Ballot Box Weekly: Few surprises mark yesterday's elections
Edited by Jamie Applegate
Welcome to the fifth edition of our new publication, Ballot Box Weekly, a compilation of election coverage from across the various pages on Ballotpedia and Judgepedia. Our weekly series will be published on Wednesday afternoons and cover a range of election news from our projects, including candidate filing deadlines, primaries and elections. The report focuses specifically on the projects covered by the staff of Ballotpedia and Judgepedia: state executives, state legislatures, school boards, State courts, Congress and state and local ballot measures. We'll be bringing you an assortment of elections coverage each week from up and down the ballot. This report is generated by the non-profit, nonpartisan Lucy Burns Institute, the organization that sponsors Ballotpedia and Judgepedia.
This week's Ballot Box Weekly features a look at the dozens of elections that took place yesterday and the results of those races. We'll provide a big-picture overview of the emerging trends from election-night 2013. For all the details of yesterday's races, visit the Ballotpedia and Judgepedia election hub pages.
What happened at the polls?
Elections this weeks took place across the country and included gubernatorial elections, school board elections, an attorney general election, ballot measure elections, judicial elections and state legislature elections. Some of the biggest results:
- Virginia Democratic candidates flipped two state executive official positions, eliminating a Republican trifecta.
- Colorado voters rejected a tax increase ballot measure.
- Republicans picked up four seats in the New Jersey and Virginia state houses. Democrats retained a comfortable majority in the New Jersey State Legislature while Republicans grew their majority in the Virginia state house to two-thirds. Four incumbents were defeated between the three chambers that held regular elections. In New Jersey, two incumbents fell, which is an increase from 2011 when zero incumbents were defeated.
- Chris Christie easily won re-election as Governor of New Jersey.
- Both Pennsylvania State Supreme Court justices won retention.
- Colorado voters approved a marijuana tax.
- Cincinnati voters rejected a pension reform measure while voters in Hialeah, Florida approved a measure reforming elected official pension plans.
|Election Coverage across Ballotpedia/Judgepedia -- November 4-November 10, 2013|
|Race||Date||Number of Seats Up for Election|
|Virginia House of Delegates||November 5, 2013||100|
|New Jersey State Senate||November 5, 2013||40|
|New Jersey General Assembly||November 5, 2013||80|
|Special elections||November 5, 2013||17|
|Alabama's 1st Congressional District||November 5, 2013||1|
|School Boards||November 5, 2013||633|
|Virginia Governor||November 5, 2013||2|
|Virginia Attorney General||November 5, 2013||1|
|New Jersey Governor/Lt. Governor||November 5, 2013||2|
|Judicial Elections||November 5, 2013||663|
Virginia Gubernatorial Election
- See also: Virginia gubernatorial election, 2013
The race for Virginia's gubernatorial seat was a close one, with a Democratic victory and a relatively high vote percentage for Libertarian candidate Robert Sarvis. Democratic businessman Terry McAuliffe defeated Republican Attorney General Ken Cuccinelli. Incumbent Bob McDonnell (R) was term limited from running for re-election in 2013. Due to Virginia's strict term limits, Virginia governors cannot serve two consecutive terms.
According to unofficial vote totals from the Virginia State Board of Elections, McAuliffe earned 48 percent of the votes while Cuccinelli earned a close 45.5 percent. Sarvis earned 6.6 percent of the vote, a higher percentage than Cuccinelli lost by and more than any third party candidate in a Virginia gubernatorial election over the past 16 years.
The Democratic victory is an important one, as it changes the state's status as a trifecta. A trifecta is when one political party holds both the governorship, a majority in the state senates and a majority in the state houses. While the State Senate is a tied chamber as a result of the 2011 elections, the tiebreaking vote is cast by the Lieutenant Governor. Prior to this election, this was a Republican which effectively meant that control of the Governorship and state legislature rested with the Republicans. Democrat Ralph Northam won the Lieutenant Governor seat, which will provide Democratic control of the State Senate. With the removal of the GOP trifecta, Virginia is now a divided government. When the new officials are sworn into office in January 2014, there will be 36 trifectas in the country -- 23 Republican and 13 Democratic.
