Ballot access requirements for political candidates in Georgia

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Ballot Access Requirements for Candidates
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U.S. House requirements for Independents in 2014
This page contains extensive information about ballot access requirements for state and federal candidates running for elected office in the state of Georgia. Offices included are:

This page contains information on specific filing dates for each election year, how to become a candidate, how to create a political party, campaign finance requirements, state agency contacts involved in the election process, and term limits in Georgia. Information on running for election as a presidential candidate or for county and municipal offices is not included. This page reflects research completed in April 2014.

Note: If you have any questions or comments about this page, email us.

Year-specific dates

2014

See also: Georgia elections, 2014

Georgia held a primary election on May 20, 2014. The general election will take place on November 4, 2014.[1] Voters will elect candidates to serve in the following state and federal offices:

There were two qualifying periods for candidates to file with the Georgia Secretary of State. The first was open to all candidates, though Democratic and Republican candidates were required to file at this time, and occurred from March 3, 2014 through March 7, 2014. The second qualifying period for independent and political body candidates occurred from June 23, 2014 through June 27, 2014.[2][3] The deadline to file as a write-in candidate for the general election is September 2, 2014.[4][5] To register a new political organization for the general election, paperwork must be filed by September 5, 2014.[6] Political organizations qualified to hold conventions to nominate their candidates for the general election must have held that convention by June 7, 2014.[7]

These deadlines, in addition to campaign finance reporting deadlines, are included in the table below.[8][9]

Legend:      Ballot Access     Campaign Finance     Election Date




Dates and Requirements for Candidates in 2014
Deadline Event Type Event Description
January 31, 2014 Campaign Finance Campaign Disclosure Report due
March 3, 2014 Ballot Access Qualifying period for political party candidates begins
March 7, 2014 Ballot Access Filing deadline for political party candidates
March 31, 2014 Campaign Finance Campaign Disclosure Report due
May 20, 2014 Election Date Primary election date
June 7, 2014 Ballot Access Last day a political organization can hold a convention to nominate candidates
June 23, 2014 Ballot Access Qualifying period for independent and political body candidates begins
June 27, 2014 Ballot Access Filing deadline for independent and political body candidates
June 30, 2014 Campaign Finance Campaign Disclosure Report due
September 2, 2014 Ballot Access Deadline to file as a write-in candidate for the general election
September 5, 2014 Ballot Access Deadline to file paperwork to create a new political body for the general election
September 30, 2014 Campaign Finance Campaign Disclosure Report due
October 25, 2014 Campaign Finance Campaign Disclosure Report due
November 4, 2014 Election Date General election
December 31, 2014 Campaign Finance Campaign Disclosure Report due

Political parties

See also: List of political parties in the United States

As of September 2013, Georgia officially recognizes two political parties.[10] In order to be recognized by the state, a political party must fulfill certain requirements, which are outlined below in "Process to establish a political party."

Party Website link By-laws/Platform link
Democratic http://www.georgiademocrat.org/ Party platform
Republican http://www.gagop.org/ Party rules

In some states, a candidate may choose to have a label other than that of an officially recognized party appear alongside his or her name on the ballot. Such labels are called political party designations. A political party designation would be used when a candidate qualifies as an independent, but prefers to use a different label. Georgia[11] does allow candidates to identify in this way. A total of 25 states allow candidates to use political party designations in non-presidential elections.

The 11 states listed below (and Washington, D.C.) do not provide a process for political organizations to gain qualified status in advance of an election. Instead, in these states, an aspirant party must first field candidates using party designations. If the candidate or candidates win the requisite votes, the organization may then be recognized as an official political party. In these states, a political party can be formed only if the candidate in the general election obtains a specific number of votes. The number of votes required and type of race vary from state to state. Details can be found on the state-specific requirements pages.[12]

