Mary Ann Sullivan

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Mary Ann Sullivan
Mary Ann Sullivan.jpg
Board member, Indianapolis School Board, At-large
Term ends
Years in position 1
PredecessorAndrea J. Roof
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 4, 2014
First elected2008
Next general2018
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
Indiana House of Representatives
District 97
2008 - 2012
Bachelor'sIndiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis
Master'sIndiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis
Date of birth1959
Place of birthIndianapolis, Indiana
ProfessionEducation consultant
Office website
Campaign website
Mary Ann Sullivan campaign logo
Ballotpedia's school board candidate survey

Mary Ann Sullivan is an at-large member of the nonpartisan Indianapolis School Board in Indiana. The seat was up for general election on November 4, 2014. Mary Ann Sullivan won the general election on November 4, 2014.

Sullivan also formerly served as a Democratic member of the Indiana House of Representatives. She represented District 97 from 2008 to 2012. In 2012, she ran unsuccessfully for the District 36 seat in the Indiana State Senate.


Mary Ann Sullivan is a resident of Indianapolis, Indiana. Sullivan earned her B.A. degree in philosophy and her master's degree in public affairs from Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis. She has worked for the Christel DeHaan Family Foundation, the Indiana Department of Education, the Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce and the Key Renaissance School. Sullivan is employed as an education consultant with the Center of Excellence in Leadership of Learning at the University of Indianapolis.[1]



See also: Indianapolis Public Schools elections (2014)


The election in Indianapolis featured three seats up for general election on November 4, 2014. At-large incumbent Andrea J. Roof ran against challengers Ramon L. Batts, David Hampton, Josh Owens and Mary Ann Sullivan. Kelly Bentley and James Turner competed with board member Samantha Adair-White for the District 3 seat, and District 5 incumbent Michael D. Brown faced a challenge from LaNier L. Echols. Challengers Mary Ann Sullivan, Kelly Bentley and LaNier L. Echols won the three seats.


Indianapolis Public Schools, At-Large General Election, 4-year term, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Nonpartisan Green check mark transparent.pngMary Ann Sullivan 45.6% 14,000
     Nonpartisan Andrea J. Roof Incumbent 19.9% 6,115
     Nonpartisan David Hampton 17.7% 5,431
     Nonpartisan Ramon L. Batts 9.4% 2,879
     Nonpartisan Josh Owens 7.5% 2,295
Total Votes 30,720
Source: Marion County Election Board, "2014 General Election Results for Marion County," accessed December 29, 2014


Sullivan reported $53,977.00 in contributions and $30,724.38 in expenditures during the election, which left her with $23,252.62 on hand according to the Marion County Election Board.

Sullivan received contributions from several notable individuals, including LinkedIn co-founder Reid Hoffman, Hoffman's wife Michelle Yee and former Bain Capital managing director Mark Nunnelly. She also received contributions from the Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce's PAC, Democrats for Education Reform and Education Reform Now.[2][3]


Sullivan received endorsements from the Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce and Stand for Children Indiana.[4][5]


See also: Indiana State Senate elections, 2012

Sullivan ran in the 2012 election for Indiana State Senate District 36. She ran unopposed in the Democratic primary on May 8, 2012, and was defeated by incumbent Brent Waltz (R) in the general election which took place on November 6, 2012.[6][7]

Indiana State Senate, District 36, General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Mary Ann Sullivan 46.8% 19,333
     Republican Green check mark transparent.pngBrent Waltz Incumbent 53.2% 21,969
Total Votes 41,302


See also: Indiana House of Representatives elections, 2010

Sullivan defeated Republican candidate Wesley Robinson by a margin of 5,172 to 3,717 to win re-election.[8] The general election took place on November 2, 2010.

In the primary election on May 4, 2010, Sullivan defeated Kristopher Owens by a margin of 1,305 to 180.[9]

Indiana House of Representatives, District 97 General Election (2010)
Candidates Votes
Green check mark transparent.png Mary Ann Sullivan (D) 5,172
Wesley Robinson (R) 3,717


On November 4, 2008, Democrat Mary Ann Sullivan won election to the Indiana House of Representatives District 97 seat after receiving 9,430 votes. She defeated Republican, Jon Elrod who received 7,552 votes.[10]

Indiana House of Representatives, District 97 (2008)
Candidates Votes
Green check mark transparent.png Mary Ann Sullivan (D) 9,430
Jon Elrod (R) 7,552

Campaign themes


Sullivan provided the following responses to a survey conducted by Chalkbeat:

1. Do you support the direction of the school district under Superintendent Lewis Ferebee?


What, if anything, do you like about Ferebee’s leadership of the district? What would you change?

