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Atlanta Public Schools elections (2013)

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2013 Atlanta Public Schools Elections

General Election date:
November 5, 2013
Table of Contents
About the district
Method of election
Elections
What was at stake?
Key deadlines
Additional elections
External links
References
See also
Georgia
Atlanta Public Schools
Flag of Georgia.png

Nine seats on the Atlanta Board of Education were up for election on November 5, 2013. There are nine board seats in Atlanta divided by 6 geographic districts. Six members represent each geographic district and three members are elected at large. Board members are elected to four-year terms.

Atlanta Public Schools is the sixth largest school district in Georgia and served 49,796 students during the 2012-2013 school year.

Steven Lee and Mary L. Palmer from District 5, Eshe' Collins and Dell Byrd from District 6, Cynthia Briscoe Brown and Reuben McDaniel from District 8 and Jason F. Esteves and Lori James from District 9 faced off in a runoff election on December 3, 2013.[1] Leslie Grant, Byron D. Amos, Matt Westmoreland, Nancy M. Meister, Steven Lee, Eshe' Collins, Courtney D. English, Cynthia Briscoe Brown and Jason F. Esteves won their respective seats.

About the district

See also: Atlanta Public Schools, Georgia
Atlanta Public Schools is located in Fulton County and DeKalb County

Atlanta Public Schools is located in parts of Fulton County and DeKalb County, Georgia. Atlanta is the county seat of Fulton County. Atlanta is home to 443,775 residents.[2]

Demographics

Atlanta underperforms the state in median household income and poverty rate, but outperforms the state in higher education. According to the 2010 Census, the median household income in Atlanta is $45,946 compared to Georgia's statewide median of $49,736. The rate of residents below the poverty level in Atlanta is 23.2% while the state rate is 16.5%. The percentage of residents over 25 with a bachelor's degree or higher in Atlanta is 46.1% compared to the state average of 27.5%.[2]

Racial Demographics, 2012[2]
Race Atlanta(%) Pennsylvania (%)
White 38.4 59.7
Black or African American 54.0 30.5
American Indian and Alaska Native 0.2 0.3
Asian 3.1 3.2
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Z 0.1
Two or More Races 2.0 2.1
Hispanic or Latino 5.2 8.8

Presidential Voting Pattern[3]
Year Democratic Vote (%) Republican Vote (%)
2012 34.4 64.1
2008 32.1 67.1
2004 39.9 59.3
2000 39.8 57.8


Note: The United States Census Bureau considers "Hispanic or Latino" to be a place of origin, not a race. Therefore, the Census allows citizens to report both their race and that they are from a "Hispanic or Latino" place of origin simultaneously. As a result, the percentages in each column of the racial demographics table will exceed 100 percent. Each column will add up to 100 percent after removing the "Hispanic or Latino" place of origin percentages, although rounding by the Census Bureau may make the total one or two tenths off from being exactly 100 percent.[4]

Method of board member selection

The Atlanta Public Schools Board of Education consists of nine members elected to four-year terms. Three members of the board are elected at-large while the other six members are elected in different district regions. Nine seats were up for election on November 5, 2013, and all nine seats will be up for election again in November 2017. A runoff election was held on December 3, 2013 for District 5, District 6, At-large seat 8 and At-large seat 9.

Elections

2013

Candidates

[edit]

  • Leslie Grant
    • Small business owner
    • Barry College, The Georgia Institute of Technology


  • Eshe' Collins
    • Project director
    • Spelman College, Georgia State University, North Carolina Central University School of Law
  • Dell Byrd
    • Georgia State University, Central Michigan University, Georgia Southern University

  • Nisha Simama
    • Northern Illinois University, Atlanta University

  • Mark Riley
    • Real estate agent, business owner
    • Vanderbilt University
  • Reuben McDaniel
    • Incumbent
    • President/CEO
    • The University of North Carolina - Charlotte, The University of Texas
  • Tom Tidwell
    • Attorney
    • Georgia State University, The University of Georgia

  • Lori James
    • Instructor and Consultant
    • The University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Georgia State University, Fielding University
  • Ed Johnson
    • President and Principal Consultant
    • Clark College

