Ballot access requirements for political candidates in Massachusetts

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This page compiles the various ballot access requirements for candidates running for elected office in the state of Massachusetts. Offices included are:

This page contains information on specific filing dates for each election year, how to become a candidate, how to create a political party, campaign finance requirements, state agency contacts involved in the election process, and term limits in Massachusetts. Information on running for election as a presidential candidate or for county and municipal offices is not included.

Note: If you have any questions or comments about this page, email us.

Year-specific dates

2014

See also: Massachusetts elections, 2014

Massachusetts held a primary election on September 9, 2014 and a general election on November 4, 2014. Voters elected candidates to serve in the following state and federal offices:

There are a range of filing deadlines in Massachusetts, depending on the type of candidate and the office being sought. The deadlines are detailed in the below table.[1]

Legend:      Ballot access     Campaign finance     Election date




Dates and requirements for candidates in 2014
Deadline Event type Event description
April 29, 2014 Ballot access Deadline for party and non-party candidates for district office to submit nomination papers to local elections officials for certification
May 6, 2014 Ballot access Deadline for party candidates for federal and statewide office to submit nomination papers to local elections officials for certification
May 27, 2014 Ballot access Deadline for party and non-party candidates for district office to file nomination papers with the Secretary of the Commonwealth
June 3, 2014 Ballot access Deadline for party candidates for federal and statewide office to file nomination papers with the Secretary of the Commonwealth
July 29, 2014 Ballot access Deadline for non-party candidates for federal and statewide office to submit nomination papers to local elections officials for certification
August 26, 2014 Ballot access Deadline for non-party candidates for federal and statewide office to file nomination papers with the Secretary of the Commonwealth
September 2, 2014 Campaign finance Pre-primary report (covering January 1 through August 22) due for state legislative/non-depository candidates**
September 9, 2014 Election date State primary election
October 27, 2014 Campaign finance Pre-election report (covering August 23 through October 17) due for state legislative/non-depository candidates**
November 4, 2014 Election date General election
January 20, 2015 Campaign finance Year-end report (covering October 18 through December 31) due for state legislative/non-depository candidates**
** Financial reporting responsibilities for candidates for statewide office (otherwise known as "depository" candidates) are split between the candidate and his or her designated depository. A number of regular and semi-regular reports are required. For more information, see "Campaign finance" below.

Political parties

See also: List of political parties in the United States

As of November 2013, there were two recognized political parties in Massachusetts.[2]

Party Website link By-laws/platform link
Democratic Party Official party website Party by-laws
Republican Party Official party website Party by-laws

In some states, a candidate may choose to have a label other than that of an officially recognized party appear alongside his or her name on the ballot. Such labels are called political party designations. A political party designation would be used when a candidate qualifies as an independent, but prefers to use a different label. Massachusetts does allow candidates to identify in this way. A total of 25 states allow candidates to use political party designations in non-presidential elections.[3][4]

The 11 states listed below (and Washington, D.C.) do not provide a process for political organizations to gain qualified status in advance of an election. Instead, in these states, an aspirant party must first field candidates using party designations. If the candidate or candidates win the requisite votes, the organization may then be recognized as an official political party. In these states, a political party can be formed only if the candidate in the general election obtains a specific number of votes. The number of votes required and type of race vary from state to state. Details can be found on the state-specific requirements pages.[5]

Events

In August 2014, the Green Party qualified for placement on the November 2014 general election ballot in Massachusetts. In order to qualify for this access, the party was required to submit 5,000 valid signatures. The party submitted 7,300 valid signatures. If one of the party's candidates for statewide office wins at least 3 percent of the vote cast for that office, the party will gain qualified status, entitling it to participate in primaries in 2016.[6]

Process to establish a political party

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Massachusetts General Laws, Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 50, Section 1

