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Ballot access requirements for political candidates in Ohio

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Ballot Access Requirements for Candidates
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U.S. House requirements for Independents in 2014
This page contains extensive information about ballot access requirements for state and federal candidates running for elected office in the state of Ohio. Offices included are:

This page contains information on specific filing dates for each election year, how to become a candidate, how to create a political party, campaign finance requirements, state agency contacts involved in the election process, and term limits in Ohio. Information on running for election as a presidential candidate or for county and municipal offices is not included. This page reflects research completed in April 2014.

Note: If you have any questions or comments about this page, email us.

Year-specific dates

2014

See also: Ohio elections, 2014

Ohio held a primary election on May 6, 2014. The general election will take place on November 4, 2014. Voters will elect candidates to serve in the following state and federal offices:

The 2014 filing deadline for partisan candidates was February 5, 2014, while the deadline for independent candidates was May 5, 2014.[1] Write-in candidates must file by August 25, 2014.[1]

Legend:      Ballot Access     Campaign Finance     Election Date




Dates and requirements for candidates in 2014
Deadline Event type Event description
February 5, 2014 Ballot access Deadline for partisan candidates to file Declaration of Candidacy
February 24, 2014 Ballot access Deadline for write-in candidates to file Declaration of Intent to run in state primary
April 24, 2014 Campaign finance Pre-primary (ending April 16, 2014)
May 5, 2014 Ballot access Deadline for independent candidates to file nominating petitions
May 6, 2014 Election date State primary date
June 13, 2014 Campaign finance Post-primary (ending June 6, 2014)
July 31, 2014 Campaign finance Semi-annual (ending June 30, 2014)
August 5, 2014 Campaign finance July contributions (statewide candidates only)
August 25, 2014 Ballot access Deadline for write-in candidates to file Declaration of Intent to run in general election
September 3, 2014 Campaign finance August contributions (statewide candidates only)
October 3, 2014 Campaign finance September contributions (statewide candidates only)
October 23, 2014 Campaign finance Pre-general (ending October 15, 2014)
November 4, 2014 Election date General election
December 12, 2014 Campaign finance Post-general (ending December 5, 2014)
January 30, 2015 Campaign finance Annual (ending December 31, 2014)

Political parties

See also: List of political parties in the United States

As of October 2013, there are six recognized political parties in Ohio. To be officially recognized by the state, a party must fulfill certain requirements (detailed below, under "Process to establish a political party").

Party Website link By-laws/platform link
Republican Party Official party website
Constitution Party Official party website Party by-laws
Democratic Party Official party website Party by-laws
Green Party Official party website Party by-laws
Libertarian Party Official party website
Socialist Party Official party website

In some states, a candidate may choose to have a label other than that of an officially recognized party appear alongside his or her name on the ballot. Such labels are called political party designations. A political party designation would be used when a candidate qualifies as an independent, but prefers to use a different label. Ohio[2][3] does not allow candidates to identify in this way. A total of 25 states allow candidates to use political party designations in non-presidential elections.

The 11 states listed below (and Washington, D.C.) do not provide a process for political organizations to gain qualified status in advance of an election. Instead, in these states, an aspirant party must first field candidates using party designations. If the candidate or candidates win the requisite votes, the organization may then be recognized as an official political party. In these states, a political party can be formed only if the candidate in the general election obtains a specific number of votes. The number of votes required and type of race vary from state to state. Details can be found on the state-specific requirements pages.[4]

Process to establish a political party

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 35, Chapter 3517, Section 01 of the Ohio Revised Code

Passed by the Ohio General Assembly and signed into law by Governor John Kasich on November 6, 2013, S.B. 193 made significant revisions to the processes regulating ballot access for minor parties and their candidates, which are established in Title 35, Chapter 3517, Section 01 of the Ohio Revised Code.[5][6][7]