Douglas County School District elections
Four seats on the board of the Douglas County School Board of Directors were up for countywide election on November 5, covering Districts B, D, E and G. There are seven board seats total in Douglas County divided by geographic districts. The school board election determined leadership on the board, whether members backed by the local Republican Party would maintain the majority of seats on the Board, continuing the board's reform efforts. The reform issues at stake this year include a voucher program, and a pay-for-performance plan for teachers. Incumbents Meghann Silverthorn and Doug Benevento both retained their seats on the board. They were endorsed by the Douglas County Republican Party, which also backed challengers James Geddes and Judi Reynolds who also won election. In the 2009 and 2011 elections, the Douglas County Republican Party endorsed the six current members and former member Dan Gerken. The race included allegations from winner Meghann Silverthorn that challenger Ronda Scholting selectively edited a September 13 interview between Silverthorn and local radio host Mike Rosen.
Candidates raised nearly $200,000 over the course of the election. The results and approval of the existing board indicate voters preference for the continuation of the current policies.
Upcoming Candidate Filing Deadlines
There were no filing deadlines this week and are none in the next week.
Looking ahead: upcoming elections
- November 12, 2013: Arkansas State Senate District 21 will hold a special runoff election. Sen. Paul Bookout (D) resigned on August 21, 2013, after he was fined $8,000 by the Arkansas Ethics Commission for spending campaign funds on personal items. A special election was called for January 14, with a primary on October 8. The runoff election will be to determine both the Democratic and Republican candidates. Democrats Steve Rockwell and Radius Baker will square off as well as Republicans Dan Sullivan and John Cooper.
|Quote of the Week|
- November 16, 2013: Louisiana House District 87 will hold a special election on November 16. Rep. Girod Jackson, III (D) resigned on August 22, 2013, after being charged with tax fraud and failing to file taxes. Democrat Ebony Woodruff is the only candidate in the special election.
This week was a busy one for elections, with elections across the country. Ballotpedia and Judgepedia's teams covered a total of 1,539 races yesterday for school boards, state legislatures, judicial seats, state executive positions and Congress.
|Elections Scoreboard -- Breaking Down the Ballot Box|
|Candidate Election Results Analysis|
|Total races covered by Ballotpedia/Judgepedia||1,539|
|Total races analyzed||243**|
|Incumbents on the ballot||205**|
|Total incumbents defeated||4|
|Total incumbent Democrats defeated||2|
|Total incumbent Republicans defeated||2|
|Total incumbent Independents/nonpartisans defeated||0|
|Total uncontested races||58**|
|Total uncontested Democratic wins||24|
|Total uncontested Republican wins||34|
|Total uncontested Independents/nonpartisans wins||0|
|% seats won by Democratic candidate||46.4%**|
|% seats won by Republican candidate||52%**|
|% seats won by Independents||0.84%**|
|Ballot Measures Results Analysis|
|Total state measures||31|
|State measures approved||24|
|State measures defeated||4|
|State measures too close to call||3|
|Total local measures++||139|
|Local measures approved||82|
|Local measures defeated||49|
|Local measures too close to call||8|
|**At the time of publication, analysis for the state court and school board races had not been completed. Those figures will be included in next week's edition of the Ballot Box Weekly. The total races analyzed refers to state legislative, state executive and congressional races.|
++These reflect the 139 local measures tracked by Ballotpedia writers in six states. It is not a comprehensive total.
It's always election season somewhere. Here are some snippets of election news across the various Lucy Burns Institute project areas.
- State legislatures
- School boards
- State executive officials
- State courts
- State and local ballots
- See also: State legislative election results, 2013
220 general election and 17 special election seats were at stake in states across the country including New Jersey, Washington and Virginia.
Little changed in terms of partisan composition in the Virginia House of Delegates, with Republicans remaining in control. 100 total seats were up for election. All 120 seats in the New Jersey General Assembly and New Jersey State Senate were up for election as well. Democrats maintained control of both houses, with a loss of two seats in the General Assembly.
The special elections that took place in several states resulted both in sure victories and runoff elections.