Events

House Bill 899

During the 2011-2012 Georgia House of Representatives Regular Session, the House took recommendations from the Georgia Secretary of State to amend election laws, creating House Bill 949. By the time the bill went to vote, it had changed. Called House Bill 899, it left out a provision recommended by the Secretary of State to lower the number of signatures required to get on the ballot as an independent or minor party candidate.[13] Georgia requires signatures from five percent of prospective voters, meaning people who were registered during the previous election. The initial recommendation suggested calculating the five percent from likely voters instead of total eligible voters, which would cut the required number of signatures by about 25 percent.[14] This change would have required an independent or minor party candidate running for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives to collect approximately 14,000 signatures instead of 18,000.[15] However, that recommendation was left behind when House Bill 949 became House Bill 899. The new bill passed in the House on March 5, 2012 and was sent to the state Senate for review.[13] The state Senate adopted the bill without revising it and passed it on March 27, 2012.[16] Renamed Senate Bill 92, it was sent to Governor Nathan Deal, who signed it on May 2, 2012.[17] The final draft of the bill can be read here. Critics maintain that Georgia has one of the most restrictive ballots among the 50 states, competing only with North Carolina and South Carolina, as well as some of the most demanding signature requirements.[14] No minor party candidate in Georgia has managed to get on the U.S. House of Representatives ballot since 1943.[18]

Process to establish a political party

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 21, Chapter 2 of the Georgia Code

Official political party status in Georgia is determined by the number of votes a candidate receives at a presidential or gubernatorial election. To be officially recognized, a political party's candidate must have received 20 percent of the vote at the last general election. If a group's candidate does not receive enough votes, it is considered a political organization.[19] The process to establish a political organization in order to put candidates on the ballot is outlined below.

Registering a new political organization

  • A new political organization must file a registration statement with the Georgia Secretary of State, along with a $10.00 filing fee, within 60 days of its organization. The registration statement must contain:[20]
    • Name of the political organization
    • Date and location of the organization's creation
    • General purposes for which the organization was created
    • Address of the main office
    • Certified copies of any charters, bylaws, rules, regulations or other operational documents
    • Names, addresses and titles of officers and members of governing committees
  • The registration statement of a new political organization will not be approved if the name of the organization is the same or deceptively similar to any already established political parties or political organizations.[20]
  • If any information in the registration statement changes, an amendment describing the changes must be filed with the Georgia Secretary of State within 30 days of the change. To file each amendment added to the original registration statement, an additional $2.00 filing fee must be paid.[20]
  • Regardless of the date it was organized, a political organization must file its registration statement at least 60 days before any election its members wish to participate in. If the registration statement is not filed 60 days before an election, neither the political organization nor its candidates will be allowed on the ballot.[20]

Getting a candidate on the ballot

  • Once a political organization is registered, it may nominate candidates to be put on the general election ballot. The political organization can qualify to put their statewide candidates on the ballot by convention in one of two ways:[21]
    • If, at the preceding general election, the political organization's candidate for statewide office received a number of votes equal to one percent of the registered voters who were eligible to vote in that election.
    • If the political organization files a petition signed by a number of registered voters equal to one percent of the registered voters who were eligible to vote in the last general election. This petition must be filed by noon on the second Tuesday in July.
  • If the political organization does not qualify to nominate its statewide candidates by convention, those candidates must be nominated by petition, as district and county candidates are, following the same regulations as independent candidates. The political organization candidate may affiliate with the political organization on the petition, but the organization must certify that candidate before he or she can affiliate on the ballot.[11]

Example of requirements

The following table outlines an example of votes needed or signatures required for political organizations, using figures from the 2012 general election.