(a): "[At] the most recent regular state election, the group polled for its candidate for governor in the state or nominees for presidential electors at least three percent of the entire vote cast for that office. A group that meets the requirements of this division remains a political party for a period of four years after meeting those requirements." For example, in 2010, 3,852,469 were cast for governor.[8] In order for a newly established political party to maintain state recognition, its candidate for governor would have had to win at least 115,575 votes.
(b): "The group filed with the Secretary of State, subsequent to its failure to meet the [above] requirements, a party formation petition that meets all of the following requirements:
(i): "The petition is signed by qualified electors equal in number to at least 1 percent of the total vote for governor or nominees for presidential electors at the most recent election for such office.
(ii): "The petition is signed by not fewer than 500 qualified electors from each of at least a minimum of one-half of the congressional districts in the state. If an odd number of congressional districts exists in this state, the number of districts that results from dividing the number of congressional districts by two shall be rounded up to the next whole number."
(iii): "The petition declares the petitioners' intention of organizing a political party, the name of which shall be stated in the declaration and of participating in the succeeding general election, held in even-numbered years, that occurs more than 125 days after the date of filing."
(iv): "The petition designates a committee of not less than three nor more than five individuals of the petitioners, who shall represent the petitioners in all matters relating to the petition. Notice of all matters or proceedings pertaining to the petition may be served on the committee, or any of them, either personally or by registered mail, or by leaving such notice at the usual place of residence of each of them."

For more information regarding petition requirements, see below. When a party formation petition pursuant to the aforementioned requirements is filed with the Secretary of State, the party comes into legal existence on the date of filing and is eligible to nominate candidates to appear on the ballot in the general election that occurs more than 125 days after the date of filing. The newly formed party must submit to the Secretary of State no later than 75 days before the general election a slate of candidates to appear on the ballot. Prior to the passage of S.B. 193, newly formed political parties were eligible to participate in primary elections that occurred more than 120 days after the date of filing.[6]

A new political party cannot assume a name similar to that of an existing party.[6][9]

Any party that receives between 3 and 20 percent of the total votes cast for governor or presidential electors is considered a "minor political party." A newly formed political party is considered a "minor political party" until it first participates in an election for governor or president, after which point such status is determined by the party's performance in the election.[6][9]

Although the legislation was initially set to take effect on February 5, 2014, U.S. District Court Judge Michael Watson ruled on January 7, 2014 that due process bars the state from implementing the law in the 2014 election. In his decision, Watson wrote, "The Ohio Legislature moved the proverbial goalpost in the midst of the game. Stripping the Plaintiffs of the opportunity to participate in the 2014 primary in these circumstances would be patently unfair."[10][11]

Events

2014

Libertarian statewide candidates disqualified

On March 7, 2014, Secretary of State Jon Husted indicated that he had removed the Libertarian Party's statewide candidates from the party's primary ballot (including gubernatorial candidate Charlie Earl). Husted claimed that the paid petitioner who gathered signatures on behalf of the Libertarian Party failed to identify his or her employer on the petition.[12]

The Libertarian Party filed a motion for a preliminary injunction to prevent Husted from printing the primary ballots without the names of the party's statewide candidates. The party argued that prior precedent prevented the Secretary of State from disqualifying candidates on the grounds that Husted disqualified the party's 2014 statewide slate. The Libertarian Party further contended that it is unconstitutional to require a circulator to identify his or her employer or to treat a paid circulator differently from a volunteer circulator.[13] United States District Court Judge Michael Watson scheduled a hearing on the matter for March 11, 2014.[14] On March 19, 2014, Watson ruled that the circulator law is indeed constitutional, thereby reaffirming Husted's decision to remove the Libertarian candidates form the ballot. The Libertarian Party and the impacted candidates appealed the decision to the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.[15][16] On March 21, 2014, the Sixth Circuit agreed to expedite the case.[16][17] The court heard the case on April 22, 2014.[18] On May 1, the court ruled in favor of Husted.[19] That same day, the Libertarian Party requested that the U.S. Supreme Court intervene and have the names of the party's candidates printed on the primary ballot.[20] On May 5, 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to intervene (requests were made to Justices Clarence Thomas and Elena Kagan, both of whom refused to order an injunction).[21] As a result, the party's candidates did not appear on the May 6, 2014 primary ballot. The Libertarian Party sought a rehearing from the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in an effort to restore the party's candidates to the general election ballot, but on June 4, 2014 the court declined to reconsider the case.[22][23]

