Chuck Grassley

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Chuck Grassley
Chuck Grassley.jpg
U.S. Senate, Iowa
In office
Term ends
January 3, 2017
Years in position 34
PredecessorJohn C. Culver (D)
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 2, 2010
First electedNovember 4, 1980
Next generalNovember 8, 2016
Campaign $$15,339,671
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
U.S. House of Representatives
Iowa House of Representatives
Bachelor'sUniversity of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls
Master'sUniversity of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls
Date of birthSeptember 17, 1933
Place of birthNew Hartford, Iowa
Net worth$3,142,538
Office website
Campaign website
Charles Ernest "Chuck" Grassley (b. September 17, 1933, in New Hartford, IA) is a Republican member of the U.S. Senate from the state of Iowa. Grassley was first elected to the Senate in 1980.[1]

He previously was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1975 to 1981 and a member of the Iowa House of Representatives from 1959 to 1974.[1]

He announced in September 2013 that he will seek re-election in 2016.[2]

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Grassley is an average Republican member of Congress, meaning he will vote with the Republican Party on the majority of bills.


Grassley was born in 1933 in New Hartford, IA, where he also attended high school. He earned a B.A. in 1955 from Iowa State Teachers College (now University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls), as well as an M.A. in 1956 from the same institution. Grassley also pursued graduate work in political science at the University of Iowa, Iowa City from 1957 to 1958. He served in the Iowa House of Representatives from 1959 to 1974 and in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1974 to 1980 before being elected to the Senate.[3]


Below is an abbreviated outline of Grassley's political career:[4]

Committee assignments

U.S. Senate


Grassley serves on the following Senate committees:[5]

  • Joint Committee on Taxation
  • United States Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control
  • Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Committee
    • Subcommittee on Commodities, Risk Management and Trade
    • Subcommittee on Conservation, Forestry and Natural Resources
    • Subcommittee on Livestock, Marketing and Agriculture Security
  • Budget Committee
  • Finance Committee
    • Subcommittee on Energy, Natural Resources, and Infrastructure
    • Subcommittee on Health Care
    • Subcommittee on International Trade, Customs, and Global Competitiveness
  • Judiciary Committee Chairman
    • Subcommittee on Antitrust, Competition Policy and Consumer Rights
    • Subcommittee on Immigration and the National Interest
    • Subcommittee on Oversight, Agency Action, Federal Rights and Federal Courts


Grassley served on the following Senate committees:[6][7]


Grassley served on the following Senate committees:[8]

Key votes

114th Congress


The first session of the 114th Congress has enacted into law 6 out of the 2,616 introduced bills (0.2 percent). Comparatively, the 113th Congress had 1.3 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[9] The Senate has confirmed 3,934 out of 5,051 executive nominations received (77.9 percent). For more information pertaining to Grassley's voting record in the 114th Congress, please see the below sections.[10]



Loretta Lynch AG nomination

Nay3.png On April 23, 2015, the Senate voted to confirm Loretta Lynch as United States Attorney General by a vote of 56-43. All 44 Democratic senators voted to confirm Lynch. Grassley voted with 42 other Republican senators against Lynch's confirmation.[11]

113th Congress

The second session of the 113th Congress enacted into law 224 out of the 3215 introduced bills (7 percent). Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 4.2 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the second session.[12] The Senate confirmed 13,949 out of 18,323 executive nominations received (76.1 percent). For more information pertaining to Grassley's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[13]

National security

John Brennan CIA nomination

Nay3.png Grassley voted against the confirmation of John Brennan as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The nomination was confirmed by the Senate on March 7, 2013, with a vote of 63 - 34. Most Democrats supported the nomination, while Republicans were somewhat divided with roughly one-third supporting the nomination.[14]


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Farm bill

Nay3.png On February 4, 2014, the Democratic controlled Senate approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[15] It passed the Senate with a vote of 68-32. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that will kick in when prices drop; however, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[16] Grassley voted with 22 other Republican senators against the bill.