Number of registered voters in 2012 general election Number of votes cast for president in 2012 Number of votes a political organization's candidate had to receive in order to qualify as a political party Number of votes a political organization's candidate had to receive in order to nominate candidates by convention Number of signatures needed for a political organization to nominate candidates by convention
5,804,812[22] 3,900,050[23] 780,010 58,048 58,048

Convention requirements

  • If the political organization qualifies to nominate candidates by convention, the convention must be held at least 150 days before the general election.[7]
  • State executive committees of political parties and chief executive committees of political organizations are in charge of adopting rules and regulations governing the conduct of conventions.[24][25] These rules and regulations must be filed with the Georgia Secretary of State 30 days before the convention is held and are required to provide the following:[7]
    • That delegates to the convention will be certified according to the party or organization's rules.
    • That delegates will be apportioned in a way that will properly reflect the number of electors residing in the corresponding political districts, according to the last U.S. census or the number of votes received by a candidate in that office in the most recent general election.
    • That each county will have at least one delegate to the convention.
  • A notice of the proposed date of the convention must be published in a newspaper with a circulation in the area of the district involved at least 10 days prior to the day the convention is held.[7]

Process to become a candidate

Quick facts about Lieutenant Governors
  • 45 states have Lt. governors, 43 of them fill the office by election
  • 21 states elect Lt. governors on a single ticket with the governor at both the primary and general elections
  • 5 states elect Lt. governors separately from Governors at the primary and then put the top two vote-getters together on the general election ballot
  • 17 states, including Georgia, elect Lt. governors separately from the Governor

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 21, Chapter 2, Article 4 of the Georgia Code

There are four ways for candidates to gain ballot access in Georgia: as a political party candidate, as a political organization candidate, as an independent or as a write-in. The process of getting to the ballot for each of these is outlined below.

All candidates

No matter how they gain ballot access, all candidates are required to pay a filing fee or else submit a pauper's affidavit and qualifying petition, which certifies that the candidate is unable to pay the fee. The affidavit includes a financial statement which lists the candidate's total income, assets, liabilities, and other relevant financial information. On its face, this information must indicate that the candidate has neither the assets nor the income to pay the qualifying fee normally required. The pauper's affidavit must be accompanied by a qualifying petition, containing signatures equal to:[26]

  • One-fourth of one percent of the total number of registered voters eligible to vote in the last general election if the candidate is seeking statewide office
  • One percent of the total number of registered voters eligible to vote in the last election for the office the candidate seeks if the candidate seeks an office other than statewide office

The filing fees for 2014 are as follows:[27]

Office Fee
U.S. Senator or U.S. Representative $5,220.00
Governor $4,180.18
Lieutenant Governor $2,748.28
Secretary of State $3,709.10
Attorney General $4,133.74
State School Superintendent $3,698.10
Commissioner of Agriculture $3,646.70
Commissioner of Insurance $3,611.83
Commissioner of Labor $3,647.11
Public Service Commissioner $3,493.57
State Senator or State Representative $400.00

Political party candidates

  • These candidates are nominated at their party's primary election.[28]
  • An individual cannot become a political party candidate if he or she already qualified for the same primary election with a different political party or if he or she filed as an independent or political organization candidate.[29]
  • Political parties determine the rules of how candidates qualify to appear on the primary election ballot. However, there are some stipulations set by the state that all political party candidates must adhere to, including:[30]
    • Filing a declaration of candidacy and an affidavit with the political party during the political party qualifying period, which is set by the Georgia Secretary of State. The affidavit must state:
      • The name of the candidate as he or she wishes it to appear on the ballot
      • The candidate’s residence
      • The candidate’s occupation
      • The candidate’s precinct
      • That the candidate is eligible to vote in the primary in which he or she is running
      • The office the candidate is seeking
      • That the candidate is eligible to hold the office he or she is seeking
      • That the candidate will not knowingly violate any election rule or law
      • That the candidate has never been convicted or sentenced for violation of election laws, malfeasance in office or felony involving moral turpitude, or, if the candidate has been convicted and sentenced for such crimes, that at least 10 years have passed since completion of the sentence and that the candidate's civil rights have been restored.
    • Paying the qualifying fee or else submitting a pauper's affidavit and the accompanying qualifying petition.
  • Within three days of the end of the qualifying period, the political party must certify to the Georgia Secretary of State which candidates successfully qualified with their party for the primary election and turn in the qualifying fees paid by the candidates, the declarations of candidacy and the affidavits.[31]