A political party in Massachusetts is defined as any party that, at the last preceding state election, polled for any statewide office at least three percent of the entire vote cast for that office. In 2010, for example, 2,319,963 votes (including blank votes) were cast for Attorney General of Massachusetts, meaning that a party seeking recognition would have needed to field a candidate for that office who won at least 69,599 votes. Alternatively, a political party can qualify for state recognition if at least one percent of all registered voters are enrolled as members of the party. As of October 2012, for example, a total of 4,342,841 individuals were registered to vote in Massachusetts, meaning that a party seeking recognition would have needed to enroll at least 43,429 members. Such parties are eligible to conduct primary elections.[7][8][9][10]

A political designation in Massachusetts refers to any designation, expressed in no more than three words, used to qualify a political party. At least 50 registered voters must file a form with the Secretary of the Commonwealth requesting that they and any other voters may change their registrations to the new designation. There is no stated deadline for filing this request, although any such request filed before December 1 in the year of a state election will not be effective until December 1. Voters who enroll in legal political designations cannot vote in any state or presidential primaries. Political designations may also be used by individual candidates without the intention to qualify a political party (see "Process to become a candidate" below for more information).[7][10]

Maintaining party status

If a party fails to field a statewide candidate who polls at least three percent of the entire vote cast for that office or fails to enroll at least one percent of all registered voters, it ceases to be recognized as a political party.[7][10]

Process to become a candidate

Quick facts about Lieutenant Governors
  • 45 states have Lt. governors, 43 of them fill the office by election
  • 21 states elect Lt. governors on a single ticket with the governor at both the primary and general elections
  • 5 states, including Massachusetts, elect Lt. governors separately from Governors at the primary and then put the top two vote-getters together on the general election ballot
  • 17 states elect Lt. governors separately from the Governor

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Massachusetts General Laws, Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 53

For party candidates

Recognized political party candidates seeking access to the primary ballot must submit nomination papers. Nomination papers are provided by the Secretary of the Commonwealth. Nomination papers must be signed by a certain number of registered voters. The number of required signatures varies according to office.[11][12]

Required signatures for nomination papers
Office Required signatures
Governor, Attorney General, U.S. Senator 10,000
Secretary of the Commonwealth, Treasurer, Auditor 5,000
U.S. Representative 2,000
State Senator 300
State Representative 150

Candidates must be enrolled members of the party whose nominations they seek and, with the exception of newly registered voters, must be enrolled members of the party throughout the 90-day period preceding the filing deadline. An individual cannot be a candidate for nomination by one party if he or she was enrolled in any other party during the one-year period preceding the filing deadline. Candidates must prove party affiliation by filing with the Secretary of the Commonwealth a certificate of party enrollment signed or stamped by at least three local elections officials of the city or town where the candidate is registered. At least one such certificate (which is included on the nomination papers discussed below) must be completed and filed by the filing deadline.[11][13]

Before filing nomination papers, the candidate must make sure that at least one of the certified nomination papers contains a written acceptance of nomination personally signed by either the candidate or his or her authorized attorney. Although the candidate does not have to sign the acceptance space on all nomination papers, the candidate should sign several certified papers to be sure that one of the papers ultimately filed with the Secretary of the Commonwealth will have the written acceptance on it.[11][14]

For the nomination papers to be valid, candidates for state-level office must also file a receipt from the State Ethics Commission indicating that they have filed a statement of financial interest (federal candidates are exempt from this requirement). The receipt must be filed with the Secretary of the Commonwealth by the filing deadline. Prior to the filing deadline, a state-level candidate must file a written statement with the Office of Campaign and Political Finance indicating whether the candidate agrees to limit campaign spending. Candidates who do not agree to limit spending may be required to file an additional statement of intended spending prior to the deadline for filing withdrawals of nomination.[11][14]

Nomination papers must be submitted to the registrars of the cities or towns in which signatures were collected for certification prior to final filing with the Secretary of the Commonwealth.[11][15]

For non-party candidates

Like party candidates, independents and other non-party candidates gain access to the general election ballot by filing nomination papers. A non-party candidate must file a certificate proving that he or she is a registered voter and is not enrolled in a recognized political party. This certificate is printed on each nomination paper, and at least one of these certificates must be signed and stamped by at least three local elections officials of the city or town where the candidate is registered.[11]

