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Gary Peters

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Gary Peters
Gary Peters.jpg
U.S. House, Michigan, District 14
Incumbent
In office
January 3, 2009-Present
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 5
PartyDemocratic
PredecessorJoe Knollenberg (R)
Compensation
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$6.98 in 2012
First electedNovember 4, 2008
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$8,115,940
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
Michigan State Senate
1995-2002
Rochester Hills, Michigan, City Council
1991-1992
Education
Bachelor'sAlma College
Master'sUniversity of Detroit
J.D.Wayne State University
Military service
Service/branchUnited States Navy Reserve
Years of service1993-2000, 2001-2005
Personal
BirthdayDecember 1, 1958
Place of birthPontiac, Michigan
ProfessionInvestment Banker, Professor
Net worth$2,880,081.50
Websites
Office website
Campaign website
Gary C. Peters (b. December 1, 1958, in Pontiac, Michigan) is a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives representing Michigan's 14th Congressional District. Peters was first elected to the House in 2008.

Peters most recently won re-election to the 14th Congressional District seat in 2012. On May 1, 2013, Peters announced his candidacy for the United States Senate seat that will be vacated in 2014 by retiring Michigan Senator Carl Levin.[1][2][3] Peters will be up against Republican candidate Terri Lynn Land. Both candidates have almost equal support in polls as of August 1, 2013.[4]

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Peters is an average Democratic member of Congress, meaning he will vote with the Democratic Party on the majority of bills.

Biography

Peters was born in 1958 in Pontiac, Michigan. After graduating from Alma College in 1980, Peters went on to receive his M.B.A from the University of Detroit and his J.D. from Wayne State University in 1985 and 1989, respectively. Prior to his political career, Peters worked as a professor and investment banker. He also served in the United States Naval Reserve from 1993-2000 and from 2001-1005.[5]

Career

Below is an abbreviated outline of Peters' professional and political career:[5]

Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Peters serves on the following committees:[6]

  • Financial Services Committee
    • Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises
    • Subcommittee on Monetary Policy and Trade

2011-2012

Peters served on the following House committees:[7]

  • Financial Services Committee
    • Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises
    • Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy and Technology
  • Small Business Committee
    • Subcommittee on Healthcare and Technology
    • Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Tax and Capital Access

Issues

Legislative actions

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1%) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14% of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[8] For more information pertaining to Peters's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[9]

National security

NDAA

Voted "Yes" Peters voted for HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[10]

DHS Appropriations

Voted "No" Peters voted against HR 2217 - the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 that was largely along party lines.[11]

CISPA (2013)

Voted "No" Peters voted against HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill would allow federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[12]

Economy

Farm bill

Voted "Yes" On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[13] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[14][15] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[15] Peters voted with 161 other Republican representatives in favor of the bill.

2014 Budget

Voted "Yes" On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[16][17] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and 3 Democrats voting against the bill.[17] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[18] It included a 1% increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and left the Affordable Care Act without any drastic cuts. Peters voted with the majority of the Republican party in favor of the bill.[16]

Government shutdown
See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Voted "No" On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[19] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[20] Peters voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[21]

Voted "Yes" The shutdown finally ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[22] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Peters voted for HR 2775.[23]

Peters donated his salary to charity while the government was shutdown.[24]

Federal Pay Adjustment Act

Voted "No" Peters voted against HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill would prevent a 0.5% pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect, saving the federal government $11 billion over 10 years.[25]

Immigration

Morton Memos Prohibition

Voted "No" Peters voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[26] The vote largely followed party lines.[27]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Voted "No" Peters voted against House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires that all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[28]

Social issues

Abortion

Voted "No" Peters voted against HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196 that largely followed party lines. The purpose of the bill is to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[29]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Voted "Yes" Peters voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was 1 of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[30]

Specific votes

Peters voted for the stimulus bill.[31] According to a poll, 57% of U.S. voters believe that the stimulus has either hurt the economy (36%) or had no impact (21%), while 38% believe the stimulus helped the economy.[32]

Peters also voted in favor of the "Cash for Clunkers" bill.[33] According to a June 2009 Rasmussen Reports poll, 54% of likely U.S. voters opposed Cash for Clunkers, while 35% supported it.[34]

