Fracking in Texas

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Fracking in Texas
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Regulation
Regulatory agency Texas Railroad Commission
Estate ownership Split[1]
Inspections per year 125,878[2][3]
Enforcements 55,030 violations; $1,178,631.40 collected in enforcement penalties in FY 2013[4][5]
Resources
Fossil fuels present Oil, natural gas and coal
Number of wells drilled 278,549 (as of February 2014)[6]
Number of producing wells 178,633 (as of February 2014)[7]
Fracking
Total wells fracked 13,540[8][9]
Other state fracking pages
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Fracking in Texas depends on available energy resources, the location of these resources, applicable laws and regulations, politics, and the power of environmental and industry groups. Decisions by policymakers and citizens, including state and local governments and ballot initiatives, affect if and how fracking occurs in a state.

Fracking background

See also: Fracking

Hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking," is the process of injecting fluid--mostly water and sand, but with additional chemicals--into the ground at a high pressure to fracture shale rocks and release the oil and natural gas inside.

Recent technological advances in oil and gas drilling--horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing--have created a wealth of opportunities and challenges for states with fossil fuel reserves that can be accessed through the combination of these two technologies. The increased use of fracking has been an economic boon for many states, not only those with fracking, but also those with supporting industries, such as frac sand mining or associated machinery manufacturing.

Opponents of fracking argue that the potential negative environmental and human health impacts could be significant. Although wells have been fracked for over 65 years in the United States, concerns have been raised about whether federal, state and local regulatory agencies can keep up with the recent rapid increase in fracking activity, and adequately protect the environment and human health. As with any type of energy extraction, either traditional or renewable, there are economic, environmental and political tradeoffs.

History

Spindletop oil gusher

Natural oil seeps have long existed in Texas. European settlers to the area reported that local American Indians shared their medicinal uses of oil with the settlers. In July of 1543, explorer Hernando de Soto reported finding oil floating on the surface of water and using it to caulk their boats. The first oil producing well was drilled by Lyne T. Barret in 1866. The first commercial oil field followed this discovery in Nacogdoches County.[10]


One of the most famous and transformative gushing oil wells that characterized early oil production in the United States, occurred in Texas. On January 10, 1901 oil was struck at the Spindletop well, near Beaumont, Texas (pictured to the left). It took nine days to stop the oil that rushed out of the well at over 100 feet in the air. From that point on Texas has been a leader in oil and natural gas production in the United States. Petroleum production pushed Texas from being a largely agricultural state, to one driven by petroleum exploration.[10]

Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing were first combined in Texas during the late 1980s to the early 1990s in wells in the Barnett Shale, located in northern Texas. By 1999 the present day form of fracking was used in Texas to open up previously inaccessible natural gas reservoirs.[11]

Production

In 2000, 398.68 million barrels of oil were produced in Texas. Production steadily declined and didn't surpass 2000 production levels until 2012 when 533.14 million barrels of oil were produced. In 2013, the most recent year for which data are available, 703.12 million barrels of oil were produced.[12][13]

In 2000 in Texas, 4,776,483,547 thousand cubic feet (MCF), or 4.78 trillion cubic feet (TCF), of natural gas were produced in Texas. Production increased significantly, reaching a decade high of 6,804,617,582 MCF (6.8 TCF) of natural gas in 2009. After that, production decreased sharply until 2012 when production levels reached 5,935,203,512 MCF (5.94 TCF). In 2013 production rebounded, reaching 6,246,415,524 MCF (6.25 TCF) of natural gas.[14][15]

Oil production in Texas, 2000-2013.png
Natural gas production in Texas, 2000-2013.png

Areas of activity

Map of active oil and gas wells in Texas, January 2014

The map to the right shows active oil and gas wells in Texas as of January 2014. Gas wells are marked with a red dot, oil wells with a blue dot, and major cities are marked with yellow.[16]

Texas contains within its border portions of the Anadarko Basin and the Palo Buro Basin, most of the Permian Basin, the Barnett shale, the Eagle Ford shale and the Haynesville-Bossier shale. During the recent oil and gas boom much of the activity has centered in the Eagle Ford shale.[17]