My experience with Dr. Ferebee has been limited, but my impression is that he is a thoughtful, collaborative, optimistic and strategic leader. I hope that he continues to keep an open-mind to new ideas and not fall back into a more conventional posture as superintendent.

2. Do you believe the operation of IPS’ central office is efficient?


What is your opinion of the efficiency of IPS’ central office operations? How much money should be spent outside the classroom on high-level district operations?

My personal experience has been that the IPS central office does not operate efficiently. The recent Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce/IPS report, 2013 Operational Analysis, makes several recommendations aimed at improving real estate, information technology, human resources and financial management efficiency. I support a central office designed to be responsive to school needs, rather than to manage schools from downtown.

The amount of money spent outside the classroom should be driven by school needs, and should not be limited to direct services from central administration.

3. Should the school district partner with charter schools?


Do you support the House Bill 1321 “innovation network” law? What is the ideal relationship between the district and a charter school operator?

Yes, I testified in support of House Bill 1321 during the last legislative session.

Any relationship between the district and a charter operator would be entered into first and foremost to benefit students. It would be a true partnership, with clear roles, responsibilities, expectations, transparency and accountability on all sides. Ideally, successful practices developed in such a relationship would be shared with other interested schools.

4. Do you support the state’s voucher program?


If yes, why do you support vouchers? If not, would you propose ending it?

Although I voted against establishing the state’s voucher program as a state legislator, I would not work to end it as an IPS board member. My focus on the IPS board will be to improve the district and create more high-quality IPS schools. I will direct my time and energy to ensuring that IPS provides the right conditions for school success: adequate resources from the state, autonomous schools, strong school leaders and effective teachers, healthier environments for children, better family and community engagement, more efficient operations, a culture of collaboration, support for innovation, etc.

5. The district is moving toward more partnerships with outside groups like The Mind Trust and Stand for Children. Do you support stronger partnerships with school reform organizations?


If not, why not? If yes, what would you envision those partnerships with charter school organizations look like?

I would welcome partnerships with any outside groups dedicated to improving educational opportunities for children in IPS. I would support real partnerships, where all parties have a stake and a role in decision-making. We need to come to an understanding that we are all working toward the goal of providing students with the best educational opportunities possible. I believe those opportunities can and should be in IPS, but we cannot reach that goal if we are more worried about a school type than serving students.

6. Teachers haven’t received a pay raise in several years. What budget changes, if any, would you support to make this happen?

Good teachers deserve to be paid well or we will continue to lose them. We need to restructure the compensation model to expand the impact of our best teachers. Since teacher salaries and benefits make up about 90 percent of the IPS general fund expenditures, it is clear that options for increasing pay are limited under current conditions.

In the near term, I would make sure the district is operating at peak efficiency in all other budget areas and apply any savings towards the classroom. I would advocate for increased education funding from the state, and I would engage teaches in developing new models for compensation.

7. What percentage of a teacher’s performance evaluation score should be based on student test score growth?

I am a proponent of adopting the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) or a TAP-like system in IPS. TAP is a system that improves teacher quality by providing educators with multiple career paths, and aligns professional development with instructional practice informed by data on student performance. Teachers are compensated based on their performance within that system. In this type of system, the exact percentage that student growth should play in teacher performance evaluations should be determined by the teachers, but should be significant enough to drive informed instructional practice focused on student achievement.

8. The state takeover process has been scrutinized recently. What’s your proposal for how to improve schools that have been rated an F for six straight years?

I don’t believe in one-size fits all solutions, but I would say that any efforts to turnaround, restart or otherwise address persistently failing schools must involve better family and community engagement from the start. Within the school, there must be strong leadership, a clear mission and purpose, shared values, high expectations and a no-excuses attitude toward student success.

9. Ferebee has identified 11 low-performing priority schools to receive extra support and resources. What is your vision for how to improve IPS’ low-performing schools?

As a proponent of autonomous schools, I do not have a single vision for improvement. Rather, I believe that certain conditions need to exist at the school level in order for low-performers to improve. Extra support and resources must be responsive to the needs of the adults and children in buildings, and not imposed upon them from the central administration.

10. What is your vision for how schools within the district should be governed? What role should principals and their assistants have in leading schools?

I support maximum autonomy and flexibility at the school level, in return for accountability for results — a more charter-like relationship between individual schools and the district administration.

11. What didn’t we ask? Tell us about your platform, or another issue you’re passionate about.

I firmly believe that IPS could be the best urban district in the country, if the board and superintendent can take full advantage of the positive education synergies the Indianapolis community has to offer. This is a historic time for the district. The board needs individuals who have the experience, understanding and courage to make this happen.[11]

Chalkbeat survey, (2014)[12]

What was at stake?

