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Energy policy in Oregon

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Energy policy in Oregon
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Quick Facts
Energy Department Oregon Department of Energy
State Population 3.9 million
Per Capita Income $38,786
Energy Consumption
Total Energy Consumption 1,014 trillion BTU[1][2]
Per Capita Energy Consumption 262 million BTU
Energy Spending
Total Energy Spending $14,941 million
Per Capita Energy Spending $3,863
Price of Residential Natural Gas $11.20 per thousand cubic foot
Price of Electricity 10.13 cents per kWh
See also
Energy on the ballot
Statewide fracking on the ballot
Local fracking on the ballot
Policypedia
Policypedia Energy Final 2-01.jpg
Energy Policy Project
Energy policy in the United States
Energy use in the United States
Energy policy in Oregon
Energy terms and definitions
Energy policy in Oregon depends on geography, natural energy resources, how electricity is generated, how much energy consumers use, politics and the influence of groups such as environmental and industry organizations. Decisions by policymakers, such as state and local governments, utilities and regulatory agencies, affect all citizens economically and environmentally, and are generally geared toward providing reliable, affordable energy. The cost of energy affects not only home heating and electricity bills, and thus disposable income, but also economic growth, including jobs, investment and the cost of doing business in the state.

How energy is produced and consumed also has an impact on the environment and pollution. Energy policy in Oregon is heavily focused on it's Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), which aims to increase renewable energy usage. As the infrastructure for producing and delivering renewable energy sources is not as advanced as it is for energy generation from traditional sources, these policies often require subsidies to make the produced energy affordable, and their effects are difficult to measure.

Energy policy involves tradeoffs between providing an affordable, consistent energy supply on the one hand, and limiting pollution and protecting the environment, on the other. How states attempt to balance these two differs between states, and often boils down to costs to consumers versus costs to the environment. This article provides general energy information about the state as the context within which energy policy is made, as well as information about major legislation and public and private groups that play a role in setting energy policy in the state.

See also: Energy policy in the United States for more information on energy policy.

Energy overview

State facts

Below are quick facts about Oregon's energy climate.

Oregon

In Oregon

  • 80 percent of the net electricity generation is from hydropower plants and other renewable energy resources.
  • abundant hydroelectric energy results in below average residential electricity prices.
  • there is a major transmission line that allows for large interstate electricity transfers.
  • over one-third of households use natural gas as their source of home heating.
  • about 13 percent of the United State’s total hydroelectric energy is produced.
  • the electric power sector is the biggest user of natural gas.[3]

Available energy resources

Oregon’s traditional energy resources consist only of natural gas from the Mist gas field in northwestern Oregon. Oregon has no oil or coal reserves. Oregon is a net importer of electricity. About one quarter of the electricity produced in Oregon is from natural gas. This natural gas comes both from the Mist gas field and by pipeline from British Columbia, Alberta, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico.[3]

Renewable energy makes up two-thirds of net electricity generation, because of the state’s large hydropower generation and capability. During years of prolonged precipitation and snowmelt, renewable energy accounts for as much as four-fifths of net electricity generation. Hydroelectricity is the primary source of renewable energy in Oregon. Oregon is second only to Washington in hydroelectric energy production. Wind energy provides most of the state’s non-hydroelectric energy.[3]

Consumption and prices

Energy consumption in Oregon
OR energy sector usage chart.png

Legend[4]
     Transportation       Residential     Industrial       Commercial
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In 2011, roughly 30 percent of energy consumption in Oregon was used for transportation, and about a quarter was industrial; the remaining was used in the commercial and residential sectors. Hydropower is the most used source of energy, followed by natural gas and petroleum (mainly in transportation. Prices for energy resources in Oregon are below the national average.[3] Petroleum is used primarily in the form of gasoline and diesel fuel in Oregon, and prices of both are above the national average.[5] According to the EIA's February 2014 report, the federal excise tax is 18.40 cents/gallon of gasoline and 24.40 cents/gallon of diesel fuel. In addition to that, Oregon collects a total tax of 30 cents on every gallon of gasoline, diesel and gasohol fuel, which ranks it at the 17th highest in the United States.[6][7] Oxygenated motor gasoline use is required throughout the state of Oregon.[8]

Comparisons tables

The table below compares Oregon’s consumption and spending for energy, prices for natural gas and electricity, and carbon emissions to those of Washington, which has similar population, resources and consumption needs because of climate and geography. Also given are the U.S. averages and the state rankings. All rankings are from highest to lowest, so, for example:

  • Oregon’s rank of 38th in carbon emissions means that carbon emissions are different in Oregon than in Washington, which has a ranking of 27th.
  • Likewise, per capita income in Washington is higher than the national average, and much higher than in Oregon, which at 34th, ranks 21 places behind Washington’s ranking of 13th in per capita income.
  • These two states are very similarly ranked on per capita spending and the price of natural gas.
  • Per capita energy consumption in Oregon, at 39th, is somewhat lower than in Washington, at 29th.
  • Per capita spending in Oregon is somewhat lower because it ranks 42nd to Washington’s ranking of 38th.
Consumption and Expenditures Comparisons Summary
Type OregonWashingtonU.S. Figures
FigureU.S. Rank*FigureU.S. Rank*Totals
Population3.9 million276.9 million13313.9 million
Per Capita Income Average$38,78634$45,41313$42,693
Total Consumption1,014 trillion BTU322,080 trillion BTU1697,301 quadrillion BTU
Per Capita Energy Consumption262 million BTU39305 million BTU29312 million BTU
Total Spending on Energy$14,941 million31$27,124 million17$1,394,088 million
Per Capita Spending on Energy$3,86342$3,97538$4,474
Price of Residential Natural Gas, dollar per thousand cubic feet$11.2026$11.6322$12.48
Price of Electricity, cents per kWh10.13418.815112.31
Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, million metric tons (2010)40.33876.1275,631
*Rank is from highest to lowest.

Oregon ranks 39th in energy consumption per capita and 42nd in energy spending per capita.[3]

See also: State Energy Rankings to compare all 50 states
Consumption of energy for heating homes in Oregon
Source Oregon 2011 U.S. average 2011
Natural gas 38.2% 49.5%
Fuel oil 3.0% 6.5%
Electricity 49% 35.4%
Liquid Petroleum Gases (LPG) 1.6% 5%
Other/none 8.2% 3.6%

Production and transmission

Oregon produced 515 trillion BTU of energy in 2011. Of that just over one percent was produced from natural gas and biofuels. The remaining 99 percent came from what the EIA classifies as ‘other’ renewable energies.[9]

Energy production by type in Oregon, 2011
Type Amount Generated
(trillion BTU)
% of State % of USA
Natural gas 1.4 0.27% 0.01%
Biofuels 5.7 1.11% 0.3%
Other 508 98.64% 7.13%

About half of the electricity generation in Oregon is produced using hydroelectric energy. Most of the hydroelectricity is produced within the state of Oregon. About a third of the electric energy is from natural gas, some of which is imported from Alberta, British Columbia, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. In 2011, the Ruby Pipeline opened, which transports natural gas from the Opal hub in Wyoming. Oregon’s Mist gas field is the only producer of natural gas in the Pacific Northwest. The rest of the electric energy in Oregon is produced from other renewable resources.[10]

Where electricity comes from in Oregon[11]
Type Amount generated (MWh) % of state** % of U.S.**
Natural gas-fired 1,457 29.86% 0%
Hydroelectric 2,462 50.45% 0%
Other renewables 562 11.52% 0%
Total net electricity generation 4,880 100% 0%
**Note: Because the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) does not include all of a state's energy production in these figures, the EIA totals do not equal 100 percent. Instead, we have generated our own percentages.

Energy policy

Policy Issues
Oregon's Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard mandates that 25 percent of energy sold by large utilities come from renewables by 2025; smaller utilities must be 10 percent renewable and the smallest must be 5 percent. Oregon is on track to meet these goals.[12]

Energy policy is made, executed and influenced by many organizations, both public and private, and is codified in the laws and regulations of the state. According to the “2013 State Energy Efficiency Scorecard” published by the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Oregon ranks fourth in energy efficiency with a score of 37 out of 50.[13] Oregon's Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard mandates that large utilities be 25 percent renewable by 2025; small utilities must be 10 percent renewable and the smallest must be 5 percent. Oregon is on track to meet these goals.[14] Oregon currently offers tax credits on certain energy efficient technologies and products such as alternative fuel or solar energy. Oregon is collaborating with British Columbia, Washington and California to make the “I-5 West Coast Green Highway,” that will include fast charging locations every 25-50 miles over a 1,300 mile span. Between 2007 and 2012, use of renewable energy resources in Oregon have tripled.[15][16]

Major legislation

  • Order No. 89-507, (1989) the Oregon Public Utility Commission's (OPUC) Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) Order No. 89-507 required utilities to consider energy efficiency as a resource when developing plans.[17]
  • SB 1149, (1999) established a public purpose charge, which was equal to three percent of total revenue received from utilities, to help programs in electric efficiency, renewable energy and low-income programs. It will provide about 60 million dollars annually for the electric programs.[18]
  • ORS 757.649, (1999) requires electricity companies and service to disclose the details of their electric generation emissions and fuel mix to be made available to customers in a standard format at least once per quarter. The companies and services must also provide the same information in marketing materials.[19]
  • The Oregon Renewable Energy Act of 2007, established an RPS for electric utilities and retail electricity suppliers. The RPS goals depend on the size of the utility.[20]
Policypedia
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State energy policy

Energy policy terms

Fracking in the U.S.