Fracking at the ballot box

The City of Denton voted on November 4, 2014, approving a ballot initiative that would ban fracking in the city, although other types of oil and gas extraction would be allowed. This measure makes Denton, which is home to 121,000 residents and features more than 270 natural gas wells, the first major city in the state of Texas to permanently prohibit the use of fracking within its city limits.[18]

The day after the election, the Texas Oil and Gas Association filed a lawsuit against the ban. The state's General Land Office also filed a lawsuit again the measure, with Land Commissioner Jerry Patterson calling the ban "arbitrary, capricious and unreasonable.” The city of Denton has 20 days to respond to the lawsuits.[19][20]

The Texas Railroad Commission, which regulates the oil and gas industry in the state, says it plans to continue issuing permits for drilling in Denton, despite the ban.[21]

Economic impact

The use of fracking, often in combination with horizontal drilling, has made it possible to extract supplies of oil and natural gas that were once economically unfeasible to extract. This has led to significant growth in the domestic oil and gas industry, and in the supply of domestically produced oil and natural gas. The growth has impacted the economy in direct ways, such as increased capital investments (from both the United States and other countries), royalty and lease payments, and government revenues in the form of fees and taxes. The increased supply of natural gas and oil has also affected electricity prices, manufacturing, service industries and employment. In many places, fracking has increased employment in the mining (oil and gas) sector and supporting industries, such as the restaurant and housing sectors. Consumers and manufacturers have also benefitted thus far from lower oil and natural gas prices, and increased demand for pipeline, drilling and other ancillary equipment. As demand for natural gas and oil grows, however, prices are expected to rise.[22]

Taxes, fees and revenue

Oil and gas tax revenue in Texas.png

Fracking booms can increase local government revenue through increases in property and sales taxes, which can help compensate for the costs detailed below. The primary revenue streams from fracking--mineral leasing revenues and severance taxes--go to state and federal governments. As of June 2013, Texas employed the following oil and gas severance tax:

  • 7.5% tax of gas market value
  • 4.6% tax of oil market value
  • 4.6% tax gas condensate market value for gas condensate
  • Incentives and exemptions for inactive wells, marginal wells, and high cost gas wells.[23]

Of the revenue collected from Texas' gas and oil production tax, 0.5 percent goes to funding the enforcement of the production tax and other tax provisions. Of the remaining revenue, 25 percent is deposited in the Foundation School Fund and 75 percent goes to the state general revenue fund.[24]

The tables below can be expanded to show the revenue collected from oil and natural gas taxes in Texas from 2000 to 2013. Below those tables is a chart showing total oil and gas tax revenue in millions of U.S. dollars. Revenue has been volatile across the years shown. Revenue reached its lowest level in 2002 when $967,157,732 was collected from both oil and natural gas taxes. Revenue peaked in 2013 when $4,486,093,075 was collected.[25][26]



Royalties, land sales and prices

The United States is one of the few countries where property owners can own the right to use and build on their land, known as surface rights, but might not own the rights to the minerals located under their property. Depending on the state, the mineral rights may have been sold in the past and may now belong to someone other than the surface owner. In fact, those mineral rights may belong to more than one individual, a company, or many individuals, who now have the right to extract those minerals. In some states this can happen without the permission of the property owner, which can cause tension between the mineral owner, or whoever is leasing the mineral rights, and the property owner.[27] Two thirds of the 254 counties in Texas produce oil. The exact royalty prices paid to mineral rights holders is negotiable in Texas, but in 1995 the state set a minimum of 6.25 percent of the gross value.[28] The federal government doesn't collect data on oil and natural gas royalty and land sales on private land. A 2014 study attempted to estimate these figures and determined that Texas (among the lower 48 states) was first in private royalty income in the nation. The study also found that for 2010:

  • Private oil revenue was $30,294 million.
  • Private natural gas revenue was $30,179 million.
  • Estimated royalty income was $7,559 million.
  • Royalty income was 0.79 percent of state average income.[29][30]

Economic impact studies

Below are studies about the economic impact of the oil and natural gas industry (also categorized as the mining industry in some studies) in Texas. Both the author(s) and sponsor(s) of the studies have been listed.

Study for the American Petroleum Institute

Economic modeling
IMPLAN and REMI are two econometric modeling systems used in both the private and public sectors to predict economic outcomes of policy changes. While these systems are widely used and highly respected, their results are theoretical and may not be universally accepted.

