Fracking in Iowa
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|Fracking in Iowa|
|Fossil fuels present||Coal|
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Although fracking does not occur in Iowa, the northeastern part of the state is rich in frac sand, which is a substance used in the fracking process. Consequently, the fracking industry has become interested in establishing frac sand mining operations in the area. Local officials in two counties (Allamakee and Winneshiek), however, have imposed moratoria on frac sand mine operations.
- See also: Fracking
Hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking," is the process of injecting fluid--mostly water and sand, but with additional chemicals--into the ground at a high pressure to fracture shale rocks and release the oil and natural gas inside.
Recent technological advances in oil and gas drilling--horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing--have created a wealth of opportunities and challenges for states with fossil fuel reserves that can be accessed through the combination of these two technologies. The increased use of fracking has been an economic boon for many states, not only those with fracking, but also those with supporting industries, such as frac sand mining or associated machinery manufacturing.
Opponents of fracking argue that the potential negative environmental and human health impacts could be significant. Although wells have been fracked for over 65 years in the United States, concerns have been raised about whether federal, state and local regulatory agencies can keep up with the recent rapid increase in fracking activity, and adequately protect the environment and human health. As with any type of energy extraction, either traditional or renewable, there are economic, environmental and political tradeoffs.
Natural gas use in Iowa
- For more information on energy consumption in Iowa, see "Energy policy in Iowa"
In 2011, roughly one-fifth of Iowa’s energy use was for transportation. Nearly one-half of the state’s energy consumption was used in industry. The rest was used mostly in residential and commercial buildings, for heating, cooling, lighting and other functions. Most of the energy used in the state is in the form of coal, followed by natural gas and biomass. Natural gas heats almost 64 percent of homes in Iowa. Electricity heats 19 percent, followed by liquid petroleum gas at 13.5 percent, other sources and fuel oil.
|Consumption of energy for heating homes in Iowa|
|Source||Iowa 2011||U.S. average 2011|
|Liquid Petroleum Gases (LPG)||13.5%||5%|
Several natural gas pipelines cross through Iowa. There are also four natural gas storage fields with a combined capacity of almost 300 billion cubic feet. Natural gas from Canada comes into Iowa by pipeline through Minnesota. Other natural gas comes from Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana and Kansas. Most of the natural gas that comes into Iowa is shipped on to other states. Roughly 75 percent of the natural gas entering Iowa goes on to Illinois. Over 50 percent of natural gas consumed in Iowa is utilized by the industrial sector.
|Where electricity comes from in Iowa|
|Type||Amount generated (MWh)||% of state**||% of U.S.**|
|Total net electricity generation||4,453,000||100%||0.11%|
|**Note: Because the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) does not include all of a state's energy production in these figures, the EIA totals do not equal 100 percent. Instead, we have generated our own percentages.|
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- Energy policy in Iowa
- Fracking in the United States
- Energy use in the United States
- Energy policy in the United States
- U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Iowa Profile"
- Frac Focus, "National Hydraulic Fracturing Chemical Registry"
State of Iowa
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