Elijah Cummings

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Elijah Cummings
Elijah Cummings.jpg
U.S. House, Maryland, District 7
Incumbent
In office
April 16, 1996-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 18
PartyDemocratic
PredecessorKweisi Mfume (D)
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$3.00 in 2012
First electedApril 16, 1996
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$5,101,520
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
Maryland House of Delegates
1983-1996
Education
High schoolBaltimore City College High School
Bachelor'sHoward University
J.D.University of Maryland School of Law
Personal
BirthdayJanuary 18, 1951
Place of birthBaltimore, Maryland
ProfessionAttorney
Net worth$915,004.50
ReligionBaptist
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Elijah Cummings campaign logo
Elijah Eugene Cummings (b. January 18, 1951, in Baltimore, MD) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives representing Maryland's 7th Congressional District. Edwards was first elected to the House in a 1996 special election following the resignation of Rep. Kweisi Mfume. Cummings is currently serving his ninth consecutive term, having won re-election on November 6, 2012.[1]

Cummings is running for re-election in Maryland's 7th Congressional District in the general election on November 4, 2014. He won the nomination in the Democratic primary on June 24, 2014.[2]

Prior to his congressional career, Cummings was a member of the Maryland House of Delegates.[3]

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Cummings is one of the most reliable Democratic votes, meaning he can be considered a safe vote for the Democratic Party in Congress.

Biography

Cummings was born in 1951 in Baltimore, MD. After graduating from Baltimore City College High School, he went on to earn his B.S. from Howard University and his J.D. from the University of Maryland Law School in 1973 and 1976, respectively. Prior to his political career, Cummings worked as an attorney.[3]

Career

Below is an abbreviated outline of Cummings' political career:[3]

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Cummings serves on the following committees:[4][5]

Joint Economic Committee

2011-2012

Cummings served on the following House committees:[6]

Key votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[7] For more information pertaining to Cummings's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[8]

National security

DHS Appropriations

Nay3.png Cummings voted against HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 and was largely along party lines.[9]

Keystone Pipeline Amendment

Yea3.png Cummings voted in favor of House Amendment 69, which would have amended HR 3 to "require that the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security, conduct a study of the vulnerabilities of the Keystone XL pipeline to a terrorist attack and certify that necessary protections have been put in place." The amendment failed on May 22, 2013, with a vote of 176 - 239 and was largely along party lines.[9]

CISPA (2013)

Nay3.png Cummings voted against HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities.[10] The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[9]

NDAA

Yea3.png Cummings voted in support of HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[9]

Economy

Farm bill

Nay3.png On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, known as the Farm Bill.[11] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill provides for the reform and continuation of agricultural and other programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[12][13] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[13] Cummings voted with 102 other Democratic representatives against the bill.

2014 Budget

Yea3.png On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[14][15] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill.[15] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[16] It included a 1 percent increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Cummings joined with the majority of the Democratic party and voted in favor of the bill.[14][15]

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Nay3.png On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[17] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[18] Cummings voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[19]

Yea3.png The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[20] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Cummings voted for HR 2775.[21]

Immigration


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Morton Memos Prohibition

Nay3.png Cummings voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States. The vote largely followed party lines.[9]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Nay3.png Cummings voted against House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[9]

Keep the IRS Off Your Healthcare Act

Nay3.png Cummings voted against HR 2009 - Keep the IRS Off Your Healthcare Act of 2013. The bill passed through the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 232-185. The bill would prevent the IRS and Treasury Secretary from enforcing the powers provided to them in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The vote largely followed party lines.[9]

Social issues

Amash amendment

Yea3.png Cummings voted in favor of House Amendment 413 - Prohibits the National Security Agency from Collecting Records Under the Patriot Act. The amendment failed on July 4, 2013, by a vote of 205-217. The amendment would have prohibited the collection of records by the National Security Agency under the Patriot Act. Both parties were split on the vote.[9]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Yea3.png Cummings voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was one of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[22]

Issues

On The Issues Vote Match

Elijah Cummings's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Cummings is a Hard-Core Liberal. Cummings received a score of 76 percent on social issues and 4 percent on economic issues.[23]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[24]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Favors
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Strongly Opposes
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Opposes Human needs over animal rights Strongly Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Favors Stricter punishment reduces crime Strongly Opposes
Support & expand free trade Opposes Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Favors
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Strongly Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Opposes
Prioritize green energy Strongly Favors Expand the military Opposes
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Favors Stay out of Iran Favors
Privatize Social Security Strongly Opposes Never legalize marijuana Strongly Opposes
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[23]

Controversy

Microphone cut off

Darrell Issa (R-CA), chairman of the Oversight and Government Reform Committee, had the microphone for Cummings cut off during the middle of his statement at a hearing on alleged IRS abuses on March 5, 2016. The move infuriated Cummings and other Democrats, who went to the House floor on March 6, 2014, with a motion condemning Issa’s actions.[25]