- The Georgia State Senate District 14 and Georgia House of Representatives District 104 races resulted in the need for runoff elections between two Republican candidates in each district. Georgia House of Representatives District 127 also resulted in the need for a runoff between two Democrats. The runoff elections will be held on December 3.
- Massachusetts State Senate 2nd Hampden and Hampshire District saw a Republican victory as Donald F. Humason, Jr. won.
- Michigan House of Representatives District 49 saw a Democratic victory.
- Races in Mississippi House of Representatives District 5 and District 110 both ended in runoff elections, which will take place on November 26.
- New Hampshire House of Representatives Hillsborough District 35 stayed Democratic.
- New York State Assembly District 86 and 53 also stayed Democratic.
- New York State Assembly District 2 stayed Republican.
- Texas House of Representatives District 50 resulted in a runoff election to be held on December 10.
Meanwhile, three seats up in the Washington State Senate are still undecided as absentee votes are still being counted.
States with legislative elections this week included:
- New Jersey
- New Hampshire
- New York
- See also: 2013 school board election results
201 school board general elections were held across the country on November 5. States electing school board members included California, Colorado, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia and Washington. Major issues included financial policies and changing education standards, including the implementation of new federal Common Core standards in some states.
The number of seats up in different states included:
- California: 114 seats
- Colorado: 51 seats
- Connecticut: 35 seats
- Massachusetts: 40 seats
- Ohio: 54 seats
- Pennsylvania: 60 seats
- Texas: 32 seats
- Virginia: 28 seats
- Washington: 78 seats
Four seats on the School Board for Compton Unified School District were up for district wide elections to be held on November 5, 2013. Incumbents Satra D. Zurita, Mae Thomas, Margie N. Garrett and newcomer Charles Davis defeated nine candidates for four seats on the Compton Unified School District Board of Education. Issues at stake include a racial profiling lawsuit against the district. On May 13, 2013 a group of students and parents filed a federal lawsuit against Compton Unified School District, alleging school police used excessive force and racially profiled Latino students and parents. The suit also alleges school police deliberately targeted Catarino Garcia and notified immigration officials resulting in Garcia's deportation after Garcia went to the school police station to file a complaint against an officer. Another plaintiff, Raquel Espinoza, alleges excessive force and that she was targeted for being a parent activist after she and her son were arrested outside Compton High School after an alleged fight involving her son. A bystander Victor Lopez filmed the incident with his iPod and had his nose broke, was pepper-sprayed, and arrested on charges of assaulting an officer and resisting arrest. Concerns have also been expressed over the lack of Latino members on the board. Latinos make up the majority of Compton residents and 78.8 percent of the student body, yet the Compton Unified School District School Board has no Latino member on the board. Several suits have resulted from this lack of representation alleging a violation of the Voter's Rights Act. A 2010 lawsuit alleged that the at-large elections system dilutes the voting power of Latino residents.
Four seats on the North Penn School Board were up for election on November 5, 2013. Board members are elected at-large and in a partisan election. All four members are Republicans -- three of which were incumbents. The three incumbents re-elected were Frank O'Donnell, Timothy S. Kerr, and Vincent Sherpinsky. Additionally, former board member Josie Charnock was also elected. The new school board will likely have to deal with the on-going charter school debate in the district. In February of 2013, the school board unanimously voted to deny approval of three applications to establish charter schools in the district. The board believed the applicants did not meet the requirements set forth by the state. The applicants appealed the board's decision by submitting a petition with more than 1,000 signatures of North Penn-area residents who support the idea of their charter school to the Montgomery County Court of Common Pleas. In a hearing on June 18, Judge Thomas DelRicci ruled that the paperwork for the appeal was insufficient. According to Jack Dooley, attorney for the North Penn School District, the paperwork was insufficient because it did not contain the names of those who were proposing to operate the school and did not it contain the location of the school. A second hearing before a county court judge is expected to be scheduled.
Seattle Public Schools in Washington held elections for three seats on their board. Incumbent Betty Patu ran unopposed while newcomers Stephan Blanford and Sue Peters won the other two seats. Major issues in the election included legal proceedings against the district regarding sexual abuse of students, budget strains and growing enrollment.
