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Charlie Crist

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Charlie Crist
Crist.jpg
Date of primaryAugust 26, 2014
Candidate for
Governor of Florida
In office
January 2, 2007 – January 4, 2011
PartyDemocratic
Prior offices
Governor of Florida
2007-2011
Education
High schoolSt. Petersburg High School (1974)
Bachelor'sFlorida State University
J.D.Cumberland School of Law-Alabama
Personal
BirthdayJuly 24, 1956
Place of birthAltoona, Pennsylvania
ProfessionAttorney
ReligionMethodist
Websites
Personal website
Campaign website
Charles Joseph "Charlie" Crist, Jr. (b. July 24 1956, in Altoona, Pennsylvania), is a politician and former Republican Governor of Florida. As of November 2013, Crist is running as a Democrat in the 2014 governor's race. He hopes to retake his former seat from first term Republican incumbent Rick Scott, who is seeking re-election in 2014.

Crist previously served as state attorney general from 2003 to 2007.[1] Crist had long been affiliated with the Republican Party until becoming an Independent in 2010. He most recently became a Democrat in Dec. 2012.[2]

Crist is a 2014 Democratic candidate for governor. He formally launched his campaign in his hometown of St. Petersburg on November 4, 2013, exactly one year prior to the 2014 general election date.[3] Before formally declaring his candidacy to take back his former office, Crist was already considered a front-runner in the race against Republican incumbent Rick Scott, who is running for a second term in 2014.[4]

Crist is seeking the Democratic nomination in the August 12 primary alongside running mate Annette Taddeo-Goldstein, a Colombian-American business owner and chair of the Miami-Dade Democratic Party.[5][6] The general election takes place November 4, 2014.

Biography

Crist was born in Altoona, Pennsylvania to Charlie Crist Sr., a Greek Cypriot, and Nancy Lee, who is Scots-Irish. Crist later moved to St. Petersburg, Florida, where he attended Riviera Middle School[7][8] and graduated from St. Petersburg High School in 1974. He attended Wake Forest University, where he played quarterback for the Wake Forest Demon Deacons football team. Crist received his undergraduate degree from Florida State University where he was the Vice President of the student body. He is a member of Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity. While at FSU, Crist was named Mr. Seminole. He received his Juris Doctor|law degree from the Cumberland School of Law in Alabama.

Education

  • St. Petersburg High School (1974)
  • Wake Forest University
  • Bachelor's degree, Florida State University
  • Juris Doctorate, Cumberland School of Law

Political career

Governor of Florida (2007-2011)

Crist was elected the 44th Governor of Florida in November 2006. He served one term and was succeeded by Jeb Bush.

Emission controls

In July 2007, Crist announced plans to sign executive orders that would impose strict air-pollution standards in the state, with aims to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions by 80 percent of 1990 levels by 2050. Crist's orders would set new emissions targets for power companies, automobiles and trucks, toughen conservation goals for state agencies, and require state-owned vehicles to use alternative fuels.[9]

Creation of Research Flagship Universities

During Florida's 2007 Legislative Session, Governor Charlie Crist signed into law SB-1710 which allowed the Board of Governors to allow Tuition Differential only for the University of Florida, Florida State University, and the University of South Florida (determined by law as the Research Flagships of the State University System). This legislation ultimately created a Tier System for Higher Education in Florida's State University System.[10]

Disputes with Insurance Companies

In 2007, Governor Crist has been embroiled in public disputes with property insurers over homeowners' insurance rates. Governor Crist had expected insurers to lower their rates with new reinsurance coverage available from the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund. However, insurers have found that although the FHCF will offer them complete coverage, there are significant doubts in the marketplace as to whether the FHCF will be able to make good on those claims. Ratings agencies (such as Moody's, Standard & Poor's, and A. M. Best) have warned insurers that if they accept too much reinsurance from FHCF, they risk being downgraded. With such a warning in hand, insurers have instead gone to the private reinsurance market for much of their reinsurance, and have found significantly higher rates.