Issues in the election

Candidate survey answers

All 10 candidates who ran for school board answered a Chalkbeat survey regarding their positions on a range of issues in the district. These tables aggregate their responses to the five questions with "yes" or "no" answers. Click on a candidate's name in order to see that candidate's answers to all 11 questions, along with the candidate's full explanation for each answer.[13]

At-large candidate positions
Issue Andrea J. Roof Ramon L. Batts David Hampton Josh Owens Mary Ann Sullivan
Do you support stronger partnerships with school reform organizations? No opinion No No opinion Yes Yes
Do you support the state’s voucher program? No No Yes Yes No
Should the school district partner with charter schools, and to what degree? No opinion No No opinion Yes Yes
Do you believe the operation of IPS’ central office is efficient? No opinion No opinion No opinion No No
Do you support the direction of the school district under Superintendent Lewis Ferebee? Yes No opinion Yes Yes No opinion
District 3 candidate positions
Issue Samantha Adair-White Kelly Bentley James Turner
Do you support stronger partnerships with school reform organizations? No opinion Yes No
Do you support the state’s voucher program? No opinion No Yes
Should the school district partner with charter schools, and to what degree? No opinion Yes No
Do you believe the operation of IPS’ central office is efficient? No opinion No No opinion
Do you support the direction of the school district under Superintendent Lewis Ferebee? Yes Yes No
District 5 candidate positions
Issue Michael D. Brown LaNier L. Echols
Do you support stronger partnerships with school reform organizations? No opinion Yes
Do you support the state’s voucher program? No opinion Yes
Should the school district partner with charter schools, and to what degree? Yes Yes
Do you believe the operation of IPS’ central office is efficient? No Yes
Do you support the direction of the school district under Superintendent Lewis Ferebee? Yes Yes

Reform majority on the board

In 2012, three new members were elected to the seven-member Indianapolis School Board who each supported education reform policies, such as school autonomy and charter school partnerships. The 2012 election featured the highest candidate fundraising totals of any school board election in Indianapolis history. The most raised was approximately $65,000, and some candidates received contributions from major national figures such as former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg.

These new members were Gayle Cosby, Caitlin Hannon and Sam Odle, and they joined the existing reformers on the board, Andrea J. Roof, Samantha Adair-White and Diane Arnold, to create a new governing majority in favor of reforms. Shortly after joining the board, the new majority ousted former superintendent Eugene White through a contract buyout and appointed Superintendent Lewis Ferebee as his replacement.[14] Ferebee received praise following his appointment for discovering significant errors in the district budget. Auditors employed with the Indiana State Board of Accounts and the Council on the Great City Schools confirmed Ferebee's assessment that the district had an $8.4 million operating surplus in 2013 instead of a $30 million deficit, which was his predecessor's belief.[15]

According to a report by Chalkbeat, the board majority shifted since 2012. Arnold, Roof, Hannon and Odle constituted the majority, while Adair-White frequently joined the minority along with Michael D. Brown, who supported Eugene White as superintendent and who first joined the board in 1999. Cosby was often the swing vote on the board, although the governing majority was large enough to approve motions and resolutions without her support.[16]

The 2014 election featured challengers to all three incumbents who supported even greater reforms to the district. The Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce endorsed former state Representative Mary Ann Sullivan (D) in the at-large race, former board member Kelly Bentley in the District 3 race and charter school dean LaNier L. Echols in the District 5 race.[17]

October 10 candidate forum

At a candidate forum hosted by the Greater Indianapolis chapter of the NAACP along with the Concerned Clergy of Indianapolis on October 10, 2014, nine of the 10 candidates who ran for three seats on the board voiced their opinions on issues such as charter schools and graduation rates. LaNier L. Echols, a District 5 challenger, did not attend the forum.

A state law passed earlier in 2014 allowing the school district to partner with private-sector charter school operators to either operate or take over district schools sparked the former conversation. At-large incumbent Andrea J. Roof indicated that she did not support turning district schools into charter schools, but acknowledged that some low-performing schools may benefit from a partnership. Two of her challengers, Josh Owens and Mary Ann Sullivan, both proclaimed their support for the law and for charter school partnerships in the district.

The District 3 board member, Samantha Adair-White, condemned the law and stated, "Our kids are not for sale. It is a disgraceful attack. I don’t like it and I’m not with it." One of Adair-White's challengers in District 3, Kelly Bentley, indicated that she would approve of any partnership that could improve student performance.