2014 Budget

Nay3.png On January 16, 2014, the Democratic-controlled Senate approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[17][18] The Senate voted 72-26 for the 1,582 page bill, with 17 Republicans and 55 Democrats voting in favor of the bill.[18] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[19] It increased the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel by 1 percent, increased Head Start funding for early childhood education by $1 billion, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency, and left the Affordable Care Act without any drastic cuts.

Grassley voted with 25 other Republican members against the bill.[17][18]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Nay3.png During the shutdown in October 2013, the Senate rejected, down party lines, every House-originated bill that stripped the budget of funding for the Affordable Care Act. A deal was reached late on October 16, 2013, just hours before the debt ceiling deadline. The bill to reopen the government, H.R. 2775, lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[20] The final vote on H.R. 2775 was 81-18, with all 18 votes against the bill from Republican members. Grassley voted with the Republican Party against the bill.[21]

No Budget, No Pay Act of 2013

Nay3.png Grassley voted against H.R.325 -- No Budget, No Pay Act of 2013. The bill passed the Senate on January 31, 2013, with a vote of 64 - 34. The purpose of the bill was to temporarily suspend the debt ceiling and withhold the pay of members of Congress until a budget could be passed. The vote largely followed party lines with Democrats overwhelmingly supporting it and many Republicans in opposition to the bill.[14]


Mexico-U.S. border

Yea3.png Grassley voted for Senate Amendment 1197 -- Requires the Completion of the Fence Along the United States-Mexico Border. The amendment was rejected by the Senate on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 39 - 54. The purpose of the amendment was to require the completion of 350 miles of fence described in the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 before registered provisional immigrant status may be granted. It would also require 700 miles of fence be completed before the status of registered provisional immigrants may be changed to permanent resident status. The vote followed party lines.[14]

Social issues

Violence Against Women (2013)

Nay3.png Grassley voted against S.47 -- Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013. The bill was passed by the Senate on February 12, 2013, with a vote of 78 - 22. The purpose of the bill was to combat violence against women, from domestic violence to international trafficking in persons. All 22 dissenting votes were cast by Republicans.[14]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Nay3.png Grassley voted against the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was one of five Republicans that voted against the bill. The bill was passed in the Senate by an 89 - 8 vote on January 1, 2013.[22]


On The Issues Vote Match

Chuck Grassley's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Grassley is a Moderate Populist Conservative. Grassley received a score of 30 percent on social issues and 56 percent on economic issues.[23]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[24]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Opposes Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Opposes
Expand ObamaCare Opposes Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Opposes
Vouchers for school choice Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Favors
Absolute right to gun ownership Opposes Human needs over animal rights Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Strongly Opposes Stricter punishment reduces crime Opposes
Support & expand free trade Strongly Opposes Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Opposes
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Opposes Maintain US sovereignty from UN Opposes
Prioritize green energy Strongly Opposes Expand the military Opposes
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Opposes Stay out of Iran Strongly Opposes
Privatize Social Security Opposes Never legalize marijuana Favors
Note: Information last updated: April 19, 2015.[23] If you notice the rating has changed, email us.

National security

Letter to Iran

On March 9, 2015, Senator Tom Cotton (R-Ark.) wrote a letter to Iran's leadership, warning them that signing a nuclear deal with the Obama administration without congressional approval was merely an "executive agreement." The letter also stated that "The next president could revoke such an executive agreement with the stroke of a pen and future Congresses could modify the terms of the agreement at any time." The letter was signed by 47 Republican members of the Senate. Grassley was one of the 47 who signed the letter. No Democrats signed it.[25]

The letter caused intense backlash from both the Obama administration and the public. Vice President Joe Biden said of the letter, "In thirty-six years in the United States Senate, I cannot recall another instance in which senators wrote directly to advise another country — much less a longtime foreign adversary — that the president does not have the constitutional authority to reach a meaningful understanding with them."[26] On Twitter, the hashtag "47Traitors" became the top trending topic in the world, and a debate raged as to whether the 47 who signed the letter were traitors or patriots.[27]