Political organization candidates

These candidates can be nominated by their political organization's convention, if the political organization has qualified to hold such a convention, or by petition. Candidates cannot file as political organization candidates if they have already filed for the same office as a political party candidate.[29]

  • If nominated by convention:
    • Political organization candidates must file a notice of candidacy with the Georgia Secretary of State during the political party qualifying period.[26]
    • After a candidate is chosen at the convention, the candidate must pay the filing fee for the corresponding office to the Georgia Secretary of State.[7] If the candidate cannot afford the filing fee, he or she must file a pauper's affidavit and accompanying qualifying petition.[26]
    • With the filing fee or pauper's affidavit, a certified copy of the minutes of the convention, attested to by the chairperson and secretary of the convention, must also be filed.[7]
  • If nominated by petition:
    • Candidates must file a notice of candidacy, petition and qualifying fee (or pauper's affidavit) with the Georgia Secretary of State during the independent candidate qualifying period, which starts on the fourth Monday in June and ends the following Friday.[26]
    • The signature requirements for these petitions are the same as the independent candidate petition requirements, which can be found below.[11]
    • In order for a candidate filing by petition to be affiliated as a political organization candidate, the political organization must provide a sworn certificate stating that the named candidate is the nominee of that political organization.[11]

Independent candidates

Figure 1: This is the Notice of Intention of Write-in Candidacy for the state of Georgia.
  • Candidates cannot run as independents if they have qualified for the same office with any political party or political organization.[29]
  • Independent candidates must file a notice of candidacy, petition and qualifying fee (or pauper's affidavit) with the Georgia Secretary of State during the independent candidate qualifying period, which starts on the fourth Monday in June and ends the following Friday.[26]
  • The signature requirements for the petitions are as follows:[11]
    • For candidates seeking statewide office, the petition must be signed by registered voters equal in number to one percent of the total registered voters eligible to vote in the last election for the same office the candidate is seeking.
    • For candidates seeking any other office, the petition must be signed by registered voters equal in number to five percent of the total registered voters eligible to vote in the last election for the same office the candidate is seeking.
  • Petitions cannot be circulated for more than 180 days between the signing of the first signature and the last.[11]

Write-in candidates

  • These candidates are only allowed to run in the general election.[5]
  • Candidates cannot run as a write-in if they ran for the same office as a political party candidate in the immediately preceding primary election.[5]
  • Write-in candidates must file a notice of intention of write-in candidacy with the Georgia Secretary of State not before January 1 of the year of the election, but not after the first Monday in September of the year of the election.[5]
  • After the notice of intention is filed, a notice must also be published in a newspaper with general circulation in the state. Once it has been published, the candidate must file with the Georgia Secretary of State a copy of the published notice as well as an affidavit stating that the notice has been published and detailing the name of the newspaper and date of publication. The affidavit can be filled out by the candidate or by the publisher or employee of the newspaper.[5]

Petition requirements

In some cases, political parties and/or candidates may need to obtain signatures via the petition process to gain ballot access. This section outlines the laws and regulations pertaining to petitions and circulators in Georgia.

In Georgia, petitions are used to put political organization candidates or independent candidates on the ballot. They are also used to qualify political organizations to hold nominating conventions.

For political organization qualifying petitions, signers must attest that they are registered voters of the state and eligible to vote in the next general election for members of the Georgia State Legislature. They cannot sign the petition more than 15 months in advance of the petition being filed with the Georgia Secretary of State. The qualifying petition can support the qualification of only one political organization.[32]

For nominating petitions for political organization candidates or independent candidates, signers must attest that they are registered voters of the state, district, county or municipality corresponding to the office the candidate seeks and are thus eligible to vote for that candidate. The nominating petition must contain only one candidate, unless it is for a slate of candidates, such as president and vice president.[33]

Whether signing a qualifying petition or nominating petition, signers may sign each petition only once. With their signature, they must also provide their residence address, including the county, and the date they signed the petition. Signers are also urged to include their date of birth for verification purposes, though this is not required.[32][33]

