Public education in Connecticut

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K-12 Education in Connecticut
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Stefan Pryor
Number of students: 554,437[1]
Number of teachers: 43,805
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:12.7
Number of school districts: 200
Number of schools: 1,150
Graduation rate: 85%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $15,600[3]
See also
Connecticut Department of EducationList of school districts in ConnecticutConnecticutSchool boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Connecticut
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Connecticut public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Connecticut had 554,437 students enrolled in a total of 1,150 schools in 200 school districts. There were 43,805 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 13 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 252 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Connecticut spent $15,600 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it seventh highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 85 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Connecticut Commissioner of Education
List of school districts in Connecticut
Public education in Connecticut
School board elections portal
The Connecticut State Department of Education serves as the "administrative arm of the Connecticut State Board of Education." The Department of Education distributes funds to the state's school districts.[6]

The Connecticut Commissioner of Education is the executive officer of the Department of Education. The Commissioner is recommended by the State Board of Education and appointed by the governor to four-year terms. The current Commissioner of Education is Stefan Pryor.[7]

The State Board of Education is composed of 13 members.

  • At least two members must have experience in manufacturing or a trade offered through the Technical High School System.
  • One must have a background in vocational agriculture.
  • Two must be nonvoting Grade 12 student members.

Voting members of the board serve four-year terms, while the nonvoting student members serve one-year terms. The Commissioner of Education serves as an ex officio member of the board. All members are appointed by the governor.[8]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Connecticut State Board of Education adopted the standards on July 7, 2010. Full implementation was set to be achieved in the 2013-2014 academic year.[9][10]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Connecticut compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Connecticut 1,150 200 554,437 43,805 1:12.7 1:252.1 $15,600
Massachusetts 1,835 401 953,369 69,342 1:13.7 1:210.1 $13,941
New Hampshire 477 281 191,900 15,049 1:12.8 1:349.6 $13,224
Rhode Island 308 54 142,854 11,414 1:12.5 1:316.8 $13,815
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Connecticut as reported in the Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[11]

Demographic information for Connecticut's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 1,923 0.35% 1.10%
Asian 24,546 4.43% 4.68%
African American 72,122 13.01% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 373 0.07% 0.42%
Hispanic 108,165 19.51% 24.37%
White 337,489 60.87% 51.21%
Two or more 9,819 1.77% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A majority of students in Connecticut attend suburban schools. Nearly 82 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 18 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Connecticut 28.1% 53.7% 4% 14.2%
Massachusetts 20.8% 66.1% 2.2% 11%
New Hampshire 14.4% 31.8% 16.3% 37.5%
Rhode Island 31.4% 54.4% 2.4% 11.9%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD) (timed out)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceAdaptive softwareBlended learningCarnegie unitCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateDual enrollmentEnglish Language LearnersFree or reduced-price lunchGlobal competence learningHomeschoolingImmersion learningKhan AcademyLocal education agencyMagnet schoolsNAEPOnline learningParent trigger lawsProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool choiceSchool vouchersTeacher merit payVirtual charter schools
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island), Connecticut had the second smallest share of fourth and eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in both math and reading.[12]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Connecticut 45 37 43 45
Massachusetts 58 55 47 48
New Hampshire 59 47 45 44
Rhode Island 42 36 38 36
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Connecticut and surrounding states.[12][13][14]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Connecticut 85% Second 23.8 27% 1,532 85%
Massachusetts 85% Second 24.1 23% 1,553 83%
New Hampshire 86% First 23.8 19% 1,567 70%
Rhode Island 77% Fourth 22.9 13% 1,468 72%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Connecticut was lower than the national average at 1.9 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 2.1 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[15]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Connecticut

School choice options in Connecticut include: charter schools, inter-district and intra-district open enrollment policies and some online learning programs. In addition, about 10.89 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Funding and expenditures

See also: Connecticut state budget and finances
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 13.9 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 1.3 percentage points, or 8.6 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 15.2 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[16][17][18][19][20]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Connecticut 13.9% $15,600 8.27% 33.65% 58.09%
Massachusetts 10.7% $13,941 7.85% 37.91% 54.24%
New Hampshire 19.7% $13,224 6.49% 37.29% 56.21%
Rhode Island 14.2% $13,815 10.76% 36.53% 52.72%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S. to compare all states.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Connecticut totaled approximately $9.7 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Connecticut and surrounding states.[21]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Connecticut $799,526 $3,254,757 $5,618,933 $9,673,216
Massachusetts $1,197,383 $5,783,240 $8,275,257 $15,255,880
New Hampshire $184,768 $1,061,011 $1,599,416 $2,845,195
Rhode Island $244,530 $830,220 $1,198,254 $2,273,004
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Connecticut totaled approximately $9.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Connecticut and surrounding states.[21]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Connecticut $8,367,518 $533,188 $404,820 $9,305,526
Massachusetts $12,894,969 $817,228 $767,052 $14,479,249
New Hampshire $2,502,899 $206,241 $129,038 $2,838,178
Rhode Island $2,059,636 $47,973 $198,338 $2,305,947
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.
Note: Salaries given are averages for the state. Within states there can be great variation in salaries between urban, suburban and rural districts. When comparing nominal teachers' salaries, it is important to remember that for a true comparison, salaries must be adjusted for the cost of living in each area. For example, when adjusted for cost of living, Los Angeles drops from second highest to 17th highest; New York City drops even further, from third highest to 59th out of 60.[22]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Connecticut, the average salary decreased by 1.4 percent.[23]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Connecticut $70,762 $68,690 $70,621 $69,766 -1.4%
Massachusetts $63,656 $73,945 $72,915 $73,129 14.9%
New Hampshire $51,567 $54,912 $55,079 $55,599 7.8%
Rhode Island $64,286 $63,711 $63,221 $63,474 -1.3%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Connecticut ranked 17th overall, or "strong," which was in the second of five tiers.[24]