Election Results

Runoff election
Atlanta Public Schools, District 5 Runoff Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngSteven Lee 58.2% 1,716
     Nonpartisan Mary Palmer 41.8% 1,231
Total Votes 2,947
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Atlanta Public Schools, District 6 Runoff Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngEshe Collins 59.1% 1,241
     Nonpartisan Dell Byrd 40.9% 860
Total Votes 2,101
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Atlanta Public Schools, District 8 Runoff Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngCunthia Briscoe Brown 66.5% 9,356
     Nonpartisan Reuben McDaniel Incumbent 33.5% 4,710
Total Votes 14,066
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Atlanta Public Schools, District 9 Runoff Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngJason Esteves 52.9% 9,890
     Nonpartisan Lori James 47.1% 8,818
Total Votes 18,708
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014
General election
Atlanta Public Schools, District 1 General Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngLeslie Grant 58.3% 3,609
     Nonpartisan Brenda Muhammad Incumbent 41.6% 2,575
     Nonpartisan Write-in 0.1% 5
Total Votes 6,189
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Atlanta Public Schools, District 2 General Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngByron Amos Incumbent 98.4% 3,834
     Nonpartisan Write-in 1.6% 61
Total Votes 3,895
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Atlanta Public Schools, District 3 General Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngMatt Westmoreland 98.9% 5,579
     Nonpartisan Write-in 1.1% 61
Total Votes 5,640
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Atlanta Public Schools, District 4 General Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngNancy Meister Incumbent 65.3% 5,114
     Nonpartisan Taryn Bowman 34.5% 2,703
     Nonpartisan Write-in 0.1% 11
Total Votes 7,828
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Atlanta Public Schools, District 5 General Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngSteven Lee 34.1% 2,265
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngNancy Palmer 38.5% 2,560
     Nonpartisan Raynard Johnson 16.6% 1,101
     Nonpartisan Charles Lawrence 10.4% 688
     Nonpartisan Write-in 0.4% 27
Total Votes 6,641
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Atlanta Public Schools, District 6 General Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngEshe Collins 36.1% 2,410
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngDell Byrd 25.4% 1,697
     Nonpartisan Shawanna Hayes-Tavares 23.4% 1,561
     Nonpartisan Anne Wofford McKenzie 15% 1,001
     Nonpartisan Write-in 0.2% 16
Total Votes 6,685
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Atlanta Public Schools, At-large seat 7 General Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngCourtney English Incumbent 61.4% 22,926
     Nonpartisan Nisha Simama 38.2% 14,264
     Nonpartisan Write-in 0.4% 131
Total Votes 37,321
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Atlanta Public Schools, At-large seat 8 General Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngReuben McDaniel Incumbent 35.8% 13,627
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngCynthia Briscoe Brown 25.8% 9,812
     Nonpartisan Mark Riley 18.5% 7,064
     Nonpartisan Tom Tidwell 16% 6,112
     Nonpartisan Dave Walker 3.7% 1,411
     Nonpartisan Write-in 0.2% 76
Total Votes 38,102
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Atlanta Public Schools, At-large seat 9 General Election, 4-year term, 2013
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngJason Esteves 34.5% 11,588
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngLori James 31% 10,421
     Nonpartisan Sean Norman 13% 4,361
     Nonpartisan Ed Johnson 11.4% 3,848
     Nonpartisan Eddie Lee Brewster 9.6% 3,230
     Nonpartisan Write-in 0.5% 180
Total Votes 33,628
Source: Fulton County Board of Election, "Election Results," accessed January 29, 2014


Endorsements

Atlanta Progressive News endorsed Brenda J. Muhammad, Byron D. Amos, Taryn Bowman, Raynard Johnson, Anne Wofford McKenzie, Nisha Simama, Cynthia Briscoe Brown, and Ed Johnson.[5] The BuckheadView also endorsed Brown and Simama along with Nancy M. Meister, Tom Tidwell and Jason F. Esteves.[6] The Atlanta Federation of Teachers endorsed Muhammad, Amos, Bowman, Mary L. Palmer, Dell Byrd, Simama, Reuben McDaniel and Lori James.[7] Palmer and Brown were endorsed by The Network for Public Education.[8]

Campaign finance

Candidates received a total of $911,552.76 and spent a total of $620,933.77 during the election, according to the Georgia Government Transparency and Campaign Finance Commission.[9]

In the District 1 race, candidates received a total of $148,887 and spent a total of $111,169.23.[9]

Candidate Contributions Expenditures Cash on hand
Brenda J. Muhammad $82,414.00 $55,913.73 $26,500.27
Leslie Grant $66,473.00 $55,255.50 $11,217.50

In the District 2 race, Amos received a total of $6,379.12 and spent a total of $2,348.70.[9]

Candidate Contributions Expenditures Cash on hand
Byron D. Amos $6,379.12 $2,348.70 $4,030.42

In the District 3 race, Westmoreland received a total of $37,047.50 and spent a total of $1,126.79.[9]

Candidate Contributions Expenditures Cash on hand
Matt Westmoreland $37,047.50 $1,126.79 $35,920.71