Because the Libertarian Party failed in its effort to overturn Husted's decision, the party's candidates will not appear on the general election ballot. Consequently, the party will lose its qualified status.[12][23]

Libertarian gubernatorial qualification

A legal challenge was brought in March 2014 seeking to disqualify Libertarian gubernatorial candidate Charlie Earl from the primary ballot. The case was brought on behalf of Tyler King, a Libertarian Ohio voter who has alleged that Democrats circulated Earl's petitions and provided additional monetary and legal assistance to Earl's gubernatorial campaign. Ohio law requires that petitions be signed and circulated by members of the same political party as the candidate.[24]

Earl's attorney, Mark Brown, maintained that the case was a continuation of Republican efforts to exclude third parties from the ballot, accusing King and his attorney of "bluster and innuendo."[24]

Republicans and Democrats fail to field candidates for state House primary

Both the Republican and Democratic parties failed to field candidates for the primary for the 88th House District by the February 5, 2014 filing deadline. Incumbent Rex Damschroder (R) was forced to withdraw after finding that his filing paperwork had been deemed invalid. State law prevents him from running as a write-in candidate in the primary, but Damschroder reported on February 20, 2014 that his wife, Rhonda, would be running as a placeholder write-in candidate for him. "She has offered to let me user her name as a write-in, acting as a placeholder. It's the only legal remedy we can find ... I'm apologizing and humbly asking for voters' support again. I screwed up, and I take credit for that," said Damschroder. In the event that she wins the nomination, she is expected to withdraw from the race and be replaced by her husband.[25][26]

Local businessman Bill Reineke, Jr. indicated that he would run as a write-in candidate in the Republican primary. No candidates filed for the Democratic primary, though Bill Young, a local retired teacher and 2012 candidate, was expected to run as a write-in.[25]

Libertarian and Green Party candidates

The Ohio Libertarian Party's prospective candidates for Secretary of State, Treasurer and Auditor all failed to collect the 500 signatures required to gain access to the ballot. Likewise, the Green Party's prospective candidates for Governor and Lieutenant Governor failed to collect the requisite signatures. The Libertarian Party did field candidates for Governor, Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General who collected the 500 signatures necessary to gain ballot access.[27][28]

S.B. 193

On January 7, 2014, U.S. District Court Judge Michael Watson issued a preliminary injunction against S.B. 193, ruling in favor of the plaintiffs (including, among others, the Libertarian Party of Ohio) and their assertion that due process bars the state from implementing the law in the 2014 election.[29] The plaintiffs further asserted that the law was unconstitutional and sought to prevent its enforcement in subsequent elections. Watson, however, did not address these issues in his ruling.[30]

Three days later, on January 10, the government appealed this decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, requesting that the court expedite the process. The minor parties asked that the court refuse to expedite the appeal. The minor parties argued that because the state requested an expedited appeal over a stay of the injunction, the parties did not know how best to proceed with their petitions (the filing deadline for which falls on February 5). Had the court reversed the District Court's earlier ruling, all minor party primaries would have been canceled and any petition work rendered moot.[31]

On January 15, 2014, the Sixth Circuit denied the state's request to expedite the appeal. On February 11, 2014, the state dropped its appeal altogether, meaning the 2014 election cycle would be unaffected by the passage of the new law. The law's impact on post-2014 election cycles, however, was still expected to be the subject of future legal challenges.[32][33]

2013

S.B. 193

On November 8, 2013, two days after Governor Kasich signed S.B. 193 into law, the Libertarian Party of Ohio filed suit against the state, arguing that the newly minted regulations unconstitutionally restricted the party's participation in the 2014 elections.[34] In dispute were provisions within the legislation that prohibited minor parties from participating in the 2014 primary election, removed previously granted state recognition, and retroactively imposed new petition signature requirements on candidates who had already completed their nominating petitions under the current statutory requirements.[34][35][36] Further, the Libertarian Party argued that, because Ohio voter registration forms do not compel individuals to designate party affiliation, the only method by which parties can determine membership is through primary voter lists.[36]

The Libertarian Party sought a preliminary injunction to retain its May 2014 primary. Instead of filing a new suit against the state, the Libertarians expanded an existing suit that challenged a residency requirement for petition circulators imposed by S.B. 47 (see below for more information).[36][37]

