|I • II • III • IV • V • VI • VII • VIII • IX • X • XI • XII • XIII • XIV • XV • XVI • XVII • XVIII • XIX • XX • XXI|
- 1 Features
- 2 Preamble
- 3 Article I
- 4 Article II
- 5 Articles III, IV and V
- 6 Article VI
- 7 Article VII
- 8 Article VIII
- 9 Article IX
- 10 Article X
- 11 Article XI
- 12 Article XII
- 13 Article XIII
- 14 Article XIV
- 15 Article XV
- 16 Article XVI
- 17 Article XVII
- 18 Article XVIII
- 19 Article XIX
- 20 Article XX
- 21 Article XXI
- 22 Amending the constitution
- 23 History
- 24 See also
- 25 External links
- 26 Additional reading
- 27 References
The constitution includes 21 articles. It has been amended over one hundred times but, unlike the constitutions of many other states, has never undergone a major revision.
- See also: Preambles to state constitutions
The preamble to the Idaho constitution states:
Article I of the Idaho Constitution is titled the "Declaration of Rights" and details the unalienable rights granted to everyone.
Article II of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Distribution of Powers" and divides the government into three distinct branches: the legislative, executive and judicial.
Articles III, IV and V
Article III, Article IV and Article V of the Idaho Constitution establish the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government, respectively.
Article VI of the Idaho Constitution is title "Suffrage and Elections" and describes the election process as well as the guidelines for suffrage.
Article VII of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Finance and Revenue" and deals with the state's power to tax and generate revenue.
Article VIII of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Public Indebtedness and Subsidies" and concerns public indebtedness and subsidies.
Article IX of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Education and School Lands." This article establishes the school system and guarantees all children the right to a free public education.
Article X of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Public Institutions" and deals with public institutions, such as the seat of government and the prison system.
Article XI of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Corporations, Public and Private" and concerns all corporations other than municipal.
Article XII of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Corporations, Municipal" and establishes the rights and limitations of municipal corporations.
Article XIII of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Immigration and Labor" and concerns immigration and labor laws.
Article XIV of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Militia" and establishes a state militia.
Article XV of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Water Rights" and concerns public use of water, including rights, priorities and limitations.
Article XVI of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Livestock" and deals with livestock.
Article XVII of the Idaho Constitution is titled "State Boundaries" and sets the boundaries of the state in great detail.
Article XVIII of the Idaho Constitution is titled "County Organization" and establishes the individual counties in the state.
Article XIX of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Apportionment."
Article XX of the Idaho Constitution is titled "Amendments" and details the amendment process.
Article XXI f the Idaho Constitution is titled "Schedule and Ordinance" and was established here to ease transition from territory to state.
Amending the constitution
- Main article: Amending state constitutions
Article XX of the Idaho Constitution establishes two ways in which the constitution can be altered over time, either via legislatively-referred constitutional amendments or constitutional conventions.
Either house of the Idaho State Legislature can propose an amendment. If the amendment is agreed to by two-thirds of the members of both the Idaho State Senate and the Idaho House of Representatives, the proposed amendment goes on the next general election ballot. The amendment becomes part of the constitution if it is approved in a simple majority.
A constitutional convention can be called if:
- Two-thirds of the members of each house of the legislature vote to place before the people a question as to whether the people want to call a convention.
- If a majority of all the voters voting at the election vote for a convention, the legislature must arrange to have a convention.
American explorers Lewis and Clark arrived in what is now known as the state of Idaho in the summer of 1805. Searching for a route over the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River, Lewis and Clark traveled through Idaho. British fur traders and trappers followed a few years later, as did missionaries and other settlers. As with many remote western states, large-scale settlement began only after gold was discovered. Thousands of miners rushed into Idaho when word of a major gold strike came in September 1860.
By 1880, Idaho's population rose to 32,610 inhabitants. In the southern section of the territory, many settlers were Mormons who had been dispatched from Salt Lake City to found new colonies. Increasingly, Idaho territory became divided between a Mormon-dominated south and an anti-Mormon north. In the mid-1880s, anti-Mormon Republicans used widespread public antipathy toward the Mormon practice of polygamy to pass legislation denying the predominantly Democratic Mormons the vote. With the Democratic Mormon vote disarmed, Idaho became a Republican-dominated territory. National Republicans eager to increase their influence in the U.S. Congress began to push for Idaho statehood in 1888. The following year, the Idaho territorial legislature approved a strongly anti-Mormon constitution. The U.S. Congress approved the document in 1890, and Idaho became the 43rd state in the Union.
The constitution was adopted on August 6, 1889 by a constitutional convention and was then ratified in a statewide vote of the people in November 1889. The United States Congress approved the ratified constitution on July 3, 1890, accepting Idaho as a state.
- State constitution
- Constitutional article
- Constitutional amendment
- Constitutional revision
- Constitutional convention
- Idaho State Legislature, "Idaho Constitution
- University of Idaho, "Idaho Constitutional Revision Commission"
- University of Idaho, "Idaho Constitution"
- The Spokeman-Review, "Idaho Constitution"
- Idaho Secretary of State, "Idaho Constitutional Amendment History"
- History.com, "Jul 3, 1890: Idaho Becomes 43rd State"
- Idaho Historical Timeline
- Colson, Dennis C. (1991). Idaho's Constitution: The Tie That Binds, Boise, Idaho: Caxton Press
- Crowley, Donald, and Florence Heffron (2011). The Idaho State Constitution, New York, New York: Oxford University Press
- Talkington, H.L. (1911). Political History, State Constitution and School Laws of Idaho
- Visit Idaho.org, "Idaho History"