Because the oil and gas industry has grown so rapidly, there is not a wealth of data regarding its economic impacts. Instead, economists use forecasting models, such as IMPLAN and REMI, to predict the impact increased fossil fuel extraction is having on the economy. These studies usually measure both direct impacts, i.e., the jobs and income being added within the oil and gas industry, and indirect impacts, i.e., jobs created throughout the supply chain. These studies also include induced impact, i.e., jobs created through increased spending due to growth in the industry.[34]

The following data are taken from a study done by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC), a research consulting firm, for the American Petroleum Institute, about the economic impact of the oil and natural gas industry in 2011 in Texas. According to the PwC study, the oil and gas industry added $308.35 billion in total value to Texas in 2011, including direct, indirect and induced value. Of this, $192.09 billion, or 14.4 percent of the state's total value added, was direct, $60.24 billion was indirect, and $56.02 billion was induced, totaling 23.2 percent of the state's total value in 2011.[34]

Sky line of oil derricks in Kilgore, Texas

The PwC study attributes 1,938,700 jobs, or 13.6 percent of employment in Texas in 2011, to jobs created directly by, indirectly by, or induced from, the oil and natural gas industry. The industry directly employed 618,974 people, or 4.4 percent of state total employment. Indirectly the industry employed 602,704 people and induced 717,021 jobs.

Direct, indirect and induced labor income, according to this study, was $144.09 billion, totaling 18.7 percent of Texas' labor income in 2011. Direct labor income from the mining sector was $75.46 billion, or 9.8 percent of the state's total. Indirect labor income totaled $36.81 billion and induced labor income was $31.82 billion.[34]
DocumentIcon.jpg See report: Economic Impacts of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry on the US Economy 2011

Texas Tech University study

According to a study from Texas Tech University, the shale boom created huge growth in pipeline construction in 2013 in Texas. Pipeline construction created 165,000 jobs and generated $33 billion in economic impact. Pipeline construction also contributed $1.6 billion in state and local government revenue, and $18.7 billion in gross state product. The study was funded by the Texas Pipeline Association.[35][36]

By the year 2024, depending on economic conditions, projections demonstrate that the total economic impact from Texas pipeline operations and construction will generate between:
  • $30-41.4 billion in economic output (in today’s dollars)
  • 150,000-206,000 jobs
  • $17-23.4 billion in additional gross state product (in today’s dollars)
  • $1.5-2.0 billion in state and local government revenues (in today’s dollars)[23]

—Bradley T. Ewing, et al.

DocumentIcon.jpg See report: Current and Future Economic Impacts of the Texas Oil and Gas Pipeline Industry

Environmental impact

Because of the sudden and unprecedented growth in fracking across the United States, getting high-quality, unbiased, state-specific information on the environmental impacts of fracking can be difficult. Most studies that would fit those first two qualifications are government studies that focus on the nation as a whole. As such, much of the information that follows in this section may only apply generally to the state. State-specific information has been added where possible.

Air

As with any type of energy extraction, there are several areas of risk when it comes to air quality. In the case of fracking, these risks include air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and methane. Some environmental groups have raised concerns that methane could be leaked during the extraction process, resulting in unnecessary pollution.[37][38] Most of this pollution occurs during the well completion phase. Fracking operations can also emit known carcinogens, which have been linked with increased rates of cancer.[39]

Emissions

With regard to carbon dioxide, when natural gas is used to generate electricity in power plants, it produces fewer carbon emissions than coal-fired power plants. According to a 2014 study by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "as a result of the increased use of natural gas, CO2 emissions from U.S. fossil-fuel power plants were 23% lower in 2012 than they would have been” without the increase in natural gas use.[40] During the extraction process, however, methane is emitted, and methane actually traps 20 times more carbon dioxide than other greenhouse gases. Nevertheless, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA), CO2 emissions in the United States dropped by 3.8 percent in 2012, due in large part to the "increased availability of natural gas, linked to the shale gas revolution."[41][40]

A 2014 report from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency found a decrease of 3.3 percent in overall greenhouse gas emissions and a 12 percent decrease in methane emissions from 2011 to 2012. Natural gas extraction is the second largest producer of methane, after cattle.[38][42]