Drones filibuster

See also: Rand Paul filibuster of John Brennan's CIA Nomination in March 2013

On March 6, 2013, Senator Rand Paul (R) led a 13-hour filibuster of President Obama's CIA Director nominee, John Brennan. Paul started the filibuster in order to highlight his concerns about the administration's drone policies. In particular, Paul said he was concerned about whether a drone could be used to kill an American citizen within the United States border, without any due process involved. Paul and other civil liberties activists criticized President Obama for not offering a clear response to the question. A total of 14 senators joined Paul in the filibuster -- 13 Republicans and one Democrat.[28][29][30]

According to the website Breitbart, Grassley was one of 30 Republican senators who did not support the filibuster.[31][32]

The day after the filibuster, Attorney General Eric Holder sent a letter to Paul, responding to the filibuster. Holder wrote, "Does the president have the authority to use a weaponized drone to kill an American not engaged in combat on U.S. soil? The answer to that is no."[33]


Braley's comments

Republican research firm America Rising released a videotape on March 25, 2014, that showed Bruce Braley (D) make disparaging comments about Grassley.[34]

“If you help me win this race, you may have someone with your background, your experience, your voice — someone who’s been literally fighting tort reform for 30 years in a visible and public way on the Senate Judiciary Committee...Or you might have a farmer from Iowa who never went to law school, never practiced law, serving as the next chair of the Senate Judiciary. Because if Democrats lose the majority, Chuck Grassley will be the next chair of the Senate Judiciary,” said Braley.[34]

Sotomayor hearings

Grassley's background as a farmer made him one of the leading property rights advocates and experts on the Senate Judiciary Committee. During the 2009 confirmation hearings of Judge Sonia Sotomayor, Grassley questioned the judge intensely on the issue of property rights including the well noted Kelo v. New London case. Senator Grassley expressed serious concerns during the round of questioning towards Judge Sotomayor on the government's use of the "public use" and "public doctrine" doctrines towards eminent domain. Those two doctrines were a common part of the Kelo case. Also, Grassley had concerns on how Sotomayor would rule to honor state laws that would prohibit states from enacting the Kelo ruling if a certain case came to the Supreme Court.[35]

Didden v. Port Chester was another case that was mentioned during the questioning. This was when a New York man claimed that a property developer illegally took his house away to build a national chain drug store. Sotomayor responded she would uphold the ruling against Didden because Didden did not file the case on-time over the statute of limitations. Sotomayor ruled on that case when she was a judge in the Second Circuit.[35]

Sotomayor told Grassley she would rule against the takings clause, citing that the Constitution prohibits taking of land from private property without proper compensation, if a similar case like Didden came to the Supreme Court. The now Supreme Court justice said she would look closely at a state based law prohibiting the enactment of the Kelo decision before making a decision on the legality of the law if it came to the nation's highest court.[35]

Future of the Republican Party

Real Clear Politics' Morning Commute video of Grassley on the future of the Republican Party.

Chuck Grassley appeared in a video from Real Clear Politics: Morning Commute's Tom Bevan to discuss the future of the Republican Party, and what role the Tea Party will play in it.[36] The video was posted on August 12, 2013.[36]



Grassley is seeking re-election to the U.S. Senate in 2016.[37][38]


U.S. Senate, Iowa General Election, 2010
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngChuck Grassley Incumbent 64.4% 718,215
     Democratic Roxanne Conlin 33.3% 371,686
     Libertarian John Heiderscheit 2.3% 25,290
Total Votes 1,115,191

Full history

Campaign donors

Fundraising events

The below chart from Find The Best tracks the fundraising events Grassley attends.