Opponents of the new legislation contended that S.B. 193 was written to block Libertarian Charlie Earl's gubernatorial candidacy, thereby shoring up Kasich's own re-election bid. Libertarian State Party Chairman Kevin Knedley argued that by blocking primary access to minor parties, the state was hindering their long-term prospects.[38] Democratic State Representative Connie Pillich (D-Cincinnati) called the bill "an attack on democracy."[38]

Meanwhile, supporters maintained that the changes were necessary after a court ruled in 2006 that the state's existing ballot access standards were prohibitive. State Representative Jim Buchy (R-Greenville) said the changes would make it "very easy" for minor parties to gain and maintain ballot access.[38]

S.B. 47

Signed into law on March 22, 2013 and effective June 21, 2013, S.B. 47 made revisions to the statutes that regulate petition circulation processes. Notably, the legislation as enacted mandated that "except for a nominating petition for presidential electors, no person shall be entitled to circulate any petition unless the person is a resident of the state and is at least 18 years of age."[39] The Libertarian Party of Ohio filed suit against the legislation in federal court on September 25, 2013.[37] On November 13, 2013, federal judge Michael Watson granted a preliminary injunction against the law, writing in his ruling, "It is well established that even a temporary violation of First Amendment rights constitutes irreparable harm."[40][41]

Process to become a candidate

Quick facts about Lieutenant Governors
  • 45 states have Lt. governors, 43 of them fill the office by election
  • 21 states, including Ohio, elect Lt. governors on a single ticket with the governor at both the primary and general elections
  • 5 states elect Lt. governors separately from Governors at the primary and then put the top two vote-getters together on the general election ballot
  • 17 states elect Lt. governors separately from the Governor

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 35, Chapter 3513, Section 10 of the Ohio Revised Statutes

Fees apply to all candidates and are as follows:[42]

Office Fee
Governor, U.S. Senate, statewide offices $150
U.S. House, state legislature $85

For partisan candidates

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 35, Chapter 3513, Section 05 of the Ohio Revised Code

All partisan candidates must file a Declaration of Candidacy and petition and pay the requisite filing fees.[43] Signature requirements are as follows (for more information regarding petition requirements, see below):[43]

Office Number of signatures required
Governor, U.S. Senate and other statewide offices 1,000 qualified electors who are members of the same political party as the candidate
U.S. House and state legislature 50 qualified electors who are members of the same political party as the candidate
**The signature requirement for minor party candidates is one-half the number required of major parties.[43]

For independent candidates

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 35, Chapter 3513, Section 257 of the Ohio Revised Code

Unaffiliated candidates must submit a Declaration of Candidacy and nominating petition and pay the requisite filing fees.[44] Signature requirements are as follows (for more information regarding petition requirements, see below):[44]

Office Number of signatures required
Governor, U.S. Senate and other statewide offices 5,000 qualified electors
U.S. House and state legislature Varies by size of district; if 5,000 or more electors voted for the office of governor in the most recent election, 1% of electors; if less than 5,000 electors voted for said office, 5% of the vote or 25, whichever is less

For write-in candidates

Write-in candidates must file a Declaration of Intent to have their votes counted. Write-in candidates may participate in either the primary or general elections and are subject to the same filing fees as all other candidates.[45]

Petition requirements

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 35, Chapter 3501, Section 38 of the Ohio Revised Code

In some cases, political parties and/or candidates may need to obtain signatures via the petition process to gain access to the ballot. This section outlines the laws and regulations pertaining to petitions and circulators in Ohio.

Petition requirements for both candidates and new political parties are listed below (for petition forms and detailed instructions, consult the Office of the Ohio Secretary of State).