The main unions related to the Connecticut school system are the Connecticut Education Association (CEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and AFT Connecticut, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers. For the 2003 tax period, CEA had: $16.56 million in total revenue, $12.45 million in total expenses and $32.22 million in total assets.[25] For the same period, AFT Connecticut had: $4.36 million in total revenue, $4.53 million in total expenses and $3.75 million in total assets.[26]

The teacher unions have repeatedly brought the "Project Opening Doors" program to court for offering financial incentives for passing AP tests to students and teachers.[27]

List of local Connecticut school unions:[28]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Connecticut government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Connecticut Association of Boards of Education and the Connecticut Association of School Personnel Administrators.

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states that spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Quality Counts 2014

See also: Quality Counts 2014 Report

Education Week, a publication that reports on many education issues throughout the country, began using an evaluation system in 1997 to grade each state on various elements of education performance. This system, called Quality Counts, uses official data on performance from each state to generate a report card for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report card in 2014 used six different categories:

  1. Chance for success
  2. K-12 achievement
  3. Standards, assessments and accountability
  4. The teaching profession
  5. School finance
  6. Transitions and Alignment

Each of these six categories had a number of other elements that received individual scores. Those scores were then averaged and used to determine the final score in each category. Every state received two types of scores for each of the six major categories: A numerical score out of 100 and a letter grade based on that score. Education Week used the score for the first category, "chance for success," as the value for ranking each state and the District of Columbia. The average grade received in the entire country was 77.3, or a C+ average. The country's highest average score was in the category of "standards, assessments and accountability" at 85.3, or a B average. The lowest average score was in "K-12 achievement", at 70.2, or a C- average.

Connecticut received a score of 87.5, or a B+ average in the "chance for success" category. This was above the national average. Excluding the chance for success category, the state's highest score was in school finance at 86.8, or a B+ average. The lowest score was in the teaching profession at 70.8, or a C- average. Connecticut's school finance score was the highest when compared to its neighboring states, narrowly beating Rhode Island's score of 86.5. The chart below displays all of the scores of Connecticut and its surrounding states.[29]

Note: Click on a column heading to sort the data.

Public education report cards, 2014
State Chance for success K-12 achievement Standards, assessments and accountability The teaching profession School finance Transitions and Alignment
Connecticut 87.5 (B+) 72.4 (C-) 78.6 (C+) 70.8 (C-) 86.8 (B+) 78.6 (C+)
Massachusetts 91.4 (A-) 83.7 (B) 88.4 (B+) 78.7 (C+) 83.5 (B) 75.0 (C)
New Hampshire 88.0 (B+) 78.8 (C+) 76.0 (C) 63.9 (D) 81.4 (B-) 78.6 (C+)
Rhode Island 79.7 (B-) 69.3 (D+) 85.1 (B) 71.1 (C-) 86.5 (B) 78.6 (C+)
United States Average 77.3 (C+) 70.2 (C-) 85.3 (B) 72.5 (C) 75.5 (C) 81.1 (B-)
Source: Education Week, "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 18, 2015

A full discussion of how these numbers were generated can be found here.

School districts

See also: School board elections portal

District types

Connecticut has three types of school districts: regional school districts, city school systems and town school systems. Regional school districts are organized by a joint referendum of two or more towns and are considered separate local governments with the ability to determine fiscal needs and appropriate funds. City and town school systems, however, are dependent upon their municipal governments and must seek approval from the city or town budget-making authority on financial matters.[30]

District statistics

See also: List of school districts in Connecticut

The following table displays the state's top 10 school districts by total student enrollment, per-pupil spending and highest rate at or above proficient in reading in eighth grade on the statewide Connecticut Mastery Test.[31][32]

Student enrollment, 2011-2012 Per-pupil spending, 2012-2013 Proficiency rate in eighth grade reading, 2012-2013
1.) Hartford Public Schools 1.) Cornwall Consolidated School 1.) Franklin Elementary School
2.) Bridgeport Public Schools 2.) Canaan Schools 2.) Hartland School
3.) New Haven Public Schools 3.) Sharon Center School 3.) Salem School
4.) Waterbury Public Schools 4.) Regional School District 12 4.) Regional School District 6
5.) Stamford Public Schools 5.) Regional School District 1 5.) Integrated Day School
6.) Norwalk Public Schools 6.) Hampton Elementary School 6.) Wilton Public Schools
7.) Connecticut Technical High School System 7.) Salisbury Central School 7.) Trumbull Public Schools
8.) Danbury Public Schools 8.) Kent Center School 8.) Easton Public Schools
9.) West Hartford Public Schools 9.) Scotland Elementary School 9.) Rocky Hill Public Schools
10.) Fairfield Public Schools 10.) Redding Public Schools 10.) New Canaan Public Schools