In the District 4 race, candidates received a total of $37,508.00 and spent a total of $36,390.34.[9]

Candidate Contributions Expenditures Cash on hand
Nancy M. Meister $19,884.00 $18,891.00 $992.80
Taryn Bowman $17,624.00 $17,499.34 $174.66

In the District 5 race, candidates received a total of $37,114.24 and spent a total of $16,961.38.[9]

Candidate Contributions Expenditures Cash on hand
Steven Lee $9,250.00 $2,950.00 $6,300.00
Charles Lawrence $1,439.00 $1,425.07 $13.93
Mary L. Palmer $20,585.57 $11,784.11 $8,801.46
Raynard Johnson $5,839.67 $802.20 $5,037.47

In the District 6 race, candidates received a total of $58,877.88 and spent a total of $35,967.04.[9]

Candidate Contributions Expenditures Cash on hand
Eshe' Collins $46,507.00 $29,891.20 $16,615.80
Dell Byrd $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Anne Wofford McKenzie $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Shawnna Hayes-Tavares $12,370.88 $6,075.84 $6,295.04

In the District 7 race, candidates received a total of $146,037.85 and spent a total of $87,174.54.[9]

Candidate Contributions Expenditures Cash on hand
Nisha Simama $60,428.00 $45,637.46 $14,790.54
Courtney D. English $85,609.85 $41,537.08 $44,072.77

In the District 8 race, candidates received a total of $333,150.93 and spent a total of $254,209.85.[9]

Candidate Contributions Expenditures Cash on hand
Dave Walker $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Cynthia Briscoe Brown $54,031.00 $35,345.96 $18,685.04
Reuben McDaniel $73,264.00 $62,821.43 $10,442.57
Tom Tidwell $61,818.94 $33,497.56 $28,321.38
Mark Riley $144,036.99 $122,544.90 $21,492.09

In the District 9 race, candidates received a total of $106,550.24 and spent a total of $75,585.90.[9]

Candidate Contributions Expenditures Cash on hand
Jason F. Esteves $70,990.24 $54,610.86 $16,379.38
Lori James $17,375.00 $5,687.04 $11,687.96
Ed Johnson $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Sean Norman $16,435.00 $14,843.00 $1,591.30
Eddie Lee Brewster $1,750.00 $445.00 $1,305.00

Past elections

What was at stake?

All nine seats on the Atlanta Public Schools Board of Education were at stake in the 2013 election. Brenda J. Muhammad, Byron D. Amos, Nancy M. Meister, Courtney D. English and Reuben McDaniel were the only incumbents seeking re-election, meaning that the election resulted in significant turnover in board members. Some suspect the large turnover was a result of a number of district issues, but most predominantly the criminal indictment of 34 district teachers and former superintendent Beverly Hall. Board members LaChandra Butler Burks, Cecily Harsch-Kinnane, and Emmett Johnson were some of Hall's biggest supporters, which may have been a factor in their decision not to seek re-election.[10]

Issues

CRCT testing scandal

In March 2013 a Fulton County grand jury indicted 35 Atlanta educators, including former superintendent Beverly Hall, in a cheating conspiracy the stretched across 58 schools. Each defendant was charged with Georgia RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations) conspiracy. The 65-count indictment also included charges of False Statements and Writings, False Swearing, and Influencing Witnesses in connection with the alleged conspiracy to alter Criterion Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) scores. Former superintendent Hall also faced theft charges because her salary rose with rising student test scores on standardized tests. Hall retired in 2011, just days before the allegations surfaced. The indictments came after a two-year investigation that looked at test scores dating back to 2005. Cheating allegations first surfaced in 2008, when The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported "statistically improbable increases" in scores on the state-mandated Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) at one Atlanta school. In 2009, the newspaper found similar increases at a dozen schools. The stories eventually led then-governor Sonny Perdue to appoint two special investigators who found cheating in 44 in 2011. In all, they found that 178 educators had cheated on CRCT tests.[11][12]No school board members faced implications due to these allegations. During their first few months in office, the new school board members will have to select a new superintendent.

