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California Proposition 94, Judges Allowed to be Part-Time Teachers (1988)

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California Proposition 94 was on the November 8, 1988 statewide ballot in California as a legislatively-referred constitutional amendment, where it was approved.

Proposition 94 amended California's constitution to permit judges of the California Supreme Court, the courts of appeal, superior courts, and municipal courts to teach part time at public institutions, if their teaching occurrs in hours outside the normal hours of their judicial position and does not interfere with their normal duties.

Election results

Proposition 94
Approveda Yes 5,719,600 65.13%

Constitutional changes

California Constitution

Proposition 94 amended Section 17 of Article VI of the California Constitution.

Text of measure


The ballot title was:

Judges. Legislative Constitutional Amendment.


The official summary said:

"Permits judges of courts of record to accept part-time teaching positions that are outside the normal hours of their judicial position and do not interfere with the regular performance of their judicial duties. Prohibits judicial officer from earning retirement service credit from a public teaching position while holding judicial office."

Fiscal impact

See also: Fiscal impact statement

The fiscal estimate provided by the California Legislative Analyst's Office said:

"This measure would have little, if any, fiscal impact on the state and local governments."


  • People v. Larry C.. 234 Cal. App. 3d 405, 286 Cal. Rptr. 52 (1991).
  • Bach v. McNelis. 207 Cal. App. 3d 852, 255 Cal. Rptr. 232 (1989).

Path to the ballot

The California State Legislature voted to put Proposition 94 on the ballot via Assembly Constitutional Amendment 17 (Statutes of 1988, Resolution Chapter 70).

Votes in legislature to refer to ballot
Chamber Ayes Noes
Assembly 63 2
Senate 37 0

External links

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