Petitions can be on one or more sheets of uniform size. Different sheets must be used for signers in different counties. The upper portion of each petition sheet must contain the name and title of the Georgia Secretary of State as well as the purpose of the petition, such as qualifying a political organization or nominating a candidate to be placed on the ballot. If the petition is being circulated to nominate a candidate, the candidate's name, occupation, place of residence, office sought, political organization affiliation (if applicable), and the date of the election the candidate will be running in should also be included in the upper portion of each sheet. The lower portion of each sheet must be numbered consecutively, in the case that more than one sheet is used. Each sheet must also contain, either on the bottom or the back, an affidavit of the circulator of the sheet signed before a notary public, which must include the following information:[34][33]

  • The residence address of the circulator
  • That each signer of the petition had full knowledge of the contents and purpose of the petition
  • That to the best of the circulator's knowledge, the signers were all registered voters of the necessary state, district, county or municipality and eligible to sign the petition and that their addresses are correctly stated on the petition
  • If circulating a nominating petition, that no more than 180 days passed between the signing of the first signature and the last.

No notary public is allowed to sign the petition or act as the circulator of a petition that he or she notarized.[33]

Signatures must be stricken from the petition if a signer so requests, as long as it has been requested before the petition is submitted to the Georgia Secretary of State. Any request after that time will be disregarded.[32]

Campaign finance

Figure 2: This is a Declaration of Intention to Accept Campaign Contributions (Form DOI) used in campaign finance reporting in Georgia.

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 21, Chapter 5 of the Georgia Code

Candidates seeking state office in Georgia must file with the Georgia Government Transparency and Campaign Finance Commission (Commission). The process of registering and reporting with the Commission is outlined below. Candidates seeking federal office must file with the Federal Election Commission. Reporting details for federal candidates are not included in this section.

Getting started

  • In Georgia, campaign finance reporting can be done online here. In order to file reports online, candidates must complete and mail in an original Personal Financial Disclosure PIN Application to the Commission. Faxed copies of this application will not be accepted.[9][35]
  • To get started on the campaign finance reporting process, candidates who are not already holding office must file a Declaration of Intention to Accept Campaign Contributions (Form DOI) with the Commission. This form must be filed before any contributions may be accepted.[36] Candidates must also file a current email address with the Commission, which must be filed in writing by January 31 of each year. Any change in the address must be reported to the Commission within 10 days.[9]
  • Candidates may choose to form a campaign committee to accept contributions and make expenditures on behalf of the candidate. To do this, they must file a Registration Form for a Campaign Committee (Form RC) with the Commission. The name and address of the committee, its chairman, treasurer and candidate must be registered with the Commission before the committee can accept any contributions. One person may serve as both treasurer and chairman, but if there is a vacancy in either position, no contributions may be accepted until the vacancy is filled. A candidate may have only one committee at a time. When the candidate is elected to office, the campaign committee’s registration will remain in effect until the committee or the candidate cancels it.[9][36]
  • If candidates wish to accept contributions for more than one election at a time, they must file an Option to Choose Separate Accounting form (Form COOSA) with the Commission to separately account for the different campaign contributions before accepting contributions for any election other than the next upcoming one.[9][37]

Reporting requirements

Candidates must use a bank account separate from their personal accounts for any campaign finance transaction.[35] Reporting must begin when one of the following happens:[9]

  • The candidate files a Declaration of Intention to Accept Campaign Contributions
  • The candidate or candidate’s committee accepts a contribution
  • The candidate or candidate’s committee makes an expenditure
  • The candidate formally qualifies

Candidates are required to file the following reports:[9]

