the judgment of the Court, however, except on the concurrence of at least three justices, and no law shall be declared unconstitutional under either this Constitution or the Constitution of the United States except on the concurrence of at least a majority of all justices of the Supreme Court.
| Text of Section 3:
Selection of Chief Justice
The Chief Justice shall be selected from among the justices in a manner provided by law.
| Text of Section 4:
Administration of th Judicial System
The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall be the administrative head of the judicial system. He may temporarily assign any judge of a court of record to any other court of record except the Supreme Court and may assign a retired judge of a court of record, with his consent, to any court of record except the Supreme Court. The General Assembly may adopt such additional measures as it deems desirable for the improvement of the administration of justice by the courts and for the expedition of judicial business.
| Text of Section 5:
Rules of Practice and Procedure
The Supreme Court shall have the authority to make rules governing the course of appeals and the practice and procedures to be used in the courts of the Commonwealth, but such rules shall not be in conflict with the general law as the same shall, from time to time, be established by the General Assembly.
| Text of Section 6:
Opinions and Judgments of the Supreme Court
When a judgment or decree is reversed, modified, or affirmed by the Supreme Court, or when original cases are resolved on their merits, the reasons for the Court's action shall be stated in writing and preserved with the record of the case. The Court may, but need not, remand a case for a new trial. In any civil case, it may enter final judgment, except that the award in a suit or action for unliquidated damages shall not be increased or diminished.
| Text of Section 7:
Selection and Qualification of Judges
The justices of the Supreme Court shall be chosen by the vote of a majority of the members elected to each house of the General Assembly for terms of twelve years. The judges of all other courts of record shall be chosen by the vote of a majority of the members elected to each house of the General Assembly for terms of eight years. During any vacancy which may exist while the General Assembly is not in session, the Governor may appoint a successor to serve until thirty days after the commencement of the next session of the General Assembly. Upon election by the General Assembly, a new justice or judge shall begin service of a full term.
All justices of the Supreme Court and all judges of other courts of record shall be residents of the Commonwealth and shall, at least five years prior to their appointment or election, have been admitted to the bar of the Commonwealth. Each judge of a trial court of record shall during his term of office reside within the jurisdiction of one of the courts to which he was appointed or elected; provided, however, that where the boundary of such jurisdiction is changed by annexation or otherwise, no judge thereof shall thereby become disqualified from office or ineligible for re-election if, except for such annexation or change, he would otherwise be qualified.
| Text of Section 8:
Additional Judicial Personnel
The General Assembly may provide for additional judicial personnel, such as judges of courts not of record and magistrates or justices of the peace, and may prescribe their jurisdiction and provide the manner in which they shall be selected and the terms for which they shall serve. The General Assembly may confer upon the clerks of the several courts having probate jurisdiction, jurisdiction of the probate of wills and of the appointment and qualification of guardians, personal representatives, curators, appraisers, and committees of persons adjudged insane or convicted of felony, and in the matter of the substitution of trustees.
| Text of Section 9:
Commission; Compensation; Retirement
All justices of the Supreme Court and all judges of other courts of record shall be commissioned by the Governor. They shall receive such salaries and allowances as shall be prescribed by the General Assembly, which shall be apportioned between the Commonwealth and its cities and counties in the manner provided by law. Unless expressly prohibited or limited by the General Assembly, cities and counties shall be permitted to supplement from local funds the salaries of any judges serving within their geographical boundaries. The salary of any justice or judge shall not be diminished during his term of office. The General Assembly may enact such laws as it deems necessary for the retirement of justices and judges, with such conditions, compensation, and duties as it may prescribe. The General Assembly may also provide for the mandatory retirement of justices and judges after they reach a prescribed age, beyond which they shall not serve, regardless of the term to which elected or appointed.
| Text of Section 10:
Disable and Unfit Judges
The General Assembly shall create a Judicial Inquiry and Review Commission consisting of members of the judiciary, the bar, and the public and vested with the power to investigate charges which would be the basis for retirement, censure, or removal of a judge. The Commission shall be authorized to conduct hearings and to subpoena witnesses and documents. Proceedings and documents before the Commission may be confidential as provided by the General Assembly in general law. If the Commission finds the charges to be well-founded, it may file a formal complaint before the Supreme Court.
Upon the filing of a complaint, the Supreme Court shall conduct a hearing in open court and, upon a finding of disability which is or is likely to be permanent and which seriously interferes with the performance by the judge of his duties, shall retire the judge from office. A judge retired under this authority shall be considered for the purpose of retirement benefits to have retired voluntarily.
If the Supreme Court after the hearing on the complaint finds that the judge has engaged in misconduct while in office, or that he has persistently failed to perform the duties of his office, or that he has engaged in conduct prejudicial to the proper administration of justice, it shall censure him or shall remove him from office. A judge removed under this authority shall not be entitled to retirement benefits, but only to the return of contributions made by him, together with any income accrued thereon.
This section shall apply to justices of the Supreme Court, to judges of other courts of record, and to members of the State Corporation Commission. The General Assembly also may provide by general law for the retirement, censure, or removal of judges of any court not of record, or other personnel exercising judicial functions.
- Amendment 2 (1998) was ratified November 3, 1998, and effective January 1, 1999 — In paragraph one, third sentence, after "Proceedings," added "and documents" and substituted "Commission may be confidential as provided by the General Assembly in general law" for "Commission shall be confidential."
| Text of Section 11:
No justice or judge of a court of record shall, during his continuance in office, engage in the practice of law within or without the Commonwealth, or seek or accept any nonjudicial elective office, or hold any other office of public trust, or engage in any other incompatible activity.
| Text of Section 12:
Limitation; Judicial Appointment
No judge shall be granted the power to make any appointment of any local governmental official elected by the voters except to fill a vacancy in office pending the next ensuing general election or, if the vacancy occurs within one hundred twenty days prior to such election, pending the second ensuing general election, unless such election falls within sixty days of the end of the term of the office to be filled.
- The amendment ratified November 2, 1976 and effective January 1, 1977 — At the end of the section, after "election," added the language ," unless such election falls within sixty days of the end of the term of the office to be filled."
- State constitution
- Constitutional article
- Constitutional amendment
- Constitutional revision
- Constitutional convention
- Virginia's Legislative Information System, "Constitution of Virginia"
- Yale.edu, "1776 Constitution"
- Virginia Government Matters, "Virginia Constitution 1830"
- Virginia Government Matters, "Virginia Constitution 1851"
- Virginia Government Matters, "Virginia Constitution 1870"
- Virginia Government Matters, "Virginia Constitution 1864"
- Virginia Government Matters, "Virginia Constitution 1902"
- Virginia Historical Society
- You Tube, "Brief History of the Virginia Constitution"
- Dinan, John. (2014). The Virginia State Constitution, New York, New York: Oxford University Press
- Selby, John E. “Henry Lee, John Adams and the Virginia Constitution of 1776” in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 84, No. 4 (Oct. 1976): 387–400
- Holt, Wythe W. Jr., "The Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901-1902," in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 76 (January, 1968), pp.67-102
- McDaniel, Ralph C. (1928). The Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901-1902, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Press