Issa called Cummings to apologize on March 6, 2014. “This evening, Chairman Issa telephoned me and apologized for his conduct, and I accepted his apology. My sincere hope is that as we move forward, we will respect the opinions of all members of the committee, we will proceed in a deliberate and considered manner to obtain the facts, we will refrain from making accusations that have no basis in fact, and we will seek resolution rather than unnecessary conflict,” Cummings said.[25]

“I could have offered to reopen the hearing and allowed him to make a second statement. As chairman, I should have been much more sensitive to the mood of what was going on, and I take responsibility,” Issa said in a statement on March 6, 2014.[25]

Campaign themes

2012

The following are five issues which were highlighted by Cummings on his campaign website.[26]

  • Jobs

Excerpt: "The Stimulus was a good beginning. Now, we must push even harder for additional federal initiatives that are targeted at creating jobs in the communities that have been hardest hit by the economic downturn - the Baltimore Region among them."

  • Health-Care

Excerpt: Cummings supports the "long-term goal" of a single-payer healthcare system.[26]

  • Education

Excerpt: "And I was deeply gratified to support expanded funding under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act which increased the maximum Pell Grant scholarship for the 2009-2010 school year by $600 to $5,350 - and is reducing the interest rate on subsidized federal student loans."[26]

  • Chesapeake Bay

Excerpt: "we must begin implementing more formal, legally enforceable structures to control pollutant loadings. However, current law does not provide sufficient legal authority to establish, implement, and assess the results of the pollutant controls that the Bay needs."[26]

  • Medicare and Medcaid

Excerpt: "Along with my Democratic colleagues in the Senate and House, I will fight to preserve Medicare and Medicaid as a guaranteed healthcare benefits."[26]

Elections

2014

See also: Maryland's 7th Congressional District elections, 2014

Cummings is running for re-election to the U.S. House in 2014. He won the nomination in the Democratic primary on June 24, 2014.[2] The general election takes place November 4, 2014.

2012

See also: Maryland's 7th Congressional District elections, 2012

Cummings ran in the 2012 election for the U.S. House to represent Maryland's 7th District. He defeated challengers Ty Busch and Charles Smith in the Democratic primary on April 3, 2012.[27]

Cummings was endorsed by the organization Progressive Maryland in his race for re-election in Maryland's 7th District.[28][29][30]

U.S. House, Maryland District 7 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngElijah Cummings Incumbent 76.5% 247,770
     Republican Frank Mirabile, Jr. 20.8% 67,405
     Libertarian Ronald Owens-Bey 2.5% 8,211
     Democratic Ty Busch (Write-in) 0% 10
     Democratic Charles Smith (Write-in) 0% 28
     N/A Other Write-ins 0.1% 394
Total Votes 323,818
Source: Maryland State Board of Elections "Representative in Congress"
U.S. House, Maryland, District 7 Democratic Primary, 2012
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngElijah Cummings Incumbent 92.8% 49,625
Ty Glen Busch 2.6% 1,396
Charles U. Smith 4.6% 2,438
Total Votes 53,459

Full history


Campaign donors

Fundraising events

The below chart from Find The Best tracks the fundraising events Cummings attends.


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.


Comprehensive donor history

Comprehensive donor information for Cummings is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Cummings raised a total of $5,101,520 during that time period. This information was last updated on May 16, 2013.[39]

Elijah Cummings's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 U.S. House (Maryland, District 7) Won $795,483
2010 U.S. House (Maryland, District 7) Won $796,200
2008 U.S. House (Maryland, District 7) Won $951,855
2006 U.S. House (Maryland, District 7) Won $882,989
2004 U.S. House (Maryland, District 7) Won $810,195
2002 U.S. House (Maryland, District 7) Won $496,119
2000 U.S. House (Maryland, District 7) Won $368,679
Grand Total Raised $5,101,520


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

2014

Candidates for Congress are required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Delaney’s reports.[40]

Elijah Cummings (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[41]April 8, 2013$780,052.38$91,954.71$(93,542.07)$778,465.02
July Quarterly[42]July 15, 2013$778,465.02$74,108.51$(106,723.83)$745,849.70
October Quarterly[43]October 13, 2013$745,849.70$150,248.29$(80,580.08)$815,517.91
Year-end[44]January 31, 2014$815,517$147,451$(86,661)$876,307
April Quarterly[45]April 15, 2014$876,307$135,196$(58,820)$952,684
Running totals
$598,958.51$(426,326.98)

2012

Cummings won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012. During that election cycle, Cummings' campaign committee raised a total of $795,483 and spent $842,135.[46]

Cost per vote

Cummings spent $3.00 per vote received in 2012.