On race relations

Democratic Representative Terry Fields of Jacksonville, Florida referred to Crist as the state's "first black governor." saying, "Charlie Crist has been a friend to the African-American community even before he became governor."

He is the first Republican governor to accept the state's NAACP invitation to a convention and endorsed legislation requiring paper records of all ballots cast during an election, stemming from criticisms in black communities that believed they were being undercounted by computerized voting machines.[11]

Attorney General of Florida (2003-2007)

During his time in office, Crist has been applauded by civil rights and consumer groups for expanding the powers of the Attorney General to prosecute civil rights and fraud cases. He has also received acclaim for his work to combat spam emails, freeze utility rates, end telecom deception, and protect the environment. Supporters of Crist's candidacy included America's Most Wanted host John Walsh, who publicly filed Crist's gubernatorial candidacy paperwork, citing his work with the Center for Missing and Exploited Children. John Walsh also appears in Crist's "anti-murder" campaign advertisements.

Crist's tenure as attorney general has been criticized by some. Some activists who had pushed for government intervention in the Terri Schiavo right-to-life case strongly criticized Crist when he did not attempt further legal action to keep Schiavo on life support. As Attorney General, he was also criticized for not using his powers to investigate Schiavo's missing Department of Children and Families file.

Canadian anti-consumer-fraud activist and author Les Henderson also criticized Crist's handling of the Lou Pearlman Wilhelmina Scouting Network affair in his September 2006 book Under Investigation. Henderson's book presents documentary evidence that Assistant Attorney General Jacqueline Dowd was forced to resign by Crist's office when she refused to stop investigating the scam, and intended to file charges under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act.[12][13]

A lawsuit stemming from the alleged Lou Pearlman Ponzi Scheme and investment scandal alleges that Crist delayed or interfered with investigations into Pearlman in return for campaign donations, use of private jets, home, and skyboxes.[14]

State Education Commissioner (2001-2003)

In 2001, Crist was elected to the office of Education Commissioner of Florida in November 2000, and he served in this capacity until 2003. When the office was eliminated in accordance with a 1998 constitutional amendment, all responsibilities turned over to the appointed Secretary of Education. Crist had by that time already won his position as Attorney General of Florida.

Deputy Secretary of Business and Professional Regulation (1999-2001)

In 1999, Governor Jeb Bush appointed Crist to the position of Deputy Secretary of the Department of Business and Professional Regulation.

State Senate (1993-1999)

Crist entered state politics representing parts of St. Petersburg in the Florida Senate, where he became best known for his support of chain gangs for state prison inmates, earning him the nickname "Chain Gang Charlie."[15] Crist became well-known in state politics in 1998, when after nearly six years in the Senate he challenged popular Democratic incumbent Bob Graham for his U.S. Senate seat but lost by 26 percent.

On The Issues Vote Match

Charlie Crist's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Crist is a Moderate Populist. Crist received a score of 30 percent on social issues and 38 percent on economic issues.Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no content must have a name

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[16]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Favors
Vouchers for school choice Favors Keep God in the public sphere Strongly Favors
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Favors Human needs over animal rights Strongly Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Opposes Stricter punishment reduces crime Strongly Favors
Support & expand free trade Strongly Opposes Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Opposes
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Opposes
Prioritize green energy Strongly Favors Expand the military Unknown
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Opposes Stay out of Iran Unknown
Privatize Social Security Opposes Never legalize marijuana Strongly Favors
Note: Information last updated: June 23, 2014.[17]

Elections & Appointments


Sunshine - Posted to YouTube 7/6/14

2014

See also: Florida gubernatorial election, 2014

Crist is running for Governor of Florida in 2014. He is seeking the Democratic primary nomination for the right to challenge Republican incumbent Rick Scott in the general election.[4] The general election takes place November 4, 2014.