A year-long study completed by the San Antonio Express-News found that from 2009 to 2012, 33 billion cubic feet of natural gas were flared, or burned off, instead of being fed into pipelines. Two-thirds of this flared natural gas came from the Eagle Ford Shale. According to a representative from the Texas Railroad Commission, which regulates the oil and gas industry, "nobody wants to flare," but there isn't sufficient infrastructure to get all the natural gas produced by the fracking boom to consumers.[43]

Earthquakes

Oil pump at sunset in Texas

The central and eastern United States have been experiencing an increased number of earthquakes over the last few years, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the government agency responsible for such data. Studies from the USGS have not found fracking directly responsible for this increase in felt earthquakes; however, the USGS is looking into regulations that would use seismic data to determine thresholds dictating when and where fracking can occur.[44] There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that this growth in the number of earthquakes has been caused by the increased use of injection wells to dispose of fracking wastewater. While fracking has been rarely known to cause earthquakes, there is an established scientific link between earthquakes and the disposal of fluids in deep, underground injection wells. Once a well has been fracked, the water returned to the surface is called wastewater, and contains large amounts of salt and other contaminants.[45] Some of this water can be recycled, but that water which can't be recycled is often stored in injection wells. These injection wells are generally considered the safest and most cost-effective place for wastewater to be stored. Injection wells are located thousands of feet underground and are encased in cement. Multiple drilling wells often rely on one disposal well for wastewater storage. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates there are 144,000 of these wells across the United States receiving 2 billion gallons of frack fluid per day.[44][46]

Induced seismology, or man-made earthquakes, have been around for decades and can be caused by mining, damming rivers and injecting fluids into underground wells. Earthquakes are caused by injection wells when water pumped into underground wells causes the faults under the earth to slip. Even though scientists at the USGS have been able to cause earthquakes intentionally by carefully injecting liquid into the earth, the link between injection wells and earthquakes is not fully understood. One of the largest concerns for scientists and regulators is that they do not have the tools to predict whether wastewater will cause seismic activity. These concerns are compounded by the lack of knowledge about where faults are located across the central and eastern United States. The USGS is just beginning to map these areas in more detail in order to understand the seismic risks. As of June 2014, these earthquakes have typically been small, two or three in magnitude on the Richter scale, but at least one scientist has raised concerns that earthquakes could grow in intensity if old injection wells continue to be used for storage.[44][45]

Earthquakes in Texas and fracking

In October 2014, the Texas Railroad Commission amended its rules on disposal wells due to concerns that earthquakes could be triggered by high-pressure injection wells. Beginning November 17, 2014, anyone applying for a disposal well permit must include research about historical earthquake activity within 100 square miles of the proposed injection well. This research must be done using data from the U.S. Geological Survey. The commission can then use these data when deciding whether to grant, or amend, an underground injection well permit.[47] The rule also allows the Railroad Commission to shut down or halt an injection well if the agency determines the potential for an earthquake. "These comprehensive rule amendments will allow us to further examine seismic activity in Texas and gain an understanding of how human activity may impact seismic activity," said Commissioner David Porter, "while continuing to allow for the important development of our energy resources in Texas." The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has also supported these new rules. [48][49]

Water

When it comes to water protection and fracking there are four main areas of risk: the depletion of fresh water sources, spills and leaks of fracking fluid into water, mismanaged produced water and flowback, and stormwater pollution. Stormwater, flowback, produced water and wastewater can be harmful because they contain total dissolved solids and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Because of the recent rapid growth in fracking, there are still many uncertainties about the effects of fracking on water. There are studies that link fracking to groundwater contamination, but they remain controversial. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is releasing a report in spring 2015 on the potential impacts of fracking on drinking water, and is working on effective programs for managing these potential risks.[39][50]