On the subject of graduation rates, District 5 incumbent Michael D. Brown was optimistic about spreading the success of certain high-achieving schools across the district. He added, "There’s no new thing in education. [...] If you really want to improve, you have to replicate programs that are successful." At-large challenger David Hampton stated that raising graduation rates were his highest priority and that he would not support granting waivers to students who could not pass state examinations. Fellow at-large candidate Ramon L. Batts insisted that parent engagement with high school students was the primary issue driving down graduation rates. District 3 challenger James Turner claimed that outside partnerships would not remedy the problem and that only internal improvement would increase graduation rates.[18]

Ramon Batts plagiarism

At-large candidate Ramon L. Batts underwent criticism in October 2014 following the discovery that he had plagiarized certain answers to a survey distributed by the education media outlet Chalkbeat. Internet commentators on the survey article were the first to highlight the alleged plagiarism of materials from organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union and the National Association for the Education of Young Children. Batts denied that the plagiarism was intentional and labeled it a "mistake," although he acknowledged that "Certainly, I know better." He added, "That’s what happens when you’re doing things at 1 or 2 a.m." Chalkbeat contacted his opponent, incumbent Andrea J. Roof, for comment on the story, but she declined to issue a statement on the matter.[19]

Issues in the district

Teacher merit pay contract

The Indianapolis School Board approved a new teacher contract on September 23, 2014, for the 2014-2015 school year. Since the passage of an Indiana state law in 2011, teacher salaries must be linked to performance in some manner.[20] In this contract, district teachers who were evaluated as either "highly effective" or "effective" during the 2013-2014 school year will receive a $1,500 bonus. In the 2012-2013 school year, only five district teachers were rated as "ineffective."[21]

Teachers are eligible for a $5,000 stipend if new responsibilities, such as developing curriculum, are assigned. The salary for new teachers is flexible and dependent on whether they are hired to teach in a low-performing school or to teach classes in a high-need subject. Although employee health insurance premiums will rise, the district will also pay the difference between the new cost and the previous year's cost.

Rhondalyn Cornett, who serves as the president of the Indianapolis Education Association, approved the final contract and said in an interview with Chalkbeat, "Teachers are stepping up and doing more things all the time,” she said. "It’s about time they get compensated for it. We wanted to see (an increase to the base salary), but the district explained it was a recurring cost." The Indianapolis School Board voted 6-1 to approve the contract, with District 2 member and former teacher Gayle Cosby casting the only vote against it. Following the vote, she criticized the removal of academic credentials from consideration in the salary schedule and stated that she supported higher teacher salaries than those in the contract. Superintendent Lewis Ferebee praised the contract and insisted, "It’s a move in the right direction."[22]

The contract is split into two separate salary schedules, with the first being for teachers hired before October 1, 2014, and the second being for teachers hired after that date. Both schedules use "years of effectiveness" as the steps for the salary ladder. Effectiveness is determined through teacher evaluations, although every year of teaching experience prior to the 2012-2013 school year is automatically counted as effective. The first salary schedule splits the ladder into seven different lanes depending on a teacher's academic credentials, so that teachers with a bachelor's degree are in the lowest-compensated lane and teachers with a doctorate are in the highest-compensated lane. The second salary schedule does not differentiate teachers by their academic credentials. The lowest possible base salary on the first salary schedule is $35,684 and the highest is $71,042, while the lowest base salary on the second salary schedule is also $35,684 but the highest is $57,702.[23]

Campaign donors


In 2010, Sullivan collected $68,302 in donations. The top contributors were as follows:[24]


In 2008, Sullivan collected $481,890 in donations. The top contributors were as follows:[25]

Donor Amount
Indiana House Democratic Caucus $169,415
Indiana Democratic Party $139,404
Pat Bauer for State Representative $47,000
Indiana State Teachers Association $35,000
Woodhold Properties $5,000
John & Jennifer Andrews $5,000
Mary Ann Sullivan $5,000
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers $5,000
Michael Dilts $5,000
Jeb Bardon for Indiana $4,000
Russ Stilwell for State Representative $3,000
Christel Dehaan $3,000
International Union of Painters & Allied Trades $2,500
AFSCME Council 62 $2,000
Indiana State Auto Workers $2,000
Ronald Gerwig $2,000
Indiana Chamber of Commerce $2,000
ISTA Marion County $1,000
Indiana-Kentucky Regional Council of Carpenters $1,000
W. Trent Van Haaften for State Representative $1,000

Committee assignments


In the 2011-2012 legislative session, Sullivan served on these committees:


In the 2009-2010 legislative session, Sullivan served on these committees:

Legislative walkout

Sullivan and 36 other Democratic representatives participated in a legislative walkout on February 22, 2011, in opposition to proposed legislation limiting union powers in Indiana. The Democratic departure left the House void of a quorum, leaving only 58 of the 67 representatives needed to establish a quorum.[26] Terri Austin, Steven Stemler and Vanessa Summers stayed behind to provide, if necessary, a motion and a seconding motion, which would enable them to stop