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Kristi Noem

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Kristi L. Noem
Kristi Noem.jpg
U.S. House, South Dakota
In office
Term ends
January 3, 2015
Years in position 3
PredecessorStephanie Herseth Sandlin (D)
Base salary$174,000/year
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 2, 2010
Cost per vote$12.95 in 2012
First electedNovember 6, 2012
Next generalNovember 4, 2014
Campaign $$2,811,273
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
South Dakota House of Representatives
High schoolHamlin High School
Bachelor'sSouth Dakota State University, 2011
BirthdayNovember 30, 1971
Place of birthWatertown, South Dakota
ProfessionRancher, Farmer
Net worth$81,004
ReligionEvangelical Christian
Office website
Campaign website
Kristi L. Noem (b. November 30, 1971, in Watertown, SD) is a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from the state of South Dakota. Noem was first elected by voters from South Dakota's At-Large Congressional District in 2010. She is running for re-election in 2014, and she will face Corinna Robinson (D) in the general election.

Based on analysis of multiple outside rankings, Noem is an average Republican member of Congress, meaning she will vote with the Republican Party on the majority of bills.


Noem attended Northern State University in Aberdeen, but she left school to run the family farm and ranch after her father died unexpectedly in a farming accident. While serving in Congress, she returned to school, enrolling in South Dakota State University, and earned a B.A. in political science in December 2011. [1] Prior to her election to the U.S. House, Noem was a member of the South Dakota House of Representatives.[2]


Below is an abbreviated outline of Noem's professional and political career:[2]

Committee assignments

U.S. House


Noem serves on the following committees:[3]

  • Committee on Agriculture
    • Subcommittee on Conservation, Energy, and Forestry
    • Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management
  • Committee on Armed Services
    • Subcommittee on Military Personnel
    • Subcommittee on Readiness
    • Subcommittee on Seapower & Projection Forces


Noem served on the following committees:[4]

  • Agriculture Committee
    • Subcommittee on Conservation, Energy, and Forestry
    • Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, and Credit
    • Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry[5]
  • Education and the Workforce Committee
    • Subcommittee on Health, Employment, Labor, and Pensions
    • Subcommittee on Workforce Protections
    • Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education[6]
  • Natural Resources Committee
    • Subcommittee on Indian and Alaska Native Affairs
    • Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands
    • Subcommittee on Water and Power[7]

South Dakota House of Representatives


Noem served on the following committees:

Key votes

113th Congress


The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[8] For more information pertaining to Noem's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[9]

National security


Yea3.png Noem voted in support of HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[10]

DHS Appropriations

Yea3.png Noem voted in support of HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 and was largely along party lines.[10]

Keystone Pipeline Amendment

Nay3.png Noem opposed House Amendment 69, which would have amended HR 3 to "require that the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security, conduct a study of the vulnerabilities of the Keystone XL pipeline to a terrorist attack and certify that necessary protections have been put in place." The amendment failed on May 22, 2013, with a vote of 176 - 239 and was largely along party lines.[10]

CISPA (2013)

Yea3.png Noem voted in support of HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill permitted federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities.[11] The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[10]


2014 Farm bill

Yea3.png On January 29, 2014, the U.S. House approved the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, H.R. 2642, also known as the Farm Bill.[12] The bill passed by a vote of 251-166. The nearly 1,000-page bill reformed and continued various programs of the Department of Agriculture through 2018. The $1 trillion bill expanded crop insurance for farmers by $7 billion over the next decade and created new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.[13][14] However, cuts to the food stamp program cut an average of $90 per month for 1.7 million people in 15 states.[14] Noem voted with 161 other Republican representatives in favor of the bill.

2014 Budget

Yea3.png On January 15, 2014, the Republican-run House approved H.R. 3547, a $1.1 trillion spending bill to fund the government through September 30, 2014.[15][16] The House voted 359-67 for the 1,582 page bill, with 64 Republicans and three Democrats voting against the bill.[16] The omnibus package included 12 annual spending bills to fund federal operations.[17] It included a 1% increase in the paychecks of federal workers and military personnel, a $1 billion increase in Head Start funding for early childhood education, reduced funding to the Internal Revenue Service and the Environmental Protection Agency and protected the Affordable Care Act from any drastic cuts. Noem voted with the majority of the Republican party in favor of the bill.[15]