A series of lawsuits was brought by six former and current students seeking damages totaling $29 million. These damages are related to instances of sexual abuse by former teacher Phil McGee as well as an incident where a student was convicted of sexual assault against another student. The district also experienced a 9.5 percent increase in enrollment between 2008 and 2012. This enrollment increase coincides with declining money from the federal stimulus program as well as cuts to support services in recent budgets.
- See also: State executive official elections, 2013
State executive official elections took place in two different states yesterday, with big wins for both incumbents and newcomers.
In New Jersey, incumbent Governor Chris Christie and Lieutenant Governor Kim Guadagno gained an expected win over Democratic challengers Barbara Buono and Milly Silva as well as several other third party candidates.
The 2013 election marked the second lieutenant gubernatorial election in New Jersey history and the second time Christie and Guadagno shared the Republican ticket. According to the New York Times, with 99 percent of precincts reporting, Christie garnered 60.5 percent of the vote. Buono earned 38.0 percent.
Buono is a Democratic member of the New Jersey Senate, representing District 18. She was first elected to the chamber in 2001. Her running mate, Milly Silva, currently holds the position of executive vice president for 1199 SEIU, a local health care workers union affiliated with the Service Employees International Union.
Christie and Guadagno were expected to easily win the election, as polls had consistently been in favor of Christie and his running mate. The Rutgers Eagleton poll published for the week of October 7, 2013 had the duo up 59 percent to 33 percent. A poll published by Fairleigh Dickenson], had Buono and Silva with as little as 25%.
Christie's win has already stirred up talks that he may be considering a 2016 Presidential run, although the Governor has not stated that he would do so.
- See also: Virginia attorney general election, 2013
Virginia's Attorney General race remains too close to call and a recount is expected.
With 100 percent of precincts reporting, unofficial results from the Virginia State Board of Elections show Mark Obenshain (R) leading Mark Herring (D) in the race for Attorney General by just 219 votes out of nearly 2.2 million cast. Under state election law, the trailing candidate can request a recount if the margin of victory is less than 1 percent. The earliest a recount can be formally requested is November 25, according to The State Board of Elections.
In the event of a recount, elections officials double-check and re-add totals from voting machine records. During the 2005 recount, the returns from nine precincts were also examined by hand. The recount cannot take place until after the vote is certified by the Board of Elections. Once that occurs, the apparent losing candidate has ten calendar days to file a recount petition with the Circuit Court of the City of Richmond.
The recount court, which determines the procedures of the recount, consists of the Chief Judge of the Circuit Court where the recount petition was filed and two other judges appointed by the Chief Justice of Supreme Court of Virginia. The court then appoints recount officials to represent the respective parties to the recount. Once all the votes cast are recounted, the court certifies the candidate with the most votes as the winner.
- See also: Judgepedia's Election Central
- Note: Not all results have been tabulated. More details will be available next week
Judicial elections were held on November 5 in Pennsylvania, Washington, Ohio and New York.
Voters in Pennsylvania voted on retention for two judges currently sitting on the Pennsylvania Supreme Court on November 5. Democrat Max Baer and Republican Ronald Castille both sought retention on November 5. Castille is the Chief Justice of the court and was first elected to the court as a Republican in a partisan election in 1993; his current term expires in December of 2013. Baer was first elected in 2003 and his term expires this year. Baer was retained to the Supreme Court with 71.1 percent of the vote on November 5, 2013.(98.6 percent of districts reporting). Castille was retained to the Supreme Court with 68.6 percent of the vote on November 5, 2013.(98.6 percent of districts reporting).
The court is the court of last resort for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It was established by the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly in 1722 as a successor to a Provincial Appellate Court that had been established in 1684. It is the oldest continually sitting appellate court in North America. Jack Panella was also retained to the Pennsylvania Superior Court. A primary was held on May 21, 2013.
Ohio held elections for 56 municipal courts in the state. Election results are currently not available. A primary was held on May 7, 2013.
Washington held elections for three positions on its superior court, one position on a municipal court and two positions on its court of appeals. All candidates for the municipal court and superior courts ran unopposed.