Peters supported the "Cap and Trade" bill.[35] Just after the bill’s passage, 42% of likely U.S. voters said that cap and trade would hurt the economy, while 19% believed it would help. Additionally, 15% said that the bill would have no impact.[36]

Finally, Peters voted in favor of the health care reform bill.[37] According to polling, 57% of likely voters at least somewhat favor repeal of the health care reform bill, including 46% who strongly favor repeal. Additionally, 35% of likely voters oppose repeal, amd 51% of likely voters believe the health care reform bill will be bad for the country, while 36% believe it will be beneficial.[38]

Campaign themes

2012

The campaign issues below were highlighted on Peters' campaign website.[39]

  • Bridging the 8 Mile Divide to Unite the Greater Detroit Region

Excerpt: "Investing in a regional transit system to serve all... Ending the foreclosure crisis by helping families stay in their homes... Connecting local workers with local employers."[40]

  • Healthcare

Excerpt: "In Congress, Gary stood with President Obama and voted to pass the historic Affordable Care Act despite continual attacks from the Tea Party. Gary also successfully helped expand health care coverage to over 4 million low income children and pregnant women."[41]

  • Jobs and the Economy

Excerpt: "In Congress, Gary led the fight to save our auto industry, worked to expand small business lending to spur new job creation, and he's always stood up to Tea Party proposals to gut the social safety net for families facing tough times."[42]

  • Proud Democratic Fighter for Michigan

Excerpt: "As our Congressman, Gary Peters has worked to protect collective bargaining rights and fought for policies that put middle class families ahead of billionaire special interests."[43]

  • Accountability and Reform on Wall Street

Excerpt: "As part of this work, Peters helped create the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau - the first agency dedicated entirely to protecting regular Americans from abusive and predatory lending practices. And when corporate executives rewarded themselves with taxpayer funded bailout bonuses, Gary Peters led the fight to hold them accountable by writing and passing a bill to reclaim this money."[44]

Elections

2014

See also: Michigan gubernatorial election, 2014

On May 1, 2013, Peters announced he would be seeking election to the United States Senate seat that will be vacated in 2014 by retiring Michigan Senator Carl Levin.[1].

Peters was previously considered to be a potential 2014 Democratic candidate for Governor of Michigan.[45]

Endorsements

Peters was endorsed by Senators Carl Levin and Debbie Stabenow. Levin said, "Like me, Gary has spent his whole life in Michigan. Gary’s parents, a public school teacher and nurse’s aide, instilled in him the importance of hard work, integrity, and the promise of the American Dream." Stabenow added, "I’ve known Gary for more than 20 years. He is a devoted husband and father who is raising his family in Oakland County, where his own family has been for generations."[46]

The Sierra Club has also announced its support for Peters in the upcoming election.[47]

Washington Post top 10 races

According to an analysis by The Washington Post, the U.S. Senate election in Michigan is considered one of the top 10 Senate races of 2014 as of December 2013. Terri Lynn Land had a strong fundraising run in the third quarter of 2013.[48]

2012

See also: Michigan's 14th Congressional District elections, 2012

Peters won election in the 2012 election for the U.S. House, representing Michigan's 14th District.[49] He defeated Hansen Clarke, Brenda Lawrence, Bob Costello and Mary Waters in the August 7 Democratic primary. He then defeated John Hauler (R), Leonard Schwartz (L) and Douglas Campbell (G) in the general election on November 6, 2012.[50] Peters was considered a vulnerable incumbent.[51]


Gary Peters, "Roots"[52]
U.S. House, Michigan District 14 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngGary Peters Incumbent 82.3% 270,450
     Republican John Hauler 15.6% 51,395
     Libertarian Leonard Schwartz 1.2% 3,968
     Green Douglas Campbell 0.9% 2,979
Total Votes 328,792
Source: Michigan Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"
U.S. House, Michigan District 14 Democratic Primary, 2012
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngGary Peters Incumbent 47% 41,230
Hansen Clark Incumbent 35.2% 30,847
Brenda Lawrence 13.3% 11,644
Mary Waters 3.3% 2,919
Bob Costello 1.2% 1,027
Total Votes 87,667

Endorsements

Peters was endorsed by the organizations and individuals below. A full list of Peters' endorsements can be found at his campaign website.[53]