Long before entering the race in November 2013, Crist's decision to change his party registration to Democrat on December 7, 2012 and subsequent hobnobbing with the Democratic Governors Association strongly indicated he was preparing for a 2014 bid to return to the governorship.[18]

Crist was a Republican until 2010 when he re-registered as an Independent in order to stay in the race after Republican voters chose Marco Rubio over him in the primary, and his latest party makeover was widely interpreted as a strategic maneuver aimed at helping him unseat Scott.[19]

Crist filed his candidacy on Nov. 1, 2013.[3] On July 17, 2014, he selected Annette Taddeo-Goldstein to be his running mate.[20]

Polls

Three-way matchup

Florida Governor three-way matchup
Poll Charlie Crist (D) Rick Scott* (R)Adrian Wyllie (L)UndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Quinnipiac University
July 17-21, 2014
39%37%9%12%+/-2.81,251
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted in this race. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org

Crist vs. Scott

Crist vs. Scott (June 2014 - present)
Poll Charlie Crist (D) Rick Scott* (R)UndecidedMargin of ErrorSample Size
Cherry (R-Florida Chamber of Commerce)
June 11, 2014
38%41%21%+/-3.5806
SurveyUSA/WFLA-TV
June 20-23, 2014
41%42%8%+/-3.5541
Gravis Marketing
June 20-23, 2014
39%41%15%+/-3.01,232
Survey USA/WFLA-TV
June 30-7/2
43%45%5%+/-3.4558
Survey USA/WFLA-TV
July 17-21, 2014
46%40%6%+/-3.5564
Quinnipiac University
July 17-21, 2014
45%40%9%+/-2.81,251
AVERAGES 42% 41.5% 10.67% +/-3.28 825.33
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted in this race. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to editor@ballotpedia.org


Race background

Republican incumbent Rick Scott is seeking a second term as governor in 2014.

Sources such as Governing, Larry Sabato's Crystal Ball, The Washington Post and Daily Kos have consistently rated Scott among the top five most vulnerable gubernatorial incumbents facing re-election in 2014.[21][22][23][24]

In June 2013, ex-Florida Sen. Nan Rich became the first Democratic candidate in the race. She was later joined by former governor and newly minted Democrat Charlie Crist, whose candidacy looms threateningly over Scott's re-election campaign. [4][6][25]

Long affiliated with the Republican Party, Crist's first party switch occurred in 2010, when, after losing the Republican primary for U.S. Senate to Marco Rubio, he became an Independent as a way to preserve his candidacy into the general election. Crist's latest party makeover in the fall of 2013 was widely interpreted as a strategic maneuver aimed at helping him unseat Scott in 2014.[26]

As the Crist story unfolded and media coverage about Scott's struggles increased, a slew of other lesser-known hopefuls began filing for the office, mainly from third parties and independents. By October 2013, there were over twenty hopefuls were actively petitioning for a place on the primary or general election ballot.[27] When the filing window finally closed on June 20, 2014, the number had dropped to—a still a remarkable—eighteen qualified gubernatorial candidates. The Republican field settled to three, including Scott, while the Democratic field remained at two. Sole Libertarian candidate Adrian Wyllie is headed directly to the general election, along with nine write-ins and three candidates with no stated party affiliation.[28]


2010

Crist ran unsuccessfully for an open seat on the United States Senate in 2010. He lost two times to Republican Marco Rubio during the election- first in the primary, and later, after he re-entered the race as an independent candidate in the general election. On November 2, 2010, Rubio won election to the United States Senate. He defeated Kendrick B. Meek (D), Alexander Andrew Snitker (L), Bernie DeCastro (I), Charlie Crist (I), Sue Askeland (I), Rick Tyler (I), Lewis Jerome Armstrong (I), Bobbie Bean (I), Bruce Ray Riggs (I), Piotr Blass (I), Richard Lock (I), Belinda Gail Quarterman-Noah (I), Geroge Drake (I), Robert Monroe (I), Howard Knepper (I) and Carol Ann Joyce LaRose (I) in the general election.[29]