New York held elections for its Supreme Court and City Civil and County-level courts. Seats up throughout the state included seats on the Supreme Court, County courts, Family courts, Surrogate courts, and Town and Village courts. Judges in New York participate in partisan elections. Unlike other states, those elections do not just involve two parties. Instead, candidates are cross-filed and endorsed by a wide range of political parties. Closed primary elections are held in which members of political parties nominate their respective candidates. The candidate who wins the Democratic primary, for example, will go on to be the Democratic nominee in the general election. Independent candidates may also run in the general election, bypassing the primary. Click here for an exclusive list of town and village court offices that were up for election.
The runoff, between candidates Bradley Byrne and Dean Young has proven competitive as controversy has surrounded both candidates. On October 10, 2013, Bradley Byrne posted on his Facebook account accusing his opponent, Dean Young, of attacking his daughter as part of his campaign. Young denied the accusations. Young also elicited controvery by asking his opponents to sign a pledge saying that if elected to Congress, they will take active steps to oppose gay marriage. The pledge also supports a proposed change to the state's Republican Party's bylaws that would expel any member of the party's steering committee who takes a public position in favor of gay marriage – or any other position counter to the party platform.
The district is considered heavily Republican, as Byrne is expected to easily win the special election.
- See also: 2013 ballot measure election results
2013 turned out to be a low one for ballot measures. Historically, elections in odd-numbered years see approximately 45 measures on average; there were 34 in 2011. Going back to 1989, the average number of measures on the ballot in an odd-numbered year is slightly over 42, with about 9 states featuring ballot measures. With only 31 statewide measures on the ballot in 6 states, 2013 will have less than half the average number of measures on the ballot. This was also a historically low year for the number of measures that were petitioned onto the ballot. In 2013, there are only three such measures on statewide ballots: Colorado Amendment 66, Washington I-517 and Washington I-522. This compares to an average of 7.1 such measures from 1993 through 2011. Here are five of the most important measures voted on yesterday:
Washington Initiative 522, also known as the "Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Engineered Food Measure," was on the November 5, 2013 ballot in Washington as an Initiative to the Legislature. Unofficial election results showed that it was defeated.
Had it been approved, the initiative would have required certain foods and seeds for sale to consumers that come from plants or animals which contain genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to be labeled as such. If these foods were not labeled correctly, a penalty of up to $1,000 per day per mislabeled item could be assessed on the violator. The stipulations in I-522 would have taken effect on July 1, 2015.
According to the Washington Official Voter Guide 2013, I-522 defined GMOs as foods in which there have been "changes to genetic material produced through techniques that directly insert DNA or RNA into organisms or that use cell fusion techniques to overcome natural barriers to cell multiplication or recombination."
A similar measure, California's Proposition 37, was narrowly defeated on November 6, 2012. Proposition 37 enjoyed a 61 percent lead in the polls in early September of 2012; roughly $45.6 million was spent to defeat it.
If I-522 had passed, it would have been the first measure of its type in the country.
Amendment 66 would have increased the state's income tax to raise the amount spent on funding public school districts by about 16.6 percent from $5.5 billion under the current law to a little over $6.4 billion. When the increases in charter school funding are added, this amounts to a $950 million increase. Amendment 66 would have also allowed for the implementation of the new Public School Finance Act Senate Bill 213. The new tax and education funding formulas found in SB 13-213 would have gone into effect in the 2015-16 fiscal year. Currently the state-wide per-pupil funding is $6,652 and is projected to rise to $7,426 under SB 13-213. Colorado Commits to Kids is sponsoring the initiative.
The Colorado Education Association (CEA), although big supporters of Amendment 66, threatened to sue to eliminate parts of Senate Bill 191, which would be funded by Amendment 66. Teacher unions, especially the CEA, opposed SB 191 because it establishes new standards for teachers and principals and restricts teacher tenure, allowing tenure to be removed after two consecutive "low-performance" years.
The Texas State Water Fund Amendment, Proposition 6, also referred to as the Texas Rainy Day Fund Amendment, was on the November 5, 2013 ballot in Texas as a legislatively-referred constitutional amendment.