2013 Farm bill
See also: United States Farm Bill 2013

Yea3.png Noem supported the Farm Bill on July 11, 2013. The bill passed in a 216-208 vote.[18] The bill passed included farm policy, but did not include food stamps.[19]

Government shutdown
See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Yea3.png On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[20] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[21] Noem voted to approve the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[22]

Nay3.png The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[23] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Noem voted against HR 2775.[24]


Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.
Morton Memos Prohibition

Yea3.png Noem supported House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[25] The vote largely followed party lines.[26]


Repealing Obamacare

Yea3.png Noem supported all attempts to repeal or delay the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[27]

Social issues


Yea3.png Noem supported HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196. The purpose of the bill was to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[28]

Government affairs

HR 676
See also: Boehner's lawsuit against the Obama administration

Yea3.png On July 30, 2014, the U.S. House approved a resolution 225 to 201 to sue President Barack Obama for exceeding his constitutional authority. Five Republicans--Thomas Massie of Kentucky, Paul Broun of Georgia, Scott Garrett of New Jersey, Walter Jones of North Carolina and Steve Stockman of Texas-- voted with Democrats against the lawsuit.[29] Noem joined the other 224 Republicans in favor of the lawsuit. All Democrats voted against the resolution.[30][31]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal cliff

Yea3.png Noem voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003, while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. She was one of 85 Republicans that voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[32]


On The Issues Vote Match

Noem's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Noem is a Libertarian-Leaning Conservative. Noem received a score of 37 percent on social issues and 79 percent on economic issues.[33]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[34]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Opposes Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Opposes
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Opposes Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Opposes
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Favors Keep God in the public sphere Favors
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Favors Human needs over animal rights Favors
Higher taxes on the wealthy Strongly Opposes Stricter punishment reduces crime Unknown
Support & expand free trade Unknown Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Favors
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Strongly Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Favors
Prioritize green energy Opposes Expand the military Unknown
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Opposes Stay out of Iran Opposes
Privatize Social Security Strongly Opposes Never legalize marijuana Unknown
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[33]

Campaign themes


Noem listed the following issues on her campaign website:[35]

  • "America was built by people who longed for freedom, believed in individual responsibility and knew that government should serve the people - not the other way around. It is still true today, that the best government is the government that governs least."
  • Taxes and Spending
Excerpt: "The federal government has become large, intrusive and inefficient. This excessive growth is a direct threat to our liberty and to our values of individual responsibility and free enterprise. If elected to Congress, I will fight to protect our freedom and turn back the reach of government that is expanding deeper into our lives."
  • Creating Jobs
Excerpt: "Individual initiative and free enterprise will bring our economy back. Higher taxes and more regulations will slow down the recovery. The needless pork projects and the bailouts that the politicians tell us create jobs really just divert money from private sector job creators into government programs..."
  • Healthcare
Excerpt: "Putting the federal government between patients and their doctor is not the answer. If elected to Congress, I will support efforts to fully repeal the health care bill. If full repeal is not possible right away, then we must pursue other options to diminish its effect."
  • Second Amendment
Excerpt: "The Constitution guarantees the individual’s right to keep and bear arms. I am strong supporter of the Second Amendment. "
  • Protecting Life
Excerpt: "I am, and always have been, pro life. From the miracle of conception to a dignified death, life is precious and should be protected. The federal government has no business forcing taxpayers to pay for abortions. If elected to Congress, I will maintain a 100% pro-life voting record."
  • Retirement Security
Excerpt: "South Dakota seniors have put in a lifetime of hard work. They have paid into the system and we have the responsibility to make sure their retirement safety net is there as promised. I will work to protect Social Security for those in retirement and nearing retirement. I oppose privatizing Social Security."

