Ballot measures cost per required signatures analysis
| Cost Per Required Signature|
| 2013 Signature costs|
| 2012 Signature costs|
|2010 Signature costs|
The cost per required signature is a comparison of the amount of money spent on the petition drive in comparison to the number of signatures the state requires for an initiative to make the ballot.
How much money does it cost to land an initiative on the ballot?
When citizens want to change the law through the initiative and referendum process, they must start by collecting petition signatures. By garnering enough signatures, the measure may be placed on the ballot for a vote of the people. The required number of signatures to land a statewide measure on the ballot ranges from tens to hundreds of thousands, depending on the state. Petition circulation timelines also vary by state, for those that have one, but can range anywhere from 60 days to four years. States also have petition drive deadlines to qualify for elections the same year, sometimes leaving supporters of a particular measure little time to collect a large number of signatures.
As a result, many ballot measure campaigns employ petition drive companies to assist in collecting as many valid signatures as possible. The amount of signatures gathered varies from initiative to initiative, therefore, some committees attempt to collect even more than the required number in order to have a cushion, lest invalid signatures throw off their count. Others, meanwhile, barely meet the requirement.
Laws regarding signature collections vary from state to state. In some states, campaigns are allowed to pay circulators, while in others, this practice is illegal. Some states require signature collectors to be residents of the state in which the measure may appear on the ballot. Regardless of state-specific laws, collecting signatures to put a measure before voters is an arduous process, and campaigns sometimes spend hundred of thousands of dollars in order to hire companies to assist with their efforts.
It is difficult to know exactly how many valid signatures are gathered per circulation effort because the information is not always readily available via the secretary of state's office or news reports. This is especially true in states, such as California, where signatures are submitted to each of the state's counties, rather than to one central election office.
If it were possible to know exactly how many signatures each initiative sponsor submitted in each state and exactly how many of those signatures are valid, it would be possible to calculate a "cost-per-actual-signature" figure for every initiative in every state, which would allow an apples-to-apples comparison.
Therefore, this report relies on the "cost-per-required-signature" figure to generate a standardized comparison.
General Disclaimer: All calculations are only as accurate as the data made available through the data sources.
Ballotpedia's CPRS analyses use the following general methodology:
- All data are compiled from information made available through each state's respective campaign finance website.
- Individual initiative data are obtained from available reports from the main committee believed to have been in charge of the petition effort.
- All costs that could be directly related to petitions, including petition gathering and petition printing, were accumulated. When a petition company is used, the company is listed even though all costs may not be directly associated.
- All averages are calculated using only available data. If an initiative does not have data available, it is excluded from such calculations.
- All averages are averages of totals, not averages of averages.
Below are some of the most notable facts from past CPRS reports:
- In 2013, Colorado's Amendment 66 had a CPRS of $11.05, the highest CPRS calculated in any of Ballotpedia's reports. This amount is significantly higher than Colorado's average CPRS in 2012 of $1.83. Fieldworks served as the signature collection company for this ballot effort.
- The lowest CPRS was a mere $0.08 for Massachusett's Question 2 in 2010.
- In 2012, the most expensive measure was California's Proposition 30, with a CPRS of $10.86. Kimball Petition Management was the signature collection company.
- Progressive Campaigns, Inc., also known as PCI Consultants, is the signature collection company that has managed the most campaigns. In total, the group has run 14 petition drives in six states: California, Michigan, Washington, Florida, Missouri and Oregon. Of the 14 campaigns PCI has managed, nine have been successful at the ballot and five have failed.
Petition drive management companies
Below is a list of some of the petition drive management companies that have assisted campaigns in collecting signatures for ballot measures:
- Allied Data Service
- American Petition Consultants
- Arno Political Consultants
- Bader & Associates, Inc.
- Campaign Finance Company LLC (Petition Drives)
- Canvasser Services
- Capitol Assets
- Citizens Solutions, Inc.
- Democracy Direct
- Democracy Resources
- Dennis Rodzik
- Development Petition Management Group
- Dewey Square Group
- Direct Democracy LLC
- Discovery Petition Management
- Forde and Mollrich
- Jefferson Adams Consulting INC
- JSM, Inc.
- Kimball Petition Management
- Klein Campaigns, Inc.
- La Jolla Group
- LAMM Political Partners, LLC
- Lincoln Strategy Group
- M&R Strategic Services
- Masterson & Wright
- National Ballot Access
- National Petition Management
- National Voter Outreach
- NW Democracy Resources
- Petition Partners
- Political Capital
- Progressive Campaigns, Inc.
- Riester Consulting Company
- Schumacher & Associates LLC
- SFA Petition Management
- Signature Masters Inc
- Silverbullet Group, Inc.
- Spoonworks, Inc.
- Superlative Petition Strategies, LLC
- Voice of the Electorate, LLC
- Work for Progress