One of the main criticisms of fracking is that the process uses a disproportionately large amount of water. Up to 10 million gallons of fresh water may be required to frack one well. A 2014 study from the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas found, however, that the amount of water used in a traditional well, versus a hydraulically fractured well, is not appreciably different. According to one of the researchers, Dr. Bridget Scanlon, "The water used to produce oil using hydraulic fracturing is similar to the water used in the U.S. to produce oil using conventional techniques." The only difference between the amount of water used during the two oil or gas production techniques, is when in the process water is used. The study was funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.[51][52] A 2014 study analyzed water well samples from both the Marcellus and Barnett Shales, located in Pennsylvania and Texas, respectively. Researchers found that higher than expected levels of hydrocarbon gases, including methane, had not been caused by fracking, or horizontal drilling, but by well integrity problems. Researchers gathered 113 samples from Pennsylvania and found seven instances of fugitive gas contamination, known as elevated hydrocarbon levels. In Texas, 20 wells were sampled and one instance of fugitive gas contamination was found. Of these eight cases, half were identified by the researchers as having likely been caused by poor well cementing. Three cases were associated with faulty casing, and the final well experienced underground well failure. According to one industry representative, well integrity failure is extremely rare, "occurring in a fraction of 1% of wells." This research, published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, came on the heels of another peer-reviewed paper by Echelon Consulting; both of these studies concluded that methane found in wells above the Marcellus shale occurred naturally and was not the product of fracking.[53][54]

Health

Because of the recent, rapid growth of fracking, little is known about the potential impacts to human health. Government agencies dealing with human health issues have raised concerns about some chemicals that can be released during the fracking process, including VOCs. The Centers for Disease Control are working with the EPA and federal, state and local agencies to better understand potential impacts.[55][56]

Socioeconomic impact

Fracking can also present challenges to communities. Increased oil and natural gas production happens in boom or bust cycles, and often these cycles disproportionately occur in rural communities. Large scale fracking booms can also lead to increases in crime, such as substance abuse, sex trade and domestic abuse. An influx of oil and gas workers also strains housing and traffic resources. This lack of housing can push oil and gas workers into so-called 'man camps,' which are "clusters of mobile homes, RVs, and trucks," or into hotels. A fracking boom also puts heavy traffic on roads, which can strain infrastructure, increase traffic accidents, and increase the likelihood of oil spills. Local governments respond by hiring more police, social workers, health care workers and emergency response personnel, thereby spending more of their budgets on roads and social programs. Currently, much of the tax revenue generated by the oil and gas industry goes to the federal and state government, not the local governments.[39]

Departments, agencies and organizations

This image shows Dallas (center), Austin (below) and then San Antonio. Surrounding those cities are the lights stemming from all the fracking related activity on the Eagle Ford Shale.

The Texas Railroad Commission (RRC) was established by the Texas State Legislature on April 3, 1891. The RRC was originally established to oversee railroads, wharves and express companies in the state. The RRC was first given authority over oil and gas conservation in 1917.[57] The mission of the RRC is:[58]

to serve Texas by our stewardship of natural resources and the environment, our concern for personal and community safety, and our support of enhanced development and economic vitality for the benefit of Texans.[23]

—Railroad Commission of Texas

The Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ) oversees upstream oil and gas exploration and production. The TCEQ oversees air, water, disposal of oil and gas waste, and surface casings for the oil and gas industry.[59] The mission of TCEQ is:[60]

to protect our state's public health and natural resources consistent with sustainable economic development. Our goal is clean air, clean water, and the safe management of waste.[23]

—Texas Commission of Environmental Quality

Major organizations

  • The Barnett Shale Energy Education Council (BSEEC) was founded by eight area energy companies in 2007 with the mission of being "dedicated to promoting energy education and best practices as they relate to oil and gas leasing, drilling, production, transportation and marketing in the Barnett Shale." Members of this council include: Chesapeake Energy, Devon, EnerVest, EOG Resources, XTO Energy, Western Production, Atlas, Pioneer Natural Resources, Newark Energy, Beacon E&P and Access Midstream.[61]
  • Dallas Area Residents for Responsible Drilling (DARRD) is a group of Dallas area residents that are promoting responsible oil and gas drilling practices. The group does not oppose drilling, but rather, favors transparency and responsible drilling methods.[62]
  • The Denton Drilling Awareness Group is a non-profit organization and is responsible for the initiative to ban fracking in Denton, Texas that will be on the November 4, 2014 ballot.[63]
  • The Mansfield Gas Well Awareness calls itself "a movement of concerned citizens, that live in Mansfield, Texas, who believe urban gas well production next to our homes, daycares, schools and parks is a threat to our clean air, property values, health and safety, and the rights of every citizen to peacefully enjoy their homes." The group is not opposed to natural gas drilling, but would like to increase the regulations imposed on drilling in the state.[64]
  • The Texas Oil and Gas Association (TXOGA) is a trade association that was founded in 1919. The association has almost 5,000 members that account for 90 percent of oil and gas production in Texas. Members include independent and large oil and gas producers, refining capacity and pipeline companies.[65]