Budget

Another challenge the new board will face is the development of next year's budget. The new board will likely want a significant reallocation of resources away from administration and into the classroom. There is also a strong call for reducing deficit spending, ending teacher furloughs and granting teachers a pay raise. These cost reductions and reallocations amount to $40-50 million out of an operating budget of approximately $590 million. It is likely that the cost reductions in the administrative and operating functions will be difficult to achieve without reducing the cost inefficiencies created by a number of small schools that were slated for closure, yet still remain open.[13] The new board will also have to address how to pay off an old pension liability that costs about $550 million. Atlanta Public Schools initially intended to withhold start up funding from charter schools in order to repay the debt, but in September 2013 the Georgia Supreme Court ruled that the city’s school system can’t make charters share in the burden of paying off the pension debt. The court decided that the amount of money charter schools receive is set by state law. The debt had been accumulating since the late 1970s, and charter schools don’t participate in Atlanta Public Schools’ pension system. The district released $415,000 to Atlanta Neighborhood Charter School after the money had been withheld last school year. The board is left to decide how to pay of the pension debt.[14]

Diploma misrepresentation

In August of 2013, Atlanta Progressive News reported that District 5 candidate Steven Lee had misleading educational credentials in documents prepared for the City of Atlanta. Three resolutions passed by the City Council of Atlanta, appointing him to three different boards in 2009, refer to him as Dr. Lee. Supporting documents, including Lee’s resume, also referred to him as Dr. Lee. Former Mayor Shirley Franklin, councilmembers Felicia Moore, CT Martin, Joyce Sheperd, and Lamar Willis and former councilman Jim Maddox each signed letters of recommendation referring to Lee as Dr. Lee. When first asked about the references to him as Dr. Lee in the City legislation, Lee told Atlanta Progressive News that his PhD was from Belford University. Belford University was a diploma mill that closed in 2012. It offered online, non-accredited college degrees to individuals for their previous life experiences for several hundred dollars. While it had a post office box in Humble, Texas, the degrees were mailed from the United Arab Emirates. Lee’s campaign materials did not mention that he previously referred to himself as Dr. Lee.[15]

Ethical questions regarding Shawnna Hayes-Tavares

In the summer of 2013, Atlanta Progressive News reported that Shawnna Hayes-Tavares, a candidate for Atlanta Public Schools Board of Education District 6, had an arrest record and was the subject of several investigations and actions involving JC Young Middle School. Hayes-Tavares was arrested on August 08, 2011, by DeKalb County Police, on three charges, including giving a false name and false information to the police, driving while license suspended or revoked and maximum limits.[16] Additionally, The Grady High School student newspaper and Atlanta Progressive News reported that the Young Middle School Local School Council claimed that Hayes-Tavares never reimbursed Young Middle School parents a total of $970 the parents had given her for uniforms during a summer camp. According to the March 18 Young Middle School LSC minutes, Hayes-Tavares collected $970 in full or partial uniform payments from the parents. Hayes-Tavares, however, claims that only four of the 15 girls at the camp paid for uniforms, which would equal $600 if those girls paid in full. After the majorette team was annexed by the After School All-Stars—a program with grant-provided funding for after-school activities—uniforms were no longer needed and Hayes-Tavares said she did not purchase them. Parents asked for a refund, according to the minutes from the meeting. Although Kelvin Griffin, the Young Middle School principal, asked Hayes-Tavares to return the $970, she had yet to refund the parents by the meeting on March 18, according to the LSC minutes. Griffin and Young Middle School decided to make the parents financially whole and reimbursed them. In an interview with The Southerner, Hayes-Tavares said she doesn’t know why Young Middle School is under the impression the parents were not refunded, but did not respond to an email asking her to clarify who refunded the parents.[17]

This is not the first allegation of financial misconduct made against Hayes-Tavares. When she was president of the Young Middle School PTSA, the Georgia PTA began to investigate the association’s finances and it was requested by a Georgia PTA official that no previous or current member of the Young Middle School PTSA should hold a position in any PTA/PTSA until the matter has been completely resolved. At the beginning of the 2011-2012 school year, Hayes-Tavares claimed there was a Georgia PTA letter which cleared her to serve again. Shortly after this claim was made, Hayes-Tavares collected gift certificates to be given to teachers for Christmas, but the gifts never made it to the teachers. Hayes-Tavares claimed the money was stolen from a school desk. After this incident, the LSC decided to look closer into Hayes-Tavares’ alleged PTA exoneration. In June of 2012, a Georgia PTA official claimed that the Georgia PTA was not aware of a letter exonerating Hayes-Tavares. On July 29, 2013, Hayes-Tavares also wrote an email to William Scott, director of the Office of Internal Compliance for APS, in which she claimed that since the audit was completed, the members of the 2006/2007 PTSA should be allowed to serve again.[17]