South Dakota House of Representatives


Bills Sponsored

  • HB 1168 - Require children to attend school until age sixteen rather than age eighteen.
  • HB 1202 - Require the director of equalization to use certain factors and adjustments to assess agricultural land and to allow the Department of Revenue and Regulation to assess certain agricultural land.
  • HB 1203 - Provide for the regulation of acupuncturists.
  • HB 1263 - Revise certain provisions relating to the terms of wind easements and wind energy leases.
  • HJR 1006 - Proposing a constitutional amendment to revise the legislative vote required to impose, increase, or authorize taxes.
  • SB 89 - Exempt from federal regulation any firearm, firearm accessory, or ammunition manufactured and retained in South Dakota.
  • SB 91 - Require legislative approval of certain gaming compacts with Indian tribes.
  • SB 106 - Authorize the Board of Regents and the Building Authority to contract for construction of classroom facilities at the University Center in Sioux Falls to replace facilities leased from the Sioux Falls School District, and to make an appropriation therefore.
  • SB 172 - Revise the definition for environmental upgrades used to provide a property tax exemption for coal-fired power plants.
  • SJR 7 - Proposing and submitting to the electors at the next general election an amendment to Article VIII of the Constitution of the State of South Dakota relating to school districts expending public funds to support certain lawsuits against the State of South Dakota.

Bills Co-Sponsored

For a complete list of bills co-sponsored by Kristi Noem, click here.



See also: United States House of Representatives elections in South Dakota, 2014

Noem is running in the 2014 election for the U.S. House to represent South Dakota's At-Large District. Noem ran unopposed in the Republican primary on June 3, 2014. The general election takes place November 4, 2014. She will face Corinna Robinson (D) in the general election.


General Election
Poll Kristi Noem Corinna RobinsonSample Size
Survey South Dakota
October 1-5, 2014
Note: The polls above may not reflect all polls that have been conducted. Those displayed are a random sampling chosen by Ballotpedia staff. If you would like to nominate another poll for inclusion in the table, send an email to


In 2012, Noem was re-elected to the U.S. Congress, representing South Dakota's At-Large Congressional District.[36]

U.S. House, South Dakota At-Large District General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngKristi Noem 57.4% 207,640
     Democratic Matt Varilek Incumbent 42.6% 153,789
Total Votes 361,429
Source: South Dakota Secretary of State, "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"

Full history


On November 4, 2008, Noem won re-election to the South Dakota House of Representatives in the Sixth District. She defeated Cynthia Johnson (D). Also elected to District 6 was Brock Greenfield (R).[38]

South Dakota House of Representatives, District 6
Candidates Votes Percent
Green check mark transparent.png Kristi Noem (R) 6,173 41.3%
Green check mark transparent.png Brock Greenfield (R) 5,022 33.6%
Cynthia Johnson (D) 3738 25.0%


On November 4, 2006, Noem was elected to the South Dakota House of Representatives, District 6. She defeated Jason Soren (D). Also elected to District 6 was Paul Nelson (R).[39]

South Dakota House of Representatives, District 6
Candidates Votes Percent
Green check mark transparent.png Kristi Noem (R) 5,294 39.03%
Green check mark transparent.png Paul Nelson (R) 5,106 37.65%
Jason Soren (D) 3,163 25.0%

Campaign donors

Fundraising events

The below chart from Find The Best tracks the fundraising events Noem attends.

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.


Candidates for Congress are required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Noem's reports.[40]

Kristi Noem (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[41]April 12, 2013$133,794.94$269,844.23$(116,425.03)$287,214.14
July Quarterly[42]July 15, 2013$287,214.14$383,353.91$(144,615.23)$525,952.82
October Quarterly[43]October 15, 2013$525,952.82$303,312.74$(160,660.42)$668,605.14
Year-End[44]January 31, 2014$668,605$299,936$(123,785)$844,756
April Quarterly[45]April 15, 2014$844,756.58$279,584.04$(221,301.82)$903,038.8
Running totals

Comprehensive donor information for Noem is available dating back to 2010. Based on available campaign finance records, Noem raised a total of $2,811,273 during that time period. This information was last updated on March 28, 2013.[46]

Kristi Noem's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 US House (South Dakota, At-Large District) Won $2,811,273
Grand Total Raised $2,811,273

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.


Noem won re-election to the U.S. House in 2012. During that re-election cycle, Noem's campaign committee raised a total of $2,811,274 and spent $2,688,180.[47]

Cost per vote

Noem spent $12.95 per vote received in 2012.


Noem won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 2010. During that re-election cycle, Noem's campaign committee raised a total of $2,295,249 and spent $2,284,548.[48]

Her top five contributors between 2009-2010 were:

In her 2010 congressional campaign, Noem's campaign reported over 1.1 million in contributions.[49] The Federal Election Commission reported that Noem raised $577,131 for her 2010 election campaign. Of these funds, $525,165 came from individual contributions, $32,650 came from PACs or other non-party committees, and $6000 came from party committees. Noem contributed $13,262 to her campaign.[50]

  • For detailed data on individual contributions to Kristi Noem, click here.
  • For detailed data on committee and PAC contributions to Kristi Noem, click here.