Non-party candidates may state a political designation in no more than three words. Signature requirements are the same as those that apply to party candidates.[11]

Required signatures for nomination papers
Office Required signatures
Governor, Attorney General, U.S. Senator 10,000
Secretary of the Commonwealth, Treasurer, Auditor 5,000
U.S. Representative 2,000
State Senator 300
State Representative 150

Before filing nomination papers, the candidate must make sure that at least one of the certified nomination papers contains a written acceptance of nomination personally signed by either the candidate or his or her authorized attorney. Although the candidate does not have to sign the acceptance space on all nomination papers, the candidate should sign several certified papers to be sure that one of the papers ultimately filed with the Secretary of the Commonwealth will have the written acceptance on it.[11]

For the nomination papers to be valid, candidates for state-level office must also file a receipt from the State Ethics Commission indicating that they have filed a statement of financial interest (federal candidates are exempt from this requirement). The receipt must be filed with the Secretary of the Commonwealth by the filing deadline. Prior to the filing deadline, a state-level candidate must file a written statement with the Office of Campaign and Political Finance indicating whether the candidate agrees to limit campaign spending. Candidates who do not agree to limit spending may be required to file an additional statement of intended spending prior to the deadline for filing withdrawals of nomination.[11][14]

Nomination papers must be submitted to the registrars of the cities or towns in which signatures were collected for certification prior to final filing with the Secretary of the Commonwealth.[11][15]

For write-in candidates

Individuals are entitled to seek nomination or election by conducting a write-in campaign. No special forms (such as a declaration of intent) are required, but write-in candidates should familiarize themselves with the rules and guidelines that govern the casting of write-in votes. More information about write-in candidacies can be accessed here.[16]

Filing deadlines

Filing deadlines vary according to the type of candidate (i.e., party or non-party) and the office sought. The table below summarizes the various filing deadlines established in statute.[1][13][17]

Filing deadlines
Type of candidate and office sought Deadline for certification with local officials Final filing deadline
Party and non-party candidates for the Massachusetts General Court 5:00 p.m. on the 28th day preceding the final filing deadline[15] 5:00 p.m. on the last Tuesday in May in the year the election is to be held
Party candidates for federal and statewide office 5:00 p.m. on the 28th day preceding the final filing deadline[15] 5:00 p.m. on the first Tuesday in June in the year the election is to be held
Non-party candidates for federal and statewide office 5:00 p.m. on the 28th day preceding the final filing deadline[15] 5:00 p.m. on the last Tuesday in August in the year the election is to be held

For example, in 2014 the filing deadlines were as follows:[1]

Filing deadlines
Type of candidate and office sought Deadline for certification with local officials Final filing deadline
Party and non-party candidates for the Massachusetts General Court April 29, 2014 May 27, 2014
Party candidates for federal and statewide office May 6, 2014 June 3, 2014
Non-party candidates for federal and statewide office July 29, 2014 August 26, 2014

Petition requirements

In some cases, political parties and/or candidates may need to obtain signatures via the petition process to gain access to the ballot. This section outlines the laws and regulations pertaining to petitions and circulators in Massachusetts.

Format requirements

Nomination papers must be provided by the Secretary of the Commonwealth. Nomination papers for use in the nomination of candidates for all offices must be made available for use on or before the 15th Tuesday preceding the filing deadline. Blank forms may not be larger in size than 8.5 inches by 14 inches. Individuals may make exact copies of the forms provided by the Secretary of the Commonwealth and use them for collecting signatures.[18]

The relevant statutes do not stipulate specific circulator requirements (such as residency or pay status).[19]

Objections

Objections to nomination papers must be filed with the Secretary of the Commonwealth within three days of the filing deadline. Objections must detail "each ground for protest." A filing fee of $25 is required. Anyone filing an objection must submit a copy to the candidate against whom it was filed no later than the day after the date of filing. Objections must be accompanied by a certificate of voter registration stating that the complainant is a registered voter in the district of the candidate being challenged.[20]

Campaign finance

Figure 1: This is the Statement of Organization for candidates running for election in Massachusetts.