2010

Cummings won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2010. During that election cycle, Cummings' campaign committee raised a total of $796,200 and spent $627,515.[47]


Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Cummings's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between -$140,986 and $1,970,995. That averages to $915,004.50, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Cummings ranked as the 218th most wealthy representative in 2012.[48] Between 2004 and 2012, Cummings' calculated net worth[49] increased by an average of 40 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[50]

Elijah Cummings Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2004$212,700
2012$915,004
Growth from 2004 to 2012:330%
Average annual growth:41%[51]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[52]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Cummings is a "far-left Democrat" as of August 5, 2014. This was the same rating Cummings received in June 2013.[53]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[54]

Cummings most often votes with:

Cummings least often votes with:


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Cummings missed 346 of 12,412 roll call votes from April 1996 to August 2014, which is 2.8% of votes during that period. This is worse than the median of 2.5% among the lifetime records of representatives currently serving.[55]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Cummings paid his congressional staff a total of $1,075,548 in 2011. He ranked 67th on the list of the highest paid Democratic representative staff salaries and ranked 88th overall of the highest paid representative staff salaries in 2011. Overall, Maryland ranked 11th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[56]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year.

2013

Cummings ranked 40th in the liberal rankings in 2013.[57]

2012

Cummings ranked 20th in the liberal rankings in 2012.[58]

2011

Cummings ranked 65th in the liberal rankings in 2011.[59]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.

2014

Cummings voted with the Democratic Party 96.4 percent of the time, which ranked 4th among the 204 House Democratic members as of August 2014.[60]

2013

Cummings voted with the Democratic Party 94.8 percent of the time, which ranked 27th among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[61]

Personal

Cummings is married to Dr. Maya Rockeymoore Cummings.[62]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Elijah + Cummings + Maryland + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Elijah Cummings News Feed

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See also

External links

Track-at-political-tracker-com.png

References

  1. Politico, "2012 Election Map, Maryland," accessed 2012
  2. 2.0 2.1 Associated Press, "Primary Results 2014," accessed June 24, 2014
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Biographical Guide to Members of Congress, "Elijah Cummings," accessed December 1, 2011
  4. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  5. U.S. House of Representatives, "Committee assignments," accessed March 31, 2014
  6. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "House of Representatives Committee Assignments," accessed December 1, 2011
  7. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  8. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Project Vote Smart, "Elijah Cummings Key Votes," accessed October 14, 2013
  10. The Library of Congress, "H.R.624 CISPA (2013) (Referred in Senate - RFS)," accessed August 27, 2013
  11. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  12. Politico, "House clears Farm Bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 New York Times, "Senate passes long-stalled Farm Bill, with clear winners and losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  16. Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  17. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  18. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  19. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  20. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  21. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  22. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  23. 23.0 23.1 On The Issues, "Elijah Cummings Vote Match," accessed July 1, 2014
  24. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Politico, "Darrell Issa apologizes to Elijah Cummings," accessed March 11, 2014
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 Elijah Cummings' Official Campaign Website', "Issues," accessed 2012
  27. Maryland State Board of Elections, "Candidates," accessed January 3, 2013
  28. Hometown Annapolis, "Maryland gets C on Transparency," accessed March 26, 2012
  29. Progressive Maryland, "2012 Candidates," accessed March 26, 2012
  30. Maryland State Board of Elections, "2012 Primary Results," accessed 2012
  31. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  32. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  33. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  34. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2004," accessed March 28, 2013
  35. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002," accessed March 28, 2013
  36. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2000," accessed March 28, 2013
  37. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1998," accessed March 28, 2013
  38. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 1996," accessed March 28, 2013
  39. Open Secrets, "Elijah Cummings," accessed May 16, 2013
  40. Federal Election Commission, "Elijah Cummings 2014 Summary reports," accessed October 28, 2013
  41. Federal Election Commission, "Elijah Cummings April Quarterly," accessed July 25, 2013
  42. Federal Election Commission, "Elijah Cummings July Quarterly," accessed July 25, 2013
  43. Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed October 28, 2013
  44. Federal Election Commission, "Year End Report," accessed February 17, 2014
  45. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed April 21, 2014
  46. Open Secrets, "2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 16, 2013
  47. Open Secrets, "Elijah Cummings 2010 Re-Election Cycle," accessed December 1, 2011
  48. OpenSecrets, "Cummings (D-MD), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  49. This figure represents the total percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below).
  50. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  51. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  52. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  53. GovTrack, "Cummings," accessed August 5, 2014
  54. OpenCongress, "Elijah Cummings," accessed August 5, 2014
  55. GovTrack, "Elijah Cummings," accessed August 2014
  56. LegiStorm, "Elijah Cummings," accessed 2012
  57. National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed August 5, 2014
  58. National Journal, "TABLE: House Liberal Scores by Issue Area," February 26, 2013
  59. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  60. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  61. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  62. Official House Site, "Biography," accessed December 1, 2011
Political offices
Preceded by
Kweisi Mfume
U.S. House of Representatives - Maryland District 7
1996–present
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
Maryland House of Delegates
1983-1996
Succeeded by
'