Energy consumption

For more information on energy consumption in Texas, see "Energy policy in Texas"

Electricity used in Texas is primarily fueled by natural gas. The large majority of the natural gas and coal used for electricity in Texas is produced within the state. Over half of the population of the state uses electricity as its main heating source. This is mainly due to the high demand for air conditioning during the state's hot summers. Texas has 116 retail electricity providers, its five largest being: TXU Energy Retail Co LP (private), Reliant Energy Retail Services LLP (private), City of San Antonio (public), Entergy Texas inc. (private), Southwestern Public Service Co (private).[66][67]

See also: State Energy Rankings to compare all 50 states
Consumption of energy for heating homes in Texas
Source Texas 2011 U.S. average 2011
Natural gas 37.3% 49.5%
Fuel oil .1% 6.5%
Electricity 58.1% 35.4%
Liquid Petroleum Gases (LPG) 3.5% 5%
Other/none 1.0% 3.6%


Where electricity comes from in Texas[68]
Type Amount generated (MWh) % of state** % of U.S.**
Petroleum-fired 7,000 0.02% 0.02%
Natural gas-fired 15,362,000 47.16% 1.52%
Coal-fired 10,513,000 32.28% 0.61%
Nuclear 3,170,000 9.73% 0.4%
Hydroelectric 68,000 0.21% 0.02%
Other renewables 3,197,000 9.82% 1.58%
Total net electricity generation 32,572,000 100% 0.79%
**Note: Because the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) does not include all of a state's energy production in these figures, the EIA totals do not equal 100 percent. Instead, we have generated our own percentages.