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Massachusetts General Laws, Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 55

For statewide office candidates

Candidates for statewide office are considered "depository candidates" because they are required by law to designate a financial institution in Massachusetts as a depository for all campaign funds. All receipts must be deposited into this account and all expenditures must be made from it (this includes the candidate's personal funds). In order to designate a financial depository, a candidate and/or committee treasurer must file a CPF D 103 (Appointment of Depository Bank) form. Even candidates who do not plan to open a bank account because they do not intend to receive contributions or make expenditures must designate a bank by filing this form. The financial institution submits regular reports of all contributions and expenditures to the Office of Campaign and Political Finance using information provided to the bank by the campaign. The financial institution is required to file these reports each month during non-election years and during the first six months of an election year in which the candidate is participating. During the last six months of an election year in which the candidate is participating, reports are filed twice monthly.[21][22][23]

A candidate is not usually legally required to form a committee (public employees who run for elective office must form committees). If the candidate does choose to organize a political committee for campaign purposes, he or she must file a Statement of Organization of a Candidate Committee. A committee can neither accept contributions nor make expenditures until this form is filed. Committees must name a chairman and a treasurer. The same person can often fulfill both of these roles, though a candidate cannot serve as his or her own treasurer and a public employee seeking elective office cannot serve as his or her own treasurer.[21]

A candidate and/or committee treasurer must file an initial campaign finance report (Form CPF D 102) within three business days after designating a depository institution. This report is intended to disclose any activity that may have occurred before the designation of the bank, complete through the date of the bank's designation. A candidate and/or treasurer must also file a year-end report on or before January 20 of the following year, complete from the day following the ending date of the last Form CPF D 102 through December 31. This report summarizes all receipts and expenditures for that reporting period.[21][24]

A Form CPF D 102 is also used to reveal any outstanding liabilities, in-kind contributions, or savings account information. This form, filed once per year, provides the only disclosure of the candidate's in-kind contributions, liabilities, and savings account information.[21]

All contributions must be deposited in the designated institution no later than the end of the seventh day after receipt. In conjunction with the deposit record, the candidate must also electronically file contributor information directly with the Office of Campaign and Political Finance. This may be done using the Reporter software or by entering the information directly into the Office of Campaign and Political Finance database using the online Web Reporter program. When entering contributor information for e-filing, the name and residential address of the contributor must be included for any receipt in excess of $50. Contributions of $50 or less may be combined in one total. However, any contributor of $50 or less must be itemized if the aggregate of his or her contributions for the calendar year has exceeded $50. For a monthly report, the deadline to submit this information is the fifth day of the following month. In the case of a report covering the first half of a month, the deadline is the 20th day of the month. Campaigns that receive and deposit contributions of $500 or more after the 18th day but no more than 72 hours before an election must disclose those contributions electronically to the Office of Campaign and Political Finance within 72 hours of deposit.[21][23]

All campaign payments in excess of $50 must be made to a named payee using specially-formatted checks drawn on the candidate's depository account. A check payable to a candidate or treasurer, for use as petty cash for the campaign or as reimbursement for expenditures made, may not exceed $50 and such checks may not exceed $500 in aggregate for any reporting period. At the end of each reporting period, the depository bank electronically files with the Office of Campaign and Political Finance information on each expenditure that cleared the depository account during the period. All information must be filed by the fifth day of the month following a monthly reporting period. In the case of a report covering the first half of a month, the information must be filed by the 20th day of the month. The expenditure information is then grouped with the deposit information that has been sent directly to the Office of Campaign and Political Finance by the candidate to comprise the entire filing for that period.[21][23]

Candidates and/or committees that have no cash balance, assets, or outstanding liabilities and wish to dissolve can do so by filing an application for dissolution. Candidates and committees must continue to report on a regular basis until an application for dissolution is filed. Remaining funds from committee or candidate accounts must be donated to any of the following:[21]