School board composition

Connecticut school board members are generally elected by residents of the school district, although if there is a vacancy, the remaining school board members must appoint someone to serve the vacant position's unexpired term.[33] School boards may have three, six, nine or twelve members, with a third of the members up for election every two years, allowing members to serve six-year terms.[34]

Term limits

Connecticut does not impose term limits on school board members.[35]

Elections

See also: Connecticut school board elections, 2014 and Connecticut school board elections, 2015

A total of eight Connecticut school districts school districts among America's largest school districts by enrollment will hold elections for 38 seats on November 3, 2015.

Here are several quick facts about Connecticut's school board elections in 2015:

The district listed below served 106,543 K-12 students during the 2012-2013 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Click on the district name for more information on the district and its school board elections.

2015 Connecticut School Board Elections
District Date Seats up for election Total board seats Student enrollment
Bridgeport Public Schools 11/3/2015 4 9 20,155
Danbury Public Schools 11/3/2015 6 11 10,612
Fairfield Public Schools 11/3/2015 5 9 10,294
New Britain Public Schools 11/3/2015 5 10 10,232
Norwalk Public Schools 11/3/2015 5 9 11,071
Stamford Public Schools 11/3/2015 4 9 15,758
Waterbury Public Schools 11/3/2015 6 11 18,391
West Hartford Public Schools 11/3/2015 3 7 10,030

Path to the ballot

To qualify as a school board candidate in Connecticut, an individual must:[36]

  • Be a registered voter.
  • Not be employed by the district he or she seeks to represent.

School board candidates can file to get on the ballot in a number of ways. They can file with an established political party, petition onto the ballot or become a write-in. If petitioning or becoming a write-in candidate, nomination documents must be filed with the town clerk of the municipal government corresponding to the school district election.[37]

Campaign finance

Candidates must file a Registration by Candidate (SEEC Form 1) with the town clerk of their local municipality within 10 days of becoming a candidate. On that form, candidates must designate if they will be registering a candidate committee or filing an exemption from forming a candidate committee. To file the exemption from forming a candidate committee, candidates must indicate one of the following:

  • A town committee or political slate committee will be their sole funding source.
  • They will be funding their campaign using personal funds.
  • They do not intend on receiving or spending any funds, including their own money.
  • They do not intend on receiving or spending funds in excess of $1,000.

All candidate committees and any candidates who filed exemption from forming a candidate committee but spent over $1,000 for their campaign from personal funds must file periodic disclosure statements detailing campaign finances with their town clerks.[38]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Connecticut ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked no statewide ballot measures relating to public education in Connecticut.

See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Connecticut State Department of Education, "About Us," accessed May 15, 2014
  7. Connecticut State Department of Education, "Stefan Pryor - Commissioner of Education," accessed May 15, 2014
  8. Connecticut State Department of Education, "State Board of Education Home," accessed May 15, 2014
  9. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State,” accessed June 12, 2014
  10. Connecticut State Department of Education, "Common Core State Standards in Connecticut," accessed June 13, 2014
  11. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  15. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014 (timed out)
  22. Maciver Institute, "REPORT: How much are teachers really paid?," accessed October 29, 2014
  23. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  25. Center for Union Facts, "Connecticut Education Association," accessed January 3, 2010
  26. Center for Union Facts, "AFT Connecticut," accessed January 3, 2010
  27. Watchdog, "Union challenges teacher bonuses for AP scores," November 10, 2010
  28. Center for Union Facts, "Connecticut teachers unions," accessed January 3, 2010
  29. Education Week "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 19, 2015
  30. United States Census Bureau, "Connecticut," accessed July 9, 2014
  31. Connecticut State Department of Education, Bureau of Grants Managements, "2012-13 Net Current Expenditures (NCE) per Pupil (NCEP) and 2013-14 Special Education Excess Cost Grant Basic Contributions for the May Payment," accessed July 9, 2014
  32. Connecticut Mastery Test, "State by District/School Report, Grade 8," accessed July 9, 2014
  33. General Statutes of Connecticut, "Section 10-219," accessed July 9, 2014
  34. General Statutes of Connecticut, "Section 9-206," accessed July 9, 2014
  35. National School Boards Association, "Survey of the State School Boards Associations on Term Limits for Local Board Members," accessed July 9, 2014
  36. Connecticut Association of Boards of Education, "Be a School Board Member," accessed July 9, 2014
  37. Connecticut Secretary of State, "Candidate Ballot Access," accessed July 9, 2014
  38. Connecticut State Elections Enforcement Commission, "Municipal Election Campaign Overview," accessed July 8, 2014