U.S. Senate, Florida General Election, 2010
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngMarco Rubio 48.9% 2,645,743
     Democratic Kendrick B. Meek 20.2% 1,092,936
     Libertarian Alexander Andrew Snitker 0.5% 24,850
     Constitution Party of Florida Bernie DeCastra 0.1% 4,792
     Independent Charlie Crist 29.7% 1,607,549
     Independent Sue Askeland 0.3% 15,340
     Independent Rick Tyler 0.1% 7,397
     Independent Lewis Jerome Armstrong 0.1% 4,443
     Independent Bobbie Bean 0.1% 4,301
     Independent Bruce Ray Riggs 0.1% 3,647
     Independent Piotr Blass 0% 47
     Independent Richard Lock 0% 18
     Independent Belinda Gail Quarterman-Noah 0% 18
     Independent George Drake 0% 13
     Independent Robert Monroe 0% 6
     Independent Howard Knepper 0% 4
     Independent Carol Ann Joyce LaRosa 0% 2
Total Votes 5,411,106

2006

Crist was elected Governor of Florida in November 2006. He consistently led Democratic opponent Jim Davis in statewide opinion polling during the fall of 2006, and so opted to skip a politically-risky appearance with President Bush. Crist had reasoned that the Pensacola area was already firmly in his camp, and instead decided to appear in a more closely-contested area with Arizona Senator John McCain. Davis accused Crist of trying to avoid being associated with the unpopular President, whose job-approval rating stood at 34 percent nationally and merely 29 percent within Florida.[30]

Crist also led his opponents in fundraising throughout the campaign, but his activities were occasionally controversial. One of Crist's backers was real estate mogul Donald Trump, whose guests at a Crist fundraiser included a former Ukrainian official in the country illegally, as well as the owner of a company under investigation by Crist's office. Crist later returned the donations from the companies under investigation, while the Ukrainian official's fee was paid by another guest. Further controversy set in, however, when ethics complaints were filed against Crist and his chief of staff for failing to investigate a major donor, personnel firm Convergys, that has been plagued by lawsuits and prison sentences for its role in the inadequate protection of state employees' social security numbers.

The Rev. O'Neal Dozier, a member of Crist's team and the Worldwide Christian Church, also generated controversy after being dismissed from his position on the Broward Judicial Nominating Commission for calling Islam a "cult" and a "dangerous religion," and opposing the construction of a Mosque on the grounds that "we don't want our area to be a breeding ground for terrorists."[31] When questioned about Dozier, Crist initially declined to take action on Dozier and said that he was "happy" with the help he got.[32] However, Crist later told his staff to remove Dozier from all campaign committees, saying "While Charlie Crist respects Rev. Dozier's right to express his political and religious beliefs, he does not agree with Rev. Dozier's recent statements and writings concerning Islam."[33][34]

Issue positions

2006 Campaign themes

According to his campaign website and public pronouncements, Crist would take the following positions as governor:

  • Abortion: Is "pro-life and pro-family," however, he has no plans to change abortion law in the state of Florida, stating in the August 21, 2006 issue of The Tampa Tribune that "I'd rather change people's hearts than change the law." However, Crist also said months earlier that he would, if elected governor, sign a ban on abortion similar to the one in South Dakota.
  • Adoption: Provide a $3000 subsidy to adoptive families. Crist has not yet decided if he would repeal the ban on adoption by same-sex couples.
  • Death Penalty: Defends the current law allowing non-unanimous juries to recommend the death penalty. He will be reviewing how the penalty is carried out after it took 34 minutes for Ángel Nieves Díaz to die from lethal injection December 13, 2006. "You wonder about the dosage and if there may have been some better medical diagnosis done prior to that" Crist said.
  • Education: Continue to be an advocate for parent choice in education, including stringent testing and vouchers. Crist encourages standardized testing "to guarantee that each student receives a year's worth of learning in a year's worth of time."
  • Eminent Domain: Strengthen current legal protections. Crist has stated that he believes the Kelo decision could have negative ramifications for Floridians.
  • Environment: Supports ban on oil drilling near Florida's coastline. Continue the net "ban" (limits on allowable size) aimed at protecting aquatic wildlife.
  • Foster Care: Provide a $5000 subsidy to those providing foster care to families who adopt foster children.
  • Gay Rights: Crist's website says Crist strongly supports Florida's Defense of Marriage Act which is generally opposed by gays and lesbians. Crist's primary opponent Tom Gallagher claimed Crist supports gay civil unions and Crist was a signatory to the gay marriage amendment petition in Florida.
  • Gun Rights: Balance gun owner rights with private property rights of employers. Crist was endorsed by the NRA as an "A+" candidate on gun rights. A+ is the highest endorsement given out by the NRA.
  • Hate Crimes: Stop the "clear pattern of growth" in crimes motivated by sexual orientation.
  • Healthcare: Require prescription drugs to be tracked from the manufacturer to the pharmacy to ensure drug safety. Endorsed by the Florida Medical Association and the Florida Nurses Association.
  • Homeowners Insurance: Provide affordable reinsurance. Report Card for Insurance Companies. Stop the Cherry Picking by Insurance Companies for the type of coverage they will provide. Abolition of Citizens insurance
  • Immigration: Support closing borders for illegals and policies that promote legal immigration. Supports Senator Mel Martinez's immigration bill giving amnesty to illegals.
  • Legalized Gambling: Oppose any expansion of gambling, but not support the repeal of the Broward County slot machine amendment.
  • Lawsuit Reform: Support elimination of joint and several liability.
  • Property Tax: Allow homeowners to move within the same county and between different counties while maintaining their previous property tax level.
  • Right to Die: Promote the availability of end of life choices, including living wills and coordination with hospice care.

1999

In 1999, Governor Jeb Bush appointed Crist to the position of Deputy Secretary of the Department of Business and Professional Regulation.

Controversies

Letter from Beverly Young

Beverly Young, the widow of former Florida congressman Bill Young, sent a message to Crist telling him not to attend her late husband's funeral service on October 24, 2013.

According to the Tampa Bay Times, Mrs. Young wrote in the message: “This e-mail is to officially advise you that your presence at my husband’s memorial services will be unacceptable. I have watched over the years, as Bill had, your transparent attempts to manipulate the political arena. I don’t want my husband’s memorial service to be another opportunity for that and I will not tolerate anyone turning this into a platform for political gain. Please honor my family’s request.”[35]

Second change in political affiliation

On December 7, 2012, the ex-Republican governor and attorney general announced on Twitter that he had switched his party registration to the Democratic Party after two years as an Independent. His message said, “Proud and honored to join the Democratic Party in the home of President Barack Obama!”[2]

Crist is reportedly exploring a run for Governor of Florida in 2014, when incumbent Rick Scott (R) will be up for re-election. He has not confirmed his bid as of December 2012, however his decision to change his party registration to Democrat reinforced previous speculation that he planned to seek a return to his former office. Crist was a Republican until 2010 when he re-registered as an Independent in order to stay in the race after Republican voters chose Marco Rubio over him in the primary, and his latest party makeover is widely interpreted as a strategic maneuver aimed at helping him unseat Scott in 2014.[36]

First change in political affiliation

In late April 2010 Charlie Crist announced that he was separating from the Republican party and would run as an Independent in the 2010 Senate race. "For me, it's never been about doing what's easy. It's been about doing what's right for the people first," he said. Since entering public office Crist has been affiliated with the Republican party.[37]

According to reports, the governor's change in affiliation was widely anticipated because he was falling behind rival Republican Marc Rubio for the Republican nomination in the 2010 Senate race. Crist had also found himself abandoned by several members of the Republican party, according to reports. The announcement also followed an opinion poll that showed the governor could win an three-way race.[38]

In May 2010, following his change in affiliation, Crist said his independence now allows him to offer a candid view and describes himself as "liberated."[39]

Personal

Crist is a member of the First Methodist Church of St. Petersburg. In July of 1979 he married Amanda Marrow. The couple had no children and divorced on January 2, 1980.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a google news search for the term Charlie + Crist + Florida + Governor