  1. The state's General Fund
  2. The General Fund of a city or town
  3. A scholarship fund
  4. A charitable or religious organization

For state legislative candidates

State legislative candidates are held to the same organizational requirements as statewide candidates. They are not, however, required to designate a financial depository and, consequently, the reporting schedule for state legislative candidates varies considerably. Reports must be filed with the Office of Campaign and Political Finance electronically if the candidate or committee expects to raise or spend more than $5,000 in the two-year election cycle. Those who do not reach that threshold are not required to file electronically, but must file with paper if they choose not to file electronically. The following information must be included on each report:[25]

1.) Schedule A: Receipts

An alphabetical listing of all contributions greater than $50 received in a reporting period, including the date the contribution was received and the residential address of the contributor. This information must also be reported for receipts of $50 or less if the total contributions from the individual have exceeded $50 in the calendar year. Otherwise, receipts of $50 or less are totaled on one line and included in total receipts. However, complete information must be kept by the candidate or committee regardless of the amount of the contribution. If the contribution is $200 or more, or if the individual's total contributions are $200 or more in the calendar year, the occupation and employer of the contributor must also be reported.

2.) Schedule B: Expenditures

An alphabetical listing of all disbursements of $50 with the amount and date of payment, the name and address of the payee and the purpose of the expenditure. Expenditures of $50 or less may be added together on one line and included on the total expenditures line. However, complete information concerning all expenditures must be kept by the candidate or committee regardless of the amount.

3.) Schedule C: In-kind Contributions

An alphabetical listing of all in-kind contributions with a value greater than $50 in a calendar year. This listing includes the date, name and residential address of the contributor and a description of the contribution. The occupation and employer of any contributor of $200 or more in in-kind goods or services, or a combination of monetary and in-kind contributions, is also required. For those contributions valued at $50 or less, a one-line total is included in the total of all in-kind contributions.

4.) Schedule D: Liabilities

An alphabetical listing of all outstanding, unpaid obligations, including loans, as of the last day of the reporting period, regardless of when the liability was incurred. The amount of the liability, the date incurred, name and address to whom it is due and its purpose must be noted. Liabilities are carried over from each report to the next report until they are paid.

5.) Schedule E: Disclosure of Assets Statement

A listing of all assets acquired or disposed of during that calendar year that have a useful life of one year or more, would be depreciable in a normal business environment, and have a cost or value of $1,000 or more at the time of acquisition. This schedule is filed only once each year, due on or before January 20, or upon dissolution.

The reporting schedule is as follows:[24][25]

State legislative candidate campaign finance deadlines
Report type Due date
Pre-primary report 8th day preceding the primary
Pre-general report 8th day preceding the general election
Year-end report January 20 in the following year

Like depository candidates, state legislative candidates must file special reports for late contributions. State legislative candidates or committees that receive and deposit contributions of $500 or more after the 18th day but no more than 72 hours before an election are required to report those contributions electronically to the Office of Campaign and Political Finance within 72 hours of deposit.[25]

Contribution limits

In Massachusetts, an individual can donate no more than $500 per year to any candidate. Aggregate contributions from an individual to all candidates and candidate committees are limited to $12,500 per year.[26][27]

Election-related agencies

See also: State election agencies

Candidates running for office may require some form of interaction with the following agencies:

  • Massachusetts Secretary of State
Why: This agency administers the state's election laws.
Secretary of the Commonwealth
Elections Division
McCormack Building
One Ashburton Place, Room 1705
Boston, MA 02108
Phone: 1-800-462-VOTE (8683)
Fax: 617-742-3238
Website: http://www.sec.state.ma.us/
E-mail: elections@sec.state.ma.us
  • Massachusetts State Ethics Commission
Why: This agency provides and processes statement of financial interest forms.
One Ashburton Place, Room 619
Boston, MA 02108
Phone: (617) 371-9500
Fax:(617) 723-5851
Website: http://www.mass.gov/ethics
E-mail: dgiannotti@eth.state.ma.us
  • Massachusetts Office of Campaign and Political Finance
Why: This agency provides and processes campaign finance reports.
John W. McCormack Building
One Ashburton Place, Room 411
Boston, MA 02108
Phone: (617) 979-8300
Fax: (617) 727-6549
Website: http://ocpf.cloudapp.net/
E-mail: ocpf@cpf.state.ma.us

Municipalities

A candidate must file a number of documents with the city or town elections office where he or she resides. Individual city and town contact information can be found below.