After Atlanta Progressive News editor Matthew Cardinale posted a story about the accusations against Hayes-Tavares, three comments were posted to the online story within 50 minutes defending Hayes-Tavares. One of the comments was signed “YoungMS Teacher”, another “T. Madhi” and the third was signed “Terry”, a resident of District 6. Cardinale saw that all three of the comments had the same IP address, meaning that they all came from the same computer. He then discovered that the IP addressed belonged to Hayes-Tavares’ computer because the candidate had previously commented on an Atlanta Progressive News article containing an interview with her on July 08, 2013. In a text message, Hayes-Tavares claimed that there were three campaign volunteers at her house posting the comments unbeknownst to her, and that she was not home.[18]

Key deadlines

The following dates were key deadlines for the Atlanta Public Schools election in 2013:[19]

Deadline Event
January 1, 2013 Earliest date for a Write-In Candidate to File and Publish a Notice of Intention to be a Write-in Candidate
March 3, 2013 Earliest date (180 days prior to the close of Qualifying) for a Candidate to circulate a Qualifying Petition to accompany a Pauper's Affidavit submitted in lieu of paying a Qualifying Fee
August 26, 2013 File a Notice of Candidacy & Affidavit and Pay Applicable Qualifying Fee or file a Qualifying Petition and Pauper’s Affidavit
August 30, 2013 Latest Date for Circulating and Filing a Qualifying Petition to Accompany a Pauper’s Affidavit submitted in lieu of paying a Qualifying Fee
September 6, 2013 Latest Date for a Write-In Candidate to File a Notice of Intention to be a Write-In Candidate, and for such notice to be published in a newspaper of general circulation or the official gazette of the municipality holding the election
September 11, 2013 Latest Date for a Write-In Candidate to file a copy of his/her published Notice of Intention to be a Write-In Candidate, and an Affidavit of Publishing which includes the name of the publishing paper and the publication date.
October 25, 2013 Last Day to Register and be Eligible to Vote.
October 14, 2013 Early voting begins.
November 1, 2013 Early voting ends.
November 5, 2013 Election day.

Additional elections on the ballot

In addition to the Board of Education elections, residents of Atlanta voted in a mayoral race and city council races. They also voted on whether to retain five Municipal Court Judge for the city of Atlanta.[20]

See also

External links

BP-Initials-UPDATED.png
Suggest a link

References

  1. Patch.com, "Four Atlanta School Board Races to be Decided in Runoffs, Hunt Archbold November 6, 2013
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2010 Census: Quick Facts, "Atlanta," accessed October 23, 2013"
  3. Fulton County Registration and Elections, "Archived Election Results," accessed October 23, 2013
  4. United States Census Bureau, "Frequently Asked Questions," accessed April 21, 2014
  5. Atlanta Progressive News, "APN Full Endorsements: APS BOE 2013," MATTHEW CHARLES CARDINALE, October 20, 2013
  6. BuckheadView, "Commentary: BuckheadView’s city elections choices," accessed October 29, 2013
  7. Financial Deconstruction, "Atlanta Federation of Teachers endorses slate of candidates for the Atlanta Public Schools Board of Education," accessed October 29, 2013
  8. The Network of Public Education, "NPE endorses Cynthia Briscoe Brown and Mary Palmer for Atlanta School Board," accessed October 30, 2013
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 Georgia Government Transparency and Campaign Finance Commission, "Campaign Reports Search," accessed December 24, 2013
  10. Scott Henry, Atlanta Magazine, "School board races begin heating up," June 7, 2013
  11. Larry Coplan, USA TODAY, "School cheating scandal shakes up Atlanta," April 14, 2013
  12. Office of the Fulton County District Attorney, "GRAND JURY INDICTS 35 IN CONNECTION WITH ATLANTA PUBLIC SCHOOLS CHEATING SCANDAL," accessed October 23, 2013
  13. Maureen Downey The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, ""Most important school board election in the history of Atlanta,"" October 20, 2013
  14. Mark Miesse, ajc.com, "Georgia Supreme Court rules in favor of charter schools in pension fight," September 23, 2013
  15. MATTHEW CHARLES CARDINALE Atlanta Progressive News, "APS Board Candidate, Steven Lee, Touted Diploma Mill PhD," accessed October 24, 2013
  16. Atlanta Progressive News, "APS Candidate, Hayes-Tavares, Has Arrest Record, PTA Ban, Pending Lawsuit," MATTHEW CHARLES CARDINALE August 22, 2013
  17. 17.0 17.1 The Southerner, "APS board candidate faces accusations," JOSH WEINSTOCK AND ARCHIE KINNANE, October 17, 2013
  18. Atlanta Progressive News, "Hayes-Tavares Caught in Apparent Fake Commenter Scheme" MATTHEW CHARLES CARDINALE August 24, 2013
  19. City of Atlanta,2013 Election Calendar," accessed October 23, 2013
  20. City of Atlanta, Sample Ballots," accessed October 23, 2013