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Charlie Crist News Feed

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See also

External links


References

  1. Florida Attorneys General (1845 - Present)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Charlie Crist Twitter Account, "Party Registration," December 7, 2012
  3. 3.0 3.1 Tampa Bay Times, "Charlie Crist will announce plans for governor's race Nov. 4 in St. Petersburg," October 25, 2013
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 The Sun Sentinel, "Charlie Christ Announces Candidacy For Florida's Governor, As A Democrat," November 4, 2014
  5. Tampa Bay Times, "Charlie Crist picks running mate: Annette Taddeo-Goldstein," July 17, 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 Politico, "Ex-GOP Fla. Gov. Charlie Crist to run for job as Democrat," November 1, 2013
  7. PUBLIC EDUCATION: Like herding FCATs, Crist's challenge is elusive: Make accountability appealing. St. Petersburg Times (Florida), February 25, 2007
  8. Crist's politics getting greener; Not all support focus on global warming. Sarasota Herald-Tribune (Florida), April 22, 2007
  9. Florida To Introduce Tough Greenhouse Gas Targets
  10. Orlando Sentinel
  11. Gov. Crist lauded by African-Americans, called 'first black governor' South Florida Sun-Sentinel, October 11, 2007
  12. bizjournals.com Dowd leaves attorney general's office
  13. Gainsville.com Book: Crist tried to 'whitewash' probe
  14. Lawsuit faults Crist in giant Ponzi scheme St. Petersburg Times, March 6, 2007
  15. Crist Will Enter Governor's Race by Lucy Morgan, St. Petersburg Times, May 9, 2007
  16. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  17. On The Issues, "Charlie Crist Vote Match," accessed June 23, 2014
  18. The Daily Caller, "Charlie Crist briefly visits with Democratic Governors Association," January 9, 2013
  19. The Hill, "Charlie Crist joins Democratic party ahead of gubernatorial election," December 8, 2012
  20. The Orlando Sentinel, "Democrat Charlie Crist turns to South Florida for a running mate," July 17, 2014
  21. University of Virginia Center for Politics: Larry Sabato's Crystal Ball, "2013-2014 Gubernatorial Races," April 29, 2013
  22. The Washington Post, "The Fix's top gubernatorial races," September 27, 2013
  23. Daily Kos, "Daily Kos Elections gubernatorial race ratings: Initial ratings for 2013-14," October 6, 2013
  24. Governing Politics, "2013-2014 Governor's Races: Who's Vulnerable?," December 12, 2012
  25. The Daily Caller, "Charlie Crist briefly visits with Democratic Governors Association," January 9, 2013
  26. The Hill, "Charlie Crist joins Democratic party ahead of gubernatorial election," December 8, 2012
  27. Florida Division of Elections, "Candidate Listing for 2014 General Election - Governor," accessed October 7, 2013
  28. Florida Division of Elections, "Candidate Listing for 2014 General Election - Governor," accessed July 22, 2014
  29. U.S. Congress House Clerk "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010"
  30. Fla. GOP Candidate Snubs BushAssociated Press, Nov. 6, 2006
  31. Anything but straight Falls Church News-Press, July 13, 2006
  32. Religious Tolerance is Booed loudly The Miami Herald, July 13, 2006
  33. Crist dumps preacher who ranted on Islam The Miami Herald, September 23, 2006.
  34. Pastor appointed by Bush won't apologize for remarks on Islam The Bradenton Herald, Associated Press], July 11, 2006
  35. Politico, "Bill Young’s wife warns Charlie Crist: Stay away," accessed October 22, 2013
  36. The Hill, "Charlie Crist joins Democratic party ahead of gubernatorial election," December 8, 2012
  37. Washington Post,"Charlie Crist leaves Republican Party to run as independent in Fla. Senate race," April 30, 2010
  38. The Telegraph,"Republican governor of Florida Charlie Crist to run as independent for US senate," April 29, 2010
  39. St. Petersburg Times,"Crist backs Fair Districts reform and bashes legislature's 'rigid adherence'," May 19, 2010