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Comprehensive donor history

Comprehensive donor information for Grassley is available dating back to 2004. Based on available campaign finance records, Grassley raised a total of $15,339,671 during that time period. This information was last updated on April 3, 2013.[43]

Chuck Grassley's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2010 U.S. Senate (Iowa) Won $7,701,183
2004 U.S. Senate (Iowa) Won $7,638,488
Grand Total Raised $15,339,671

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a two-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of two different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by, Grassley's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $1,638,076 and $4,647,000. That averages to $3,142,538, which is lower than the average net worth of Republican senators in 2012 of $6,956,438.47. Grassley ranked as the 44th most wealthy senator in 2012.[44] Between 2004 and 2012, Grassley's calculated net worth[45] decreased by an average of 2 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[46]

Chuck Grassley Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
Growth from 2004 to 2012:-20%
Average annual growth:-2%[47]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[48]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

PGI: Donation Concentration Metric

See also: The Donation Concentration Metric (U.S. Congress Personal Gain Index)

Filings required by the Federal Election Commission report on the industries that give to each candidate. Using campaign filings and information calculated by, Ballotpedia calculated the percentage of donations by industry received by each incumbent over the course of his or her career (or 1989 and later, if elected prior to 1988). In the 113th Congress, Grassley was the ranking Republican member of the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Grassley received the most donations from individuals and PACs employed by the Insurance industry.

From 1989-2014, 18.17 percent of Grassley's career contributions came from the top five industries as listed below.[49]

Donation Concentration Metric graphic.png
Chuck Grassley Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $25,723,760
Total Spent $24,211,228
Ranking member of the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Health Professionals$1,196,937
Lawyers/Law Firms$751,871
Securities & Investment$717,552
% total in top industry4.7%
% total in top two industries9.35%
% total in top five industries18.17%


Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Grassley was a "centrist Republican," as of July 22, 2014. Grassley was rated as a "rank and file Republican" in June 2013.[50]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[51]

Grassley most often votes with:

Grassley least often votes with:

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Grassley missed 36 of 11,157 roll call votes from January 1981 to August 2014. This amounts to 0.3 percent, which is better than the median of 1.7% among currently serving senators as of August 2014.[52]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Grassley paid his congressional staff a total of $2,621,953 in 2011. He ranked 13th on the list of the lowest paid Republican senatorial staff salaries and ranked 56 overall of the lowest paid senatorial staff salaries in 2011. Overall, Iowa ranked 26th in average salary for senatorial staff. The average U.S. Senate congressional staff was paid $2,529,141.70 in fiscal year 2011.[53]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year.


Grassley ranked 11th in the conservative rankings in 2013.[54]


Grassley ranked 25th in the conservative rankings in 2012.[55]


Grassley ranked 20th in the conservative rankings in 2011.[56]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.


Grassley voted with the Republican Party 90.1 percent of the time, which ranked 15th among the 45 Senate Republican members as of July 2014.[57]


Grassley voted with the Republican Party 91.5 percent of the time, which ranked 10th among the 46 Senate Republican members as of June 2013.[58]


Grassley has been married to his wife Barbara Ann (nee Speicher) since 1954. They have five children: Lee, Wendy, Robin, Michele and Jay.[59]

Recent news

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All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