  • Personal Financial Disclosure Statement
    • All candidates and public officers running in an election must file a Personal Financial Disclosure Statement covering the previous calendar year. Only one of these forms is due per year. Look to the table below for information on when this form must be filed.
Type of candidate When to file
Current officeholder Between January 1 and July 1 of each year
Candidate for statewide office No later than 7 days after qualifying
Candidate for office other than statewide office No later than 15 days after qualifying
  • There is no grace period when filing this form.
  • Campaign Contribution Disclosure Statement (Form CCDR)
    • Reports all expenditures and contributions (including any money or resources a candidate gives to his or her own campaign). All contributions and expenditures greater than $100 must be itemized, as well as any aggregate totals of all contributions and expenditures of $100 or less.
    • During an election year, this form must be filed six times. During a non-election year it is required only twice. In the case of run-off elections or special elections, extra reports must be filed.
    • If a candidate has no opposition in a primary or general election and receives less than $100 in contributions, only the first and last reports need to be filed.
    • There is a five business day grace period for filing these reports before any late fees are charged.
    • If candidates are unsuccessful in an election, they must still file reports for the remainder of an election cycle, just as a successful candidate would. If unsuccessful candidates retain unpaid debts from the campaign, a supplemental Form CCDR must be filed by December 31 each year the debt remains unpaid.
  • Two Business Day Report (TBD Form)
    • Must be filed to disclose contributions (including loans) of $1,000 or more that are accepted between the last report and the date of any election the candidate is running in.
    • Such contributions must be reported, either online or by fax, within two business days of receiving the contribution. If reported by fax, the report must also be filed online within five days after sending the fax. These contributions must be included on the next regularly scheduled report as well.
    • There is no grace period when filing this form.
  • Termination Statement
    • A termination statement must be submitted with a final Campaign Contribution Disclosure Report that shows a zero balance. This must be filed within 10 days of the dissolution of a campaign or else the committee must appoint someone who will maintain campaign records until the balance does reach zero.

Contribution limits

Contribution limits depend on the type of office the candidate receiving the contribution is seeking and the type of election the candidate is running in. People, corporations, political committees and political parties are limited in giving contributions to candidates as follows:[9][38]

  • To candidates seeking statewide office
Contribution limit Type of election
$6,300 Primary or general election
$3,700 Primary or general run-off election
  • To candidates seeking office other than statewide office
Contribution limit Type of election
$2,500 Primary or general election
$1,300 Primary or general run-off election

Additional contribution limits include:

  • Candidates are not allowed to repay loans that exceed $250,000 with their personal finances.[9]
  • Anonymous contributions are prohibited. If one is received, it must be turned over to the Office of the Treasury and Fiscal Services, and the Commission must be notified.[9]
  • Agencies, which include state, county and city departments, agencies, boards, bureaus, commissions, authorities and political subdivisions, may not make, directly or indirectly, any contribution to any candidate, campaign committee, political action committee or political organization. However, office space, facilities, equipment, goods and services given to a public officer for the purpose of fulfilling duties in office do not count as prohibited contributions.[39]

Election-related agencies

See also: State election agencies

Candidates running for office will require some form of interaction with the following agencies:

Georgia Secretary of State Elections Division

Why: Oversees candidate filing and election procedures.
2 MLK Jr. Dr. S.E.
Suite 802, Floyd West Tower
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
Telephone: 404-656-2871
Fax: 404-651-9531
http://sos.georgia.gov/elections

Georgia Government Transparency and Campaign Finance Commission

Why: Oversees campaign financial reporting and compliance with the Campaign Finance Act.
200 Piedmont Avenue
SE Suite 1402, West Tower
Atlanta, GA 30334
Telephone: 404-463-1980
Fax: 404-463-1988
http://ethics.ga.gov/

Term limits

State executives

Portal:State Executive Officials
See also: State executives with term limits and States with gubernatorial term limits

The only state executive in Georgia with term limits is the governor. This is established in Article V, Section 1, Paragraph 1 of the Georgia Constitution. A politician elected to that office may not serve more than two consecutive terms.[40] Current Governor of Georgia Nathan Deal (R) is not term-limited and is seeking re-election in 2014.

State legislators

See also: State legislatures with term limits

There are no term limits placed on Georgia state legislators.