  • Michigan AFL-CIO
  • American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) Michigan Council 25
  • American Federation of Teachers Michigan (AFT Michigan)
  • American Postal Workers Union Local 480-481
  • Michigan Association of Police Organizations (MAPO)
  • Michigan Teamsters Joint Council 43
  • Service Employees International Union (SEIU) Michigan State Council
  • United Auto Workers (UAW)
  • United Steelworkers District 2
  • The Detroit Free Press
  • Mayor Dave Bing, Detroit
  • Fmr. Governor James Blanchard, State of Michigan

Full history


Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Peters is available dating back to 2008. Based on available campaign finance records, Peters raised a total of $8,115,940 during that time period. This information was last updated on May 16, 2013.[56]

Gary Peters's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 US House (Michigan, District 14) Won $2,281,359
2010 US House (Michigan, District 9) Won $3,284,646
2008 US House (Michigan, District 9) Won $2,549,935
Grand Total Raised $8,115,940

2014

Candidates for Congress are required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Peters’ reports.[57]

Gary Peters (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[58]April 15, 2013$486,738.99$373,147.00$(46,500.46)$813,385.53
July Quarterly[59]July 15, 2013$813,385.53$1,049,815.42$(81,176.68)$1,782,024.27
October Quarterly[60]October 15, 2013$1,781,999.27$1,032,351.14$(315,307.30)$2,499,043.11
Year-End[61]January 31, 2014$2,499,093.15$1,008,572.93$(584,005.11)$2,923,660.97
Running totals
$3,463,886.49$(1,026,989.55)

2012

Breakdown of the source of Peters' campaign funds before the 2012 election.

Peters won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012. During that election cycle, Peters' campaign committee raised a total of $2,281,359 and spent $1,887,340.[62]

Cost per vote

Peters spent $6.98 per vote received in 2012.

2010

Breakdown of the source of Peters' campaign funds before the 2010 election.

Peters won re-election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2010. During that election cycle, Peters' campaign committee raised a total of $3,284,646 and spent $3,236,452.[63]

U.S. House, Michigan District 9, 2010 - Gary Peters Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $3,284,646
Total Spent $3,236,452
Total Raised by General Election Opponent $2,038,244
Total Spent by General Election Opponent $1,995,898
Top contributors to Gary Peters's campaign committee
DLA Piper$23,250
Blue Cross/Blue Shield$19,000
University of Michigan$17,350
League of Conservation Voters$17,014
Osprey Group$15,400
Top 5 industries that contributed to campaign committee
Lawyers/Law Firms$362,223
Health Professionals$145,240
Real Estate$142,380
Leadership PACs$131,419
Retired$105,806

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Peters is a "rank-and-file Democrat" as of June 2013.[64]

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[65]

Peters most often votes with:

Peters least often votes with:

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Peters missed 59 of 3,350 roll call votes from Jan 2009 to Mar 2013, which is 1.8% of votes during that period. This is better than the median of 2.2% among the lifetime records of representatives currently serving.[66]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Peters paid his congressional staff a total of $904,112 in 2011. He ranked 28th on the list of the lowest paid Democratic representative staff salaries and ranked 147th overall of the lowest paid representative staff salaries in 2011. Overall, Michigan ranked 13th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[67]

Net worth

See also: Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Peters' net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $1,091,163 and $4,669,000. That averages to $2,880,081.50, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Peters ranked as the 113th most wealthy representative in 2012.[68]

Gary Peters Yearly Net Worth
YearAvg. Net WorthAvg. Citizen Net Worth
2012$2,880,081.50$71,000

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.

2012

Peters was ranked the 105th most liberal representative during 2012.[69]

2011

Peters was ranked the 161st most liberal representative during 2011.[70]

Voting with party

2013

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus. According to the website, Peters has voted with the Democratic Party 87.3% of the time, which ranked 188th among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[71]

Personal

Peters lives in Bloomfield, Michigan, with his wife, Colleen. They have three children.[72]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Gary + Peters + Michigan + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Gary Peters News Feed