In the 2008 election, Noem raised a total of $10,934.[51]

Noem's five largest contributors in 2008 were:

Donor Amount
South Dakota Corn Growers Association $1,500
Virchow, Frank $500
Northwestern Energy $300
South Dakota Republican Party $300
South Dakota Telecommunications Association $300


In the 2006 election, Noem raised a total of $22,904.[52]

Noem's five largest contributors in 2006 were:

Donor Amount
Noem, Kristi $1,639
South Dakota Education Association $1,250
Rapid City Action CMTE $1,000
Oscar Anderson South Dakota Freedom Fund $500
Bergan, Alf $500

Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by, Noem's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $-478,991 to $640,999. That averages to $81,004, which is lower than the average net worth of Republican House members in 2012 of $7,614,097.96. Noem ranked as the 384th most wealthy representative in 2012.[53] Between 2009 and 2012, Noem‘s calculated net worth[54] increased by an average of 6 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[55]

Kristi Noem Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
Growth from 2009 to 2012:18%
Average annual growth:6%[56]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[57]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

PGI: Donation Concentration Metric

See also: The Donation Concentration Metric (U.S. Congress Personal Gain Index)

Filings required by the Federal Election Commission report on the industries that give to each candidate. Using campaign filings and information calculated by, Ballotpedia calculated the percentage of donations by industry received by each incumbent over the course of his or her career (or 1989 and later, if elected prior to 1988). Noem received the most donations from individuals and PACs employed by the Retired industry. Comparatively, the top industry employer in South Dakota's At-Large Congressional District was Educational services, and health care and social assistance, according to a 2012 U.S. Census survey.[58]

From 2009-2014, 22.76 percent of Noem's career contributions came from the top five industries as listed below.[59]

Donation Concentration Metric graphic.png
Kristi Noem Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $6,903,480
Total Spent $5,926,457
Top industry in the districtEducational services, and health care and social assistance
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Health Professionals$286,015
Crop Production & Basic Processing$271,258
Leadership PACs$215,401
Lawyers/Law Firms$202,555
% total in top industry8.63%
% total in top two industries12.77%
% total in top five industries22.76%


Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[60]

Noem most often votes with:

Noem least often votes with:

Source: This graphic was generated by Find The Best.

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Noem is a "rank-and-file Republican," as of August 2014.[61] This was the same rating Noem received in June 2013.[62]

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Noem missed 89 of 2,726 roll call votes from January 2011 to August 2014. This amounts to 3.3 percent, which is worse than the median of 2.5 percent among current congressional representatives as of August 2014.[63]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Noem paid her congressional staff a total of $772,075 in 2011. Overall, South Dakota ranked 48th in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[64]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.


Noem was one of two members of the House who ranked 124th in the conservative rankings in 2013.[65]


Noem ranked 73rd in the conservative rankings in 2012.[66]


Noem was one of two members of Congress who ranked 129th in the conservative rankings in 2011.[67]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.


Noem voted with the Republican Party 93.5 percent of the time, which ranked 146th among the 233 House Republican members as of August 2014.[68]


Noem voted with the Republican Party 96.7 percent of the time, which ranked 90th among the 234 House Republican members as of June 2013.[69]


Noem is married to Bryon. They have three children.

Traffic citations

In the past 21 years, Noem has received 27 traffic citations, 17 of which were for speeding. Noem's last ticket reported her traveling 94mph in 75mph zone. Arrest warrants were issued for Noem for failure to appear in court in connection with her traffic tickets; however, local officials cited changes in ticket procedure as a possible cause of misunderstanding. Noem apologized and settled her fines with the city.[70]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Kristi + Noem + South Dakota + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Kristi Noem News Feed