Congressional partisanship

Portal:Congress
See also: List of United States Representatives from Georgia and List of United States Senators from Georgia

Here is the current partisan breakdown of the congressional members from Georgia:

Congressional Partisan Breakdown from Georgia
Party U.S. Senate U.S. House Total
     Democratic Party 0 5 5
     Republican Party 2 9 11
TOTALS as of August 2014 2 14 16

State legislative partisanship

Portal:State legislatures

Here is the current partisan breakdown of members of the state legislature of Georgia:

State Senate

Party As of August 2014
     Democratic Party 18
     Republican Party 38
Total 56

State House

Party As of August 2014
     Democratic Party 60
     Republican Party 118
     Independent 1
     Vacancy 1
Total 180


See also

External links

Official state and federal links

Forms

News

Other information

References

  1. The Hill, "Georgia judge moves primary date up to May," August 27, 2013
  2. Georgia Secretary of State Website, "Qualifying Information," accessed February 4, 2014
  3. FEC 2014 Congressional Primary Election Dates and Candidate Filing Deadlines for Ballot Access, last updated January 31, 2014
  4. Georgia Secretary of State Website, "2014 Elections and Voter Registration Calendar," accessed February 3, 2014
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-133," accessed February 3, 2014
  6. Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-110," accessed November 7, 2013
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-172," accessed February 4, 2014
  8. Georgia Government Transparency and Campaign Finance Commission Website, "Campaign Disclosure Report Filing Schedule," accessed February 6, 2014
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 Georgia Government Transparency and Campaign Finance Commission, "Candidates & Public Officials 2014," Revised February 3, 2014
  10. Ballotpedia phone call with Secretary of State Press Office on September 23 and 25, 2013
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-170," accessed February 4, 2014
  12. E-mail consultation with ballot access expert Richard Winger in January 2014.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Ballot Access News, "No Petitioning Relief for Georgia This Year," March 5, 2012
  14. 14.0 14.1 The Telegraph, "Georgia set to keep harsh ballot access law," March 1, 2012
  15. Ballot Access News, "Georgia Ballot Access Activists Will Ask Senate Committee to Restore Ballot Access Improvements in Omnibus Election Law Bill," March 10, 2012
  16. Georgia General Assembly, "2011-2012 Regular Session - HB 899: Primaries and elections; dates of nonpartisan elections; provide," accessed January 6, 2014
  17. Georgia General Assembly, "2011-2012 Regular Session - SB 92," accessed January 23, 2014
  18. Rangevoting.org, "Ridiculous USA Ballot Access Laws designed to discriminate against third parties," accessed January 6, 2014
  19. Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-2," accessed February 5, 2014
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-110," accessed February 5, 2014
  21. Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-180," accessed February 5, 2014
  22. The Guardian, "U.S. voter registrations by state," October 2012
  23. Federal Election Commission, "Federal Elections 2012," accessed February 5, 2014
  24. Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-111," accessed February 5, 2014
  25. Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-113," accessed February 5, 2014
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-132," accessed February 5, 2014
  27. Georgia Secretary of State, "Qualifying Fees for Federal and State Candidates 2014 Elections," accessed February 5, 2014
  28. Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-151," accessed February 5, 2014
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-137," accessed February 5, 2014
  30. Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-153," accessed February 5, 2014
  31. Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-154," accessed February 5, 2014
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-182," accessed February 5, 2014
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-170," accessed February 4, 2014
  34. Georgia Code, "Section 21-2-183," accessed February 5, 2014
  35. 35.0 35.1 Georgia Government Transparency and Campaign Finance Commission, "How do I get started?" accessed February 6, 2014
  36. 36.0 36.1 Georgia Code, "Section 21-5-30," accessed February 6, 2014
  37. Georgia Code, "Section 21-5-43," accessed February 6, 2014
  38. Georgia Government Transparency and Campaign Finance Commission, "Campaign Contribution Limits," accessed February 6, 2014
  39. Georgia Code, "Section 21-5-30.2," accessed February 6, 2014
  40. Georgia Constitution, "Article V, Section 1, Paragraph 1," accessed November 7, 2013