  • Petition format[46][47]
    • The Statement of Candidacy portion of each petition paper must be completely filled in and signed by the candidate before circulation can begin.
    • All petitions must include a statement signed by the circulator indicating:
      • The number of signatures contained in the petition
      • That the circulator witnessed the signing of each signature
      • That all signers were qualified to sign the petition
      • That each signature is authentic
  • Signature requirements[46][47]
    • Only qualified electors who are eligible to vote for the candidacy in question may sign a petition.
    • Each signature must be written in ink by the elector (or duly appointed attorney-in-fact); signers must include residence address, which must match the address that appears on registration records, and date of signing.
    • With the exception of petitions for candidates elected by voters of the entire state, no petition can contain more than three times the required number of signatures.
  • Circulator requirements[46][47]
    • Circulators must be at least 18 years old (as of November 2013, a statute mandating that circulators be residents of Ohio was not in effect, due to a preliminary injunction).
    • Circulators may not sign the same petition papers they are circulating, but may sign petition papers for the same candidacy by a different circulator.
    • Each petition paper must be circulated by one person only and can contain signatures of electors in only one county.
    • Petitions for a candidate for party nomination must be signed and circulated by members of the same political party as the candidate.

Campaign finance

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Title 35, Chapter 3517 of the Ohio Revised Statutes

Before a candidate may begin receiving contributions or making expenditures, he or she must file a Designation of Treasurer form. This form collects basic candidate information, including:[48][49]

  • Name and address of the candidate
  • Name of the campaign committee
  • Office sought
  • Name of the campaign's treasurer and any deputy treasurers (the candidate may serve as his or her own treasurer)

A bank account for the campaign must be established separate from any personal or business accounts the candidate may have. All contributions must be deposited into this account.[48]

Candidates for state executive office and the state legislature must file regular campaign finance reports with the Secretary of State's office. Filing deadlines for 2014 are as follows:[50]

Deadline Report Report end date
April 24, 2014 Pre-primary April 16, 2014
June 13, 2014 Post-primary June 6, 2014
July 31, 2014 Semi-annual June 30, 2014
October 23, 2014 Pre-general October 15, 2014
December 12, 2014 Post-general December 5, 2014
January 30, 2015 Annual December 31, 2014

In addition, candidates for statewide office (excluding the state legislature) must submit monthly reports on campaign contributions received during the months of July, August and September. Filing deadlines are below:[50]

Due date Report
August 5, 2014 July contributions
September 3, 2014 August contributions
October 3, 2014 September contributions

Campaign contribution limits vary according to the type of donor and type of recipient. Contribution limits apply separately to each election (e.g., primary and general elections). The table below summarizes campaign contributions effective February 25, 2013 through February 24, 2015. The uppermost row indicates donor type and the leftmost column indicates recipient type.[51][52]

Ohio campaign contribution limits
Individual PACs and PCEs County party (state candidate fund) County party (other account) State party (state candidate fund) Legislative campaign fund Campaign committee
Statewide candidate $12,155.52 $12,155.52 $303,887.96 $3,038.88 $685,571.24 Prohibited $12,155.52
State Senate $12,155.52 $12,155.52 $12,155.52* or $136,749.58** $3,038.88 $136,749.58 $68,070.90 and $136,749.58*** $12,155.52
State House $12,155.52 $12,155.52 $12,155.52* or $68,070.90** $3,038.88 $68,070.90 $35,258.98 and $68,070.90*** $12,155.52
State party $36,466.56 $36,466.56 No Limit Prohibited No Limit No Limit $36,466.56
Legislative campaign fund $18,233.28 $18,233.28 No Limit Prohibited No Limit Prohibited $18,233.28
County party $12,155.52 Prohibited Prohibited Prohibited No Limit No Limit $12,155.52
PACs and PCEs $12,155.52 $12,155.52 $12,155.52 $12,155.52 $12,155.52 Prohibited $12,155.52
*"These limits apply to contributions given to a campaign committee which is not a 'designated state campaign committee.'"[51]
**"These limits apply to cash or cash equivalents, not in-kind. The campaign committee of a House or a Senate candidate which is a 'designated state campaign committee' may accept, in aggregate, from any one or a combination of state candidate funds of county political parties $60,777.59 and $121,597.85, respectively, in an election period."[51]
***"These limits apply to cash or cash equivalents, not in-kind. The smaller limit is for the Primary election period and the larger limit is for the General election period."[51]

Election-related agencies

See also: State election agencies
Figure 1: This is the Declaration of Candidacy Form for state office candidates.