Energy use in the U.S.

Energy policy in the U.S.


See also
Local fracking on the ballot

Statewide fracking on the ballot

Ballot measures

Below is a list of energy related ballot measures across Oregon. These ballot measures cover issues from fracking bans, to utilities and related tax questions.

Government agencies and committees

  • The Oregon Department of Energy was created in 1975. It’s mission is to "reduce the long-term costs of energy for Oregonians." Their purpose is to encourage the use of renewables in a cost-effective manner through technical help and financial incentives. They also provide oversight of the Hanford nuclear cleanup.[22]
  • The Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO) is a non-profit organization created in 2002 by the Oregon Public Utility Commission. The ETO administers the majority of the energy efficiency and renewable energy programs in Oregon. The ETO created a long-range strategic plan that implemented energy saving goals of 256 average megawatts of electricity and 22.5 million annual therms of natural gas from 2010 to 2014.[23]
  • The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is a Pacific Northwest based federal nonprofit agency. The BPA is self-funding, using profits from their 31 federal hydropower projects in the Columbia River Basin as well as from their non-federal nuclear power plant and other power plants. It is, however, associated with the U.S. Department of Energy. BPA markets wholesale electrical power from 31 federal hydropower projects in the Columbia River Basin, one non-federal nuclear plant and several other small non-federal power plants. The BPA produces about one third of the electric power in the Northwest.[24]

Major organizations

  • The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) was organized to help the Northwestern market move towards economical energy efficiency. It is an alliance of more than one hundred utility and energy efficiency organizations. It serves more than 600,000 homes each year to assist them in saving power.[25]
  • The Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) is in charge of resource planning in the Columbia River Basin which includes four states, including Oregon. It is focusing on energy efficiency and conservation for meeting loda growth and aims to address about 85 percent of all load growth through 2030.[26]

In the news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Oregon+Energy+Policy"

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Oregon Energy News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. These figures come from the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) State Profiles and Energy Estimates, Oregon Overview. Statistics for population and per capita income are for the year 2012; consumption and spending estimates are for 2011; and prices are for October 2013.
  2. “U.S. Energy Information Administration”, “Oregon Overview,” accessed Feb. 5, 2014
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Oregon Profile Analysis," December 18, 2013, accessed March 18, 2014
  4. This chart depicts the state's energy consumption as reported by the EIA for 2011. Click the image to enlarge.
  5. To compare current gasoline prices in Oregon to the U.S averages, go to GasBuddy.com
  6. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Petroleum Marketing Monthly," February 2014, accessed February 19, 2014
  7. [The ranking comes from the Tax Foundation website http://taxfoundation.org/article/state-gasoline-tax-rates-2009-2013, accessed February 19, 2014]
  8. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Oregon State Energy Profile," December 18, 2013
  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration, “State Energy Data System, Production,” accessed February 20, 2014
  10. U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Oregon Overview,” accessed February 20, 2014
  11. These figures come from the EIA State Profiles and Energy Estimates U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Oregon Overview," accessed February 20, 2014
  12. Institute for Energy Research, "The Status of Renewable Energy Mandates in the States," accessed February 21, 2014
  13. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, "2013 State Energy Efficiency Scorecard," accessed February 21, 2014
  14. Institute for Energy Research, "The Status of Renewable Energy Mandates in the States," accessed February 21, 2014
  15. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Oregon Profile Analysis," December 18, 2013, accessed February 21, 2014
  16. Oregon Department of Energy, "About Oregon's Residential Energy Tax Credit Program," accessed February 19, 2014
  17. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, "Oregon Utility Policies," accessed February 21, 2014
  18. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, "Oregon Utility Policies," accessed February 21, 2014
  19. Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy, "Fuel Mix and Emission Disclosure," accessed February 21, 2014
  20. Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy, "Renewable Portfolio Standard," accessed February 21, 2014
  21. Oregon State Legislatures, "Legislative Committees," accessed March 13, 2014
  22. Oregon.gov, "Oregon Department of Energy," accessed February 21, 2014
  23. "American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy", "Oregon Utility Policies," accessed Feb. 21, 2014
  24. "Bonneville Power Administration", "About Us," accessed February 21, 2014
  25. NEEA, "About," accessed February 21, 2014
  26. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, "Oregon Utility Policies," accessed February 21, 2014