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See also

External links


  1., "Noem Biography," accessed May 28, 2014
  2. 2.0 2.1 Biographical Directory of the U.S. House, "Noem," accessed June 24, 2013
  3., "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  4. Kristi Noem, Representative from South Dakota, "Committees and Caucuses"
  5. House Committee on Agriculture, "Committees and Caucuses" (dead link)
  6. Education & The Workforce Committee, Congressman John Kline, Chairman, "Members, Subcommittees, & Jurisdictions"
  7. Natural Resources Committee, Chairman Doc Hastings, "Subcommittee on Water and Power"
  8. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  9. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Project Vote Smart, "Representative Noem's Voting Records on National Security," accessed October 11, 2013
  11. The Library of Congress, "H.R.624 CISPA (2013) (Referred in Senate - RFS)," accessed August 27, 2013
  12. Clerk of U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 31: H.R. 2642," accessed February 12, 2014
  13. Politico, "House clears farm bill," accessed February 12, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 New York Times, "Senate passes long-stalled farm bill, with clear winners and losers," accessed February 12, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1, "House passes compromise $1.1 trillion budget for 2014," accessed January 20, 2014
  16. 16.0 16.1 U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote 21," accessed January 20, 2014
  17. Roll Call, "House passes $1.1 trillion omnibus," accessed January 20, 2014
  18. Vote Smart, "Noem on agriculture," accessed October 11, 2013
  19. New York Times, "House Republicans Push Through Farm Bill, Without Food Stamps," accessed September 17, 2013
  20. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  21. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  22. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  23. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  24. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  25. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed August 28, 2013
  26. Project Vote Smart, "Representative Noem's Voting Records on Immigration," accessed October 11, 2013
  27. Project Vote Smart, "Representative Zoe Noem's Voting Records on Issue: Health and Healthcare," accessed October 11, 2013
  28. Project Vote Smart, "Noem on abortion," accessed October 11, 2013
  29. U.S. House, "House Resolution 676," accessed July 30, 2014
  30. Yahoo News, "Suing Obama: GOP-led House gives the go-ahead," accessed July 30, 2014
  31. Washington Post, "House clears way for lawsuit against Obama," accessed July 30, 2014
  32. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  33. 33.0 33.1 On The Issues, "Noem Vote Match," accessed July 7, 2014
  34. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  35. Campaign website, "Issues"
  36. South Dakota Secretary of State "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"
  37. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  38. South Dakota Secretary of State, "Election Results, 2008"
  39. South Dakota Secretary of State, "Election Results, 2006"
  40. Federal Election Commission, "Noem 2014 Summary reports," accessed July 23, 2013
  41. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2013
  42. Federal Election Commission, "July Quarterly," accessed July 23, 2013
  43. Federal Election Commission, "October Quarterly," accessed October 28, 2013
  44. Federal Election Commission, "Noem Year-End," accessed February 5, 2014
  45. Federal Election Commission, "April Quarterly," accessed April 21, 2014
  46. Open Secrets, "Career Fundraising for Kristi Noem," accessed March 28, 2013
  47. Open Secrets, "Noem Campaign Contributions," accessed February 28, 2013
  48. Open Secrets, "Kristi L. Noem 2010 Election Cycle," accessed November 16, 2011
  49. Sioux Falls Argus Leader, "Kristi Noem tops spending race," October 12, 2010
  50. Federal Election Commission, "2010 contributions to Kristi Noem"
  51., "2008 Campaign contributions"
  52., "2006 Campaign contributions"
  53. OpenSecrets, "Noem, 2012," accessed January 14, 2014
  54. This figure represents the total percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below).
  55. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  56. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  57. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  58., "My Congressional District," accessed September 24, 2014
  59., "Rep. Kristi Noem," accessed September 25, 2014
  60. OpenCongress, "Kristi Noem," accessed September 2, 2014
  61. GovTrack, "Kristi Noem," accessed September 2, 2014
  62. GovTrack, "Kristi Noem," accessed June 24, 2013
  63. GovTrack, "Noem," accessed September 2, 2014
  64. LegiStorm, "Kristi Lynn Noem," accessed September 18, 2012
  65. National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," September 2, 2014
  66. National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," February 28, 2013
  67. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  68. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  69. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  70. [ Rapid City Journal, "Noem apologizes for traffic citations," September 5, 2010.
Political offices
Preceded by
Stephanie Herseth Sandlin
U.S. House of Representatives - South Dakota, At-large District
Succeeded by
Preceded by
South Dakota House of Representatives - District 6
Succeeded by
Brock Greenfield, Burt Tulson