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See also

External links


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Washington Post, "Gary Peters announces Michigan Senate campaign," May 1, 2013
  2. ‘’The Hill’’ “Gary Peters Tops $1 Million in First Quarter,” accessed August 1, 2013
  3. ‘’Detroit Free Press’’ “Sierra Club Endorses Rep. Gary Peters for U.S. Senate
  4. ‘’Mlive’’ “ Poll Shows Equal Support for Peter Gary and Terri Land,” accessed August 1
  5. 5.0 5.1 Biographical Guide to Members of Congress "Gary Peters" accessed December 23, 2011
  6. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  7. U.S. Congress House Clerk "House of Representatives Committee Assignments" accessed December 23, 2011
  8. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  9. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  10. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1960 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  11. Project Vote Smart, "HR 2217 - Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  12. Project Vote Smart, "HR 624 - CISPA (2013) - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  13. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  14. Politico, "House clears farm bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 New York Times, "Senate passes long-stalled farm bill, with clear winners and losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  16. 16.0 16.1 CNN.com, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  17. 17.0 17.1 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  18. Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  19. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  20. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  21. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  22. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  23. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  24. Politico, "Hill pols plan to donate, halt salary," accessed October 1, 2013
  25. Project Vote Smart, "HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  26. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed September 16, 2013
  27. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  28. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  29. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  30. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  31. US House Clerk, "Roll Call 46," January 28, 2009
  32. Rasmussen, "38% Say Stimulus Plan Helped Economy, 36% Say It Hurt," August 24, 2010
  33. US House Clerk, "Roll Call 314," June 9, 2009
  34. Rasmussen, "54% Oppose “Cash for Clunkers” Plan To Spur Purchase of Greener Cars," June 23, 2009
  35. US House Clerk, "Roll Call 477," June 26, 2009
  36. Rasmussen, "42% Say Climate Change Bill Will Hurt The Economy," June 30, 2009
  37. US House Clerk, "Roll Call 165," March 21, 2010
  38. Rasmussen, "61% Favor Repeal of Healthcare Law," September 20, 2010
  39. Gary Peters "Issues," accessed October 9, 2012
  40. Gary Peters "Bridging Our Communities," accessed October 9, 2012
  41. Gary Peters "Healthcare," accessed October 9, 2012
  42. Gary Peters "Jobs," accessed October 9, 2012
  43. Gary Peters "Proud Democrat," accessed October 9, 2012
  44. Gary Peters "Wall Street," accessed October 9, 2012
  45. Public Policy Polling, "Snyder's popularity plummets," December 18, 2012
  46. The Washington Post, "Levin, Stabenow back Gary Peters for Senate," May 23, 2013
  47. ‘’Detroit Free Press’’ “Sierra Club Endorses Rep. Gary Peters for U.S. Senate
  48. The Washington Post, "The Fix’s top 10 Senate races of 2014," accessed December 10, 2013
  49. Politico, "2012 Election Map, Michigan"
  50. Associated Press primary results
  51. New York Times "House Race Ratings" accessed October 3
  52. YouTube channel
  53. Gary Peters "Endorsements," accessed October 9, 2012
  54. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  55. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  56. 'Open Secrets "Career Fundraising for Gary Peters," accessed May 16, 2013
  57. Federal Election Commission, "Gary Peters Summary Report," accessed July 30, 2013
  58. Federal Election Commission, "Gary Peters April Quarterly," accessed July 30, 2013
  59. Federal Election Commission, "Gary Peters July Quarterly," accessed July 30, 2013
  60. Federal Election Commission, "Gary Peters October Quarterly," accessed October 28, 2013
  61. Federal Election Commission, "Gary Peters Year-End," accessed February 10, 2014
  62. Open Secrets, " 2012 Re-Election Cycle," accessed February 15, 2013
  63. Open Secrets, "Gary Peters 2010 Election Cycle," accessed December 23, 2011
  64. GovTrack, "Gary Peters," accessed June 7 2013
  65. OpenCongress, "Gary Peters," accessed August 6, 2013
  66. GovTrack, "Gary Peters" accessed April 2013
  67. LegiStorm "Gary Peters"
  68. OpenSecrets, "Peters, (D-MI), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  69. National Journal, "TABLE: House Liberal Scores by Issue Area," February 26, 2013
  70. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  71. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed June 6, 2013
  72. Official House Site "Biography," accessed December 23, 2011
Political offices
Preceded by
Joe Knollenberg
U.S. House of Representatives - Michigan
2009-present
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
Michigan State Senate
1995-2002
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
Rochester Hills, Michigan, City Council
1991-1992
Succeeded by
'