The measure, which was sponsored in the legislature by Sen. Tommy Williams (R-4), asked voters whether an amendment should be implemented to create the State Water Implementation Fund for Texas (SWIFT) and the State Water Implementation Revenue Fund for Texas to assist in the financing of priority projects in the state water plan. Approximately $2 billion will be withdrawn from the Texas Economic Stabilization Fund (ESF) - colloquially referred to as the Rainy Day Fund - to finance the newly created funds. Proposition 6 authorized the transfer or deposit of state revenue into the funds, however it did not itself make the transfer or deposit of money into either fund. See the Enabling legislation section below for more information on how SWIFT and SWIRFT would be funded. The measure was known as Senate Joint Resolution 1 in the legislature. HB 4 was the enabling legislation for SJR 1. The measure has not officially been called, but it looks as though it has been approved.
The New Jersey Minimum Wage Increase Amendment, Public Question 2, also known as SCR 1, was on the November 5, 2013 ballot in the state of New Jersey as a legislatively-referred constitutional amendment. It was approved.
The measure set the minimum wage at $8.25 per hour with annual adjustments for inflation beginning January 1, 2014, if approved. The current minimum wage in the state is $7.25; the same as the current federal wage. The measure also added automatic yearly increases based on the Consumer Price Index.
"Raise the Wage," supporter of Public Question 2 and a project of the National Employment Law Project, led campaigns on the federal level and in Massachusetts, Maryland, South Dakota, Alaska, Illinois, Minnesota, Hawaii and Idaho.
Public Question 2 was the only measure about minimum wage on the 2013 ballot nationwide. However, at least four states are currently considering proposals for the 2014 ballot. Those states and proposals include: Alaska, Missouri, New Mexico and South Dakota. Other proposals are filtering through state legislatures.
Prior to 2013, minimum wage last appeared on a state ballot in 2006. Public Question 2 marked the first appearance of minimum wage issues on a New Jersey ballot. Typically, public-policy questions are addressed through the legislature. Ben Dworkin, director of Rebovich Institute for New Jersey Politics, called the measure "unique" because it was placed on the ballot.
The Cincinnati Pension Reform Charter Amendment Initiative question was on the November 5, 2013 election ballot for voters in the city of Cincinnati in Hamilton County, which is in Ohio. It was defeated, according to the current unofficial vote count.
Issue 4 was one of three local measures on the ballot across the nation concerning retirement pension and health care benefits and it was the only measure that was put on the ballot through initiative and was seeking to change the public pension system from a defined benefit plan to a defined contribution plan. Two other pension related initiatives qualified for the November ballot in Tucson, AZ, and Pacific Grove, CA, but were removed for legal reasons.
The initiative sought to change the city's public pension plan for new hires from a Defined Benefit Plan to a Defined Contribution Plan. If it appears on the ballot and is approved by voters, the amendment would also implement contribution caps for the city and make cost of living adjustments compatible with actual increases in the consumer price index, with a cap at 3 percent annually. Several other rules are also potentially established by the amendment, such as a stipulation that no city employee can simultaneously earn income from a city or government job and receive retirement benefits.