Candidates running for office may require some form of interaction with the following agencies:

Ohio Secretary of State - Elections Division

Why: To file petition paperwork for statewide executive offices and judicial offices
180 East Broad Street
Columbus, OH 43215
Phone: 614.466.2585
Toll Free: 1.877.SOS.OHIO or 1.877.767.6446
Website: http://www.sos.state.oh.us/SOS/elections.aspx

Ohio Ethics Commission

Why: To file personal financial disclosure statements for most offices
30 West Spring Street
Columbus, Ohio 43215-2256
Phone: (614) 466-7090
Fax: (614) 466-8368
Website: http://www.ethics.ohio.gov/

Ohio Elections Commission

Why: To file complaints
21 West Broad Street, Suite 600
Columbus, Ohio 43215
Phone: 614-466-3205
Fax: 614-728-9408
Website: http://elc.ohio.gov/

Term limits

State executives

Portal:State Executive Officials
See also: State executives with term limits and States with gubernatorial term limits

The state executive term limits in Ohio are as follows:

There are no state executive officials who are term-limited in 2014.

State legislators

See also: State legislatures with term limits

A politician can serve in the Ohio House of Representatives for a total of four terms (eight years). A politician can serve in the Ohio State Senate for a total of two terms (eight years).

2014

See also: Impact of term limits on state senate elections in 2014 and Impact of term limits on state representative elections in 2014

There are 22 state legislators who will be termed out in 2014.

Name Party Chamber District
Capri Cafaro Electiondot.png Democratic State Senate District 32
Thomas Sawyer Electiondot.png Democratic State Senate District 28
Keith Faber Ends.png Republican State Senate District 12
Tim Schaffer Ends.png Republican State Senate District 31
Armond Budish Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 8
Barbara Boyd Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 9
Bob Hagan Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 58
Dale Mallory Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 32
Matt Lundy Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 55
Michael Foley Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 14
Ron Gerberry Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 59
Sandra Williams Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 11
Tom Letson Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 64
Tracy Heard Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 26
Vernon Sykes Electiondot.png Democratic State House District 44
Matt Huffman Ends.png Republican State House District 4
Lynn Wachtmann Ends.png Republican State House District 81
John Adams Ends.png Republican State House District 85
Jay Hottinger Ends.png Republican State House District 71
Gerald Stebelton Ends.png Republican State House District 77
Ross McGregor Ends.png Republican State House District 79
William Batchelder Ends.png Republican State House District 69

2012

See also: Impact of term limits on state senate elections in 2012 and Impact of term limits on state representative elections in 2012

A total of seven state legislators were termed out in 2012.

2010

See also: Impact of term limits on state senate elections in 2010 and Impact of term limits on state representative elections in 2010

A total of 20 state legislators were termed out in 2010.

Congressional partisanship

Portal:Congress
See also: List of United States Representatives from Ohio and List of United States Senators from Ohio

Here is the current partisan breakdown of the congressional members from Ohio:

Congressional Partisan Breakdown from
Party U.S. Senate U.S. House Total
     Democratic Party 1 4 5
     Republican Party 1 12 13
TOTALS as of July 2014 2 16 18

State legislative partisanship

Portal:State legislatures

Here is the current partisan breakdown of members of the state legislature of Ohio:

Senate

Party As of July 2014
     Democratic Party 10
     Republican Party 23
Total 33

House

Party As of July 2014
     Democratic Party 38
     Republican Party 61
Total 99

See also

External links

Official state and federal links

Forms

News

Other information

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ohio Secretary of State, "2014 Election Calendar," accessed November 15, 2013
  2. Ohio Secretary of State, "2014 Ohio Candidate Requirement Guide," accessed December 4, 2013
  3. Ohio Revised Code, "Title 35, Chapter 3505, Section 3," accessed December 4, 2013
  4. E-mail consultation with ballot access expert Richard Winger in January 2014.
  5. As of December 12, 2013, the digitally available edition of the Code had not been updated to reflect the changes resulting from the enactment of SB 193.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Ohio General Assembly, "SB 193," accessed December 12, 2013
  7. Cleveland Plain-Dealer, "Ohio legislature passes new ballot-access rules for minor political parties; Libertarians promise lawsuit," November 6, 2013
  8. Ohio Secretary of State, "Governor and Lieutenant Governor: November 2, 2010," accessed December 30, 2013
  9. 9.0 9.1 Ohio Revised Code, "Title 35, Chapter 3517, Section 01," accessed December 12, 2013
  10. Ballot Access News, "U.S. District Court Rules that Ohio's Minor Parties May Remain on the Ballot for 2014," January 7, 2014
  11. United States District Court - Southern District of Ohio - Eastern Division, "Case No. 2:13-cv-953 -- Opinion and Order and Preliminary Injunction," January 7, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 Ballot Access News, "Ohio Secretary of State Removes Libertarian Party Statewide Candidates from the Libertarian Primary Ballot," March 7, 2014
  13. Ballot Access News, "Ohio Libertarian Party Files Strong New Legal Argument in Existing Federal Ballot Access Concerning Primary Ballot Access for Its Statewide Nominees," March 8, 2014
  14. Ballot Access News, "U.S. District Court Sets Hearing in Ohio Libertarian Primary Ballot Access Lawsuit," March 10, 2014
  15. Ballot Access News, "Ohio Libertarian Candidates Lose Primary Ballot Access Lawsuit," March 20, 2014
  16. 16.0 16.1 Ballot Access News, "Sixth Circuit Expedites Libertarian Primary Ballot Access Case," March 21, 2014
  17. Ballot Access News, "New Filings in Ohio Libertarian Party Primary Ballot Access Case," March 21, 2014
  18. Ballot Access News, "Ohio Libertarian Party Ballot Access Case to be Argued in Sixth Circuit on Tuesday, April 22," April 17, 2014
  19. Ballot Access News, "Ohio Libertarian Party Loses Primary Ballot Access Lawsuit," May 1, 2014
  20. Ballot Access News, "Ohio Libertarian Party Asks U.S. Supreme Court to Put its Statewide Candidates on Primary Ballot," May 1, 2014
  21. Ballot Access News, "U.S. Supreme Court Won’t Give Injunctive Relief to Ohio Libertarian Party," May 5, 2014
  22. Dayton Daily News, "Libertarian candidates for Governor, AG blocked from Tuesday ballot," May 5, 2014
  23. 23.0 23.1 Ballot Access News, "Sixth Circuit Won't Rehear Ohio Libertarian Party Ballot Access Case," June 4, 2014
  24. 24.0 24.1 Cincinnati.com, "Libertarian governor candidate challenged in Ohio," March 4, 2014
  25. 25.0 25.1 The Blade, "Tiffin man will face as write-in for state House," February 18, 2014
  26. The Blade, "Rex Damschroder's wife to run for his seat, then he might replace her," February 20, 2014
  27. Ballot Access News, "Some Ohio Statewide Minor Party Primary Petitions Fail to Have Enough Valid Signatures," February 18, 2014
  28. Cleveland.com, "Ed FitzGerald faces only primary among statewide candidates; Libertarians fail to field full slate," February 18, 2014
  29. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named decision
  30. The Blade, "Judge: Ohio cannot change minor party rules for 2014 ballot," January 7, 2014
  31. Ballot Access News, "Update on Ohio Minor Party Ballot Access Lawsuit," January 11, 2014
  32. Ballot Access News, "Sixth Circuit Won't Expedite Ohio's Appeal of Last Week's Ballot Access Decision," January 15, 2014
  33. Ballot Access News, "Ohio Drops Appeal of U.S. District Court Order that Put Minor Parties on 2014 Ballot," February 11, 2014
  34. 34.0 34.1 Cleveland Plain-Dealer, "Libertarians file legal challenge against Ohio's new rules for minor political parties; Greens may follow suit," November 8, 2013
  35. The Columbus Dispatch, "Libertarians challenge new Ohio minor-party law," November 8, 2013
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 Ballot Access News, "Ohio Libertarian Party Sues to Retain its Qualified Party Status for 2014," November 8, 2013
  37. 37.0 37.1 Ballot Access News, "Ohio Libertarian Party Files Lawsuit Against New Residency Requirement for Petitioners," September 26, 2013
  38. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named dealer
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