Term limits

State executives

Portal:State Executive Officials
See also: State executives with term limits and States with gubernatorial term limits

The state executive term limits in Massachusetts are as follows:

There were no state executive offices affected by term limits in 2014.

State legislators

See also: State legislatures with term limits

There are no term limits placed on Massachusetts state legislators.

Congressional partisanship

Portal:Congress
See also: List of United States Representatives from Massachusetts and List of United States Senators from Massachusetts

Here is the current partisan breakdown of the congressional members from Maryland:

Congressional Partisan Breakdown from Massachusetts
Party U.S. Senate U.S. House Total
     Democratic Party 2 9 11
     Republican Party 0 0 0
TOTALS as of January 2015 2 9 11

State legislative partisanship

Portal:State legislatures

Here is the current partisan breakdown of members of the state legislature of Massachusetts:

Senate

Party As of January 2015
     Democratic Party 34
     Republican Party 6
Total 40

House

Party As of January 2015
     Democratic Party 124
     Republican Party 34
     Vacancy 2
Total 160

Recent news

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All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Massachusetts ballot access news feed

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See also

External links

Official state and federal links

Forms

  • Statement of Organization (dead link)
  • Nomination papers are available from the Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth in Boston, Fall River and Springfield and may be picked up or requested by telephone or mail. Candidates may also make exact copies of the official nomination papers for gathering signatures.[28]

Other information

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, "2014 Primary and Election Calendar," accessed December 2, 2013
  2. Massachusetts Secretary of State Website, "Massachusetts Directory of Political Parties and Designations," accessed November 12, 2013
  3. Secretary of the Commonwealth, "A Candidate's Guide to the 2012 State Election," accessed December 5, 2013
  4. Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 53, Section 8," accessed December 5, 2013
  5. E-mail consultation with ballot access expert Richard Winger in January 2014.
  6. Ballot Access News, "Massachusetts Green Party Slate Qualifies for Statewide Ballot," August 16, 2014
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 50, Section 1," accessed March 18, 2014
  8. Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, "Return of Votes for Massachusetts State Election, November 2, 2010," accessed March 18, 2014
  9. Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, "Enrollment Breakdown as of 10/17/2012," November 1, 2012
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, "Massachusetts Director of Political Parties and Designations," accessed March 18, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, "A Candidate's Guide to the 2014 State Election," revised January 2014
  12. Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 53, Section 6," accessed March 18, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 53, Section 48," accessed March 18, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 53, Section 9," accessed March 18, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 53, Section 46," accessed March 18, 2014
  16. Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, "How to Run for Office as a Write-in or Sticker Candidate," accessed March 18, 2014
  17. Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 53, Section 10," accessed March 18, 2014
  18. Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 53, Section 47," accessed March 18, 2014
  19. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named guide
  20. Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 55B, Section 5," accessed March 18, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 Office of Campaign and Political Finance, "Campaign Finance Guide - Statewide, County and Other "Depository" Candidates," accessed March 18, 2014
  22. Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 55, Section 5," accessed March 18, 2014
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 55, Section 19," accessed March 18, 2014
  24. 24.0 24.1 Massachusetts General Laws, "Part I, Title VIII, Chapter 55, Section 18," accessed March 18, 2014
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Office of Campaign and Political Finance, "Campaign Finance Guide - Candidates for the General Court," accessed March 18, 2014
  26. National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Limits on Contributions to Candidates," updated October 2013
  27. Center for Competitive Politics, "2013 State Legislative Trends: Campaign Contribution Limits Increase in Nine States," accessed April 3, 2014
  28. Massachusetts Secretary of State, "Candidate's Guide," accessed November 5, 2013