- Ballot Box Weekly
- November 5, 2013 election results
- The Tuesday Count: Ballotpedia announces 5 most important 2013 ballot measures
- FOX News, "Democrat Terry McAuliffe wins Va. governor's race, Fox News projects," November 5, 2013
- Virginia.gov, "Election Results," November 6, 2013
- NBC 10 "Republicans take control of Va. Senate," January 11, 2012
- Jane Reuter, OurLoneTreeNews.com, "School board election gearing up," June 25, 2013
- Jane Reuter, Highlands Ranch News, "Local Republicans endorse candidates," August 19, 2013
- Jane Reuter, OurCastleRockNews.com, "Douglas County GOP hosts school board," January 19, 2013
- Jane Reuter, Our Colorado News, "Radio show cut ignites candidate controversy," September 30, 2013
- Our Colorado News, "Campaign funds tell different stories in Douglas County School Board race," October 18, 2013
- These figures refer only to the elections that are covered by Ballotpedia and Judgepedia staff. They may not be comprehensive. If you would like to send details about an election not covered, contact us
- thenewstribune.com, "Arkansas lawmaker steps down from Senate seat," August 20, 2013
- CBS News, "No surprise: Chris Christie re-elected as New Jersey governor," accessed November 6, 2013
- Abby Sewell LA Times, "Suit accuses Compton school district of abuse, racial profiling," May 13, 2013
- Ann M. Simmons and Abby Sewell LA Times, "Suit seeks to open Compton to Latino voters," December 20, 2010
- "The Reporter," "North Penn School Board denies charter school applications," accessed September 19, 2013
- "The Reporter," "Judge sides with NPSD in charter school case," accessed September 19, 2013
- KUOW, "Seattle School District Faces $29 Million In Sex Abuse Liability," July 22, 2013
- Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. "Student Enrollment Cohort Projections, 2012," accessed August 2, 2013
- Seattle Public Schools, "Budget Office, Current and Past Budgets," accessed August 2, 2013
- The New York Times, "New Jersey Governor," November 6, 2013
- Huffington Post, Barbara Buono Picks Milly Silva As Running Mate In New Jersey Race, July 25,2013
- Rutgers Eagleton poll, November 6, 2013
- Farleigh Dickenson poll, November 6, 2013
- Time Magazine, "Christie Wins Re-election in Landslide, 2016 Awaits," November 5, 2013
- Virginia State Board of Elections, " Election Results – General Election – November 5, 2013," accessed November 6, 2013 at 9:25 a.m. CT
- Washington Post, "Obenshain, Herring virtually tied in Virginia attorney general's race; recount expected," November 6, 2013
- Richmond Times Dispatch, "Obenshain, Herring too close to call in AG race," November 6, 2013
- Virginia State Board of Elections, " Virginia Recounts and Contests – the Basics," accessed November 6, 2013
- Pennsylvania Department of State: Unofficial 2013 Municipal Election Results
- Politics PA, "Castille to Seek Retention; No Supreme Court Race in 2013," January 2013
- NYC Board of Elections: Guide to NYC Elections
- AL.com, "Bradley Byrne accuses Dean Young of attacking his daughter," accessed October 15, 2013
- AL.com, "Gay marriage feud erupts in AL-01 congressional race," accessed August 22, 2013
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- Washington Official Voter Guide 2013, "Explanatory Statement," accessed October 21, 2013
- Washington Official Voter Guide 2013, "Explanatory Statement," accessed October 21, 2013
- Kansas City Business, "Will Washington state break U.S. logjam on labeling GMO food?" October 17, 2013
- Colorado Secretary of State, "Amendments and Propositions on the Ballot 2013," accessed September 11, 2013
- Legislative Council, School District Impacts of SB 213 vs. Hypothetical $915 Million Revenue Increase with Current Formula
- EdNews Colorado, "See how your district's funding would change under SB 13-213," September 29, 2013
- The Spot (blog), "Colorado Senate debates Mike Johnston's bill to overhaul school finance," April 1, 2013
- Denver Post, "Colorado school finance revamp next takes tax increase to voters," May 5, 2013
- Colorado Commits to Kids website
- Texas Future, "Proposition 6 Questions & Answers," accessed September 25, 2013
- OpenStates.org, "SJR 1: Texas Senate Joint Resolution - Proposing a constitutional amendment providing for the creation of the State Water Implementation Fund for Texas and the State Water Implementation Revenue Fund for Texas to assist in the financing of priority projects in the state water plan," accessed June 4, 2013
- Star-Telegram, "Opposition forming to massive Texas water plan," June 3, 2013
- Texas Legislative Council's Official Voter Guide, "Amendment No. 6, SJR 1," accessed October 7, 2013
- Philly.com, "Christie conditionally vetoes minimum-wage hike," January 29, 2013
- The Star-Ledger, "Poll: Do you favor the N.J. proposal to raise the minimum wage?," September 25, 2013
- North Jersey.com, "New Jersey minimum wage ballot fight heats up," September 29, 2013
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- Wall Street Journal, "Workers' Wages on Ballot in N.J.," November 3, 2013