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See also

External links

Suggest a link


  1. 1.0 1.1 Bioguide, "Chuck Grassley," accessed June 21, 2013
  2. Des Moines Register, "Iowa’s Chuck Grassley: I am running for re-election (updated)," accessed September 20, 2013
  3. Biographical Guide to Members of Congress, "Chuck Grassley," accessed October 13, 2011
  4. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "Charles Ernest Grassley," accessed October 18, 2011
  5. United States Senate, "Committee Assignments," accessed February 4, 2015
  6. Congressional Quarterly, "Senate Committee List," accessed January 22, 2013
  7. United States Senate, "Chuck Grassley Committee Assignments," accessed March 29, 2014
  8. Official Senate website, "Committee Assignments," accessed October 13, 2011
  9. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 113th Congress," accessed April 29, 2015
  10. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the One Hundred Fourteenth Congress," April 13, 2015
  11., "On the Nomination (Confirmation Loretta E. Lynch, of New York, to be Attorney General)," accessed April 29, 2015
  12. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  13. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Project Vote Smart, "Chuck Grassley Key Votes," accessed October 16, 2013
  15., "H.R. 2642 (Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013)," accessed February 12, 2014
  16. New York Times, "Senate Passes Long-Stalled Farm Bill, With Clear Winners and Losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  17. 17.0 17.1 Politico, "Senate approves $1.1 trillion spending bill," accessed January 20, 2014
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 U.S. Senate, "January 16 Vote," accessed January 20, 2014
  19. Roll Call, "House Passes $1.1 Trillion Omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  20. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  21., "H.R. 2775 As Amended," accessed October 31, 2013
  22. U.S. Senate, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  23. 23.0 23.1 On The Issues, "Chuck Grassley Vote Match," accessed April 19, 2015
  24. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more restrictive answers.
  25. The Wall Street Journal, "Text of GOP Senators’ Letter to Iran’s Leaders on Nuclear Talks," March 9, 2015
  26. Fox News, "Firestorm erupts over GOP letter challenging Obama's power to approve Iran nuclear deal," March 10, 2015
  27. Ut San Diego, "Traitors or patriots? Senator's letter to Iran creates firestorm," March 11, 2015
  28. CNN, "Rand Paul says he's heard from White House after filibuster," March 7, 2013
  29. USA Today, "Rand Paul filibuster ranks among Senate's longest," March 7, 2013
  30. ABC News, "Rand Paul wins applause from GOP and liberals," March 7, 2013
  31. Breitbart, "AWOL: Meet the GOP senators who refused to stand with Rand," March 7, 2013
  32. Politico, "Rand Paul filibuster blasted by Sens. John McCain, Lindsey Graham," March 7, 2013
  33. Washington Post, "Eric Holder responds to Rand Paul with ‘no’," March 7, 2013
  34. 34.0 34.1 Politico, "Bruce Braley on Chuck Grassley: A ‘farmer’ with no law degree," accessed March 26, 2014
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Washington Post, "Transcript of Senator Grassley's Questioning of Judge Sonia Sotomayor," accessed July 14, 2009
  36. 36.0 36.1 Real Clear Politics, "Senator Charles Grassley," accessed August 13, 2013
  37. Des Moines Register, "Iowa’s Chuck Grassley: I am running for re-election (updated)," accessed September 20, 2013
  38. Radio Iowa, "Senator Grassley begins campaign for 7th term," March 31, 2015
  39. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1998," accessed March 28, 2013
  40. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1992," accessed March 28, 2013
  41. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 1986," accessed March 28, 2013
  42. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 1980," accessed March 28, 2013
  43. Open Secrets, "Chuck Grassley," accessed April 3, 2013
  44. OpenSecrets, "Chuck Grassley (R-IA), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  45. This figure represents the average annual percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below) to 2012, divided by the number of years calculated.
  46. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  47. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  48. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  49., "Sen. Chuck Grassley," accessed September 18, 2014
  50. GovTrack, "Chuck Grassley," accessed July 22, 2014
  51. OpenCongress, "Rep. Chuck Grassley," accessed August 2, 2013
  52. GovTrack, "Chuck Grassley," accessed March 29, 2013
  53. LegiStorm, "Chuck Grassley," accessed 2011
  54. National Journal, "2013 Senate Vote Ratings," accessed July 22, 2014
  55. National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed February 28, 2013
  56. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: Senate," accessed February 23, 2012
  57. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  58. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  59. Official Senate website, "At A Glance," accessed October 13, 2011
Political offices
Preceded by
John Culver
U.S. Senate - Iowa
Succeeded by
Preceded by
U.S. House - Iowa
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Iowa House of Representatives
Succeeded by