News items

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All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Texas Fracking News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. Texas Royalty, "Mineral Owner FAQ," accessed June 27, 2014
  2. This figure is for fiscal year 2013.
  3. The Texas Railroad Commission, "Report on Oil and Gas Field Operations' Violations and Enforcement," accessed June 30, 2014
  4. This figure is for fiscal year 2013.
  5. The Texas Railroad Commission, "Report on Oil and Gas Field Operations' Violations and Enforcement," accessed June 30, 2014
  6. Railroad Commission of Texas, "Oil Wells County by County as of February 2014," February 4, 2014
  7. Railroad Commission of Texas, "Oil Wells County by County as of February 2014," February 4, 2014
  8. This is the total number of fracking wells drilled in 2012.
  9. Environment America Research & Policy Center, "Fracking by the Numbers," October 2013
  10. 10.0 10.1 Texas Almanac "Oil and Texas: A Cultural History," accessed June 30, 2014
  11. Headwater Magazine, "A History of Hydraulic Fracturing," accessed September 9, 2014
  12. Texas Railroad Commission, "Texas Monthly Oil & Gas Production," accessed July 29, 2014
  13. Texas Railroad Commission, "Crude Oil Production and Well Counts (since 1935)," accessed July 29, 2014
  14. Texas Railroad Commission, "Texas Monthly Oil & Gas Production," accessed July 29, 2014
  15. Texas Railroad Commission, "Natural Gas Production and Well Counts (since 1935)," accessed July 29, 2014
  16. Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, "Texas Active Oil and Gas Wells January 2014"
  17. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Lower 48 states shale plays," accessed September 16, 2014
  18. Denton Record Chronicle, "Group seeks ban on fracking," February 18, 2014
  19. ABC News, "Texas Energy Group Asks Court to Halt Fracking Ban," November 5, 2014
  20. Texas Tribune, "First Lawsuits Filed Over Denton's New Fracking Ban," November 5, 2014
  21. Dallas News, "Denton’s ban won’t stop fracking permits, Railroad Commission chairwoman says," November 7, 2014
  22. IHS, "US unconventional oil and gas revolution to increase disposable income by more than $2,700 per household and boost US trade position by more than $164 billion in 2020," accessed September 17, 2014
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  24. National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Revenues and the Natural Gas Boom: An Assessment of State Oil and Gas Production Taxes," June 2013
  25. Texas Transparency, "Texas Net Revenue by Source - Fiscal 1978-2012 (All Funds, Excluding Trust)," accessed September 18, 2014
  26. Texas Transparency, "Revenue by Source for Fiscal Year 2013 (All Funds, Excluding Trust)," accessed September 18, 2014
  27. Geology.com, “Mineral Rights,” accessed January 29, 2014
  28. Texas State Historical Association, "Mineral Rights and Royalties," accessed June 27, 2014
  29. All the data presented below are in millions of nominal dollars. The royalty income figures assume a 1/8th royalty rate.
  30. Social Science Research Network, "U.S. Private Oil and Natural Gas Royalties: Estimates and Policy Considerations," March 12, 2014
  31. IMPLAN, "IMPLAN€'s History of Expert Economic Data," accessed September 17, 2014
  32. REMI, "About Us," accessed September 17, 2014
  33. REMI, "Clients," accessed September 17, 2014
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 PricewaterhouseCooper LLP, "Economic Impacts of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry on the US Economy 2011," July 2013
  35. San Antonio Business Journal, "Pipeline projects from shale boom generate jobs and growth, study says," August 7, 2014
  36. Texas Tech University, "Current and Future Economic Impacts of the Texas Oil and Gas Pipeline Industry," July 2014
  37. University of Oklahoma, "Hydraulic Fracturing and Water Resources," accessed March 15, 2014
  38. 38.0 38.1 Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, "Written Testimony of Frances Beinecke," accessed March 2, 2014
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 Stanford Law School Student Journals, "Local Government Fracking Regulations: A Colorado Case Study," January 2014
  40. 40.0 40.1 Cooperative Institute for Research Environmental Sciences,, "New study: U.S. power plant emissions down," January 9, 2014
  41. International Energy Agency, "Redrawing the Energy-Climate Map," June 10, 2013
  42. The Wall Street Journal, "Talk About Natural Gas: Cow Belches Top Methane List," February 26, 2014
  43. San Antonio Express-News, "Up in Flames," accessed September 16, 2014
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 U.S. Geological Survey, "Man-Made Earthquakes Update," January 17, 2014, accessed March 10, 2014
  45. 45.0 45.1 National Geographic, "Scientists Warn of Quake Risk From Fracking Operations," May 2, 2014
  46. National Public Radio, "How Oil and Gas Disposal Wells Can Cause Earthquakes," accessed June 2, 2014
  47. My Fox DFW, "Texas panel amends hydraulic fracturing rules," October 28, 2014
  48. Star-Telegram, "Texas Railroad Commission adopts tighter rules for disposal wells," October 28, 2014
  49. Dallas News, "Texas Railroad Commission tightens drilling-waste disposal rules after earthquake scare," October 28, 2014
  50. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Natural Gas Extraction - Hydraulic Fracturing," accessed March 10, 2014
  51. WOAI, "Research: Fracking Uses No More Water Than Traditional Oil Production," October 6, 2014
  52. Bureau of Economic Geology, "US Shale Reserves and Production Bureau Shale Gas Study," October 6, 2014
  53. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, "Noble gases identify the mechanisms of fugitive gas contamination in drinking-water wells overlying the Marcellus and Barnett Shales," September 15, 2014
  54. USA Today, "Study: Faulty gas wells, not fracking, pollute water," September 15, 2014
  55. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, "Garfield County," March 13, 2008, accessed March 10, 2014
  56. Centers for Disease Control, "Review of Federal Hydraulic Fracturing Research," April 26, 2013, accessed March 10, 2014
  57. Railroad Commission of Texas, "History of the Railroad Commission 1866-1939," May 14, 2014
  58. Railroad Commission of Texas, "RRC Mission Statement," May 30, 2014
  59. Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, "Common Environmental Requirements for Regulated Oil and Gas Operations," October 28, 2013
  60. Texas Commission of Environmental Quality, "Mission Statement and Agency Philosophy," March 19, 2014
  61. Barnett Shale Energy Education Council, "About BSEEC," accessed September 17, 2014
  62. Dallas Area Residents for Responsible Drilling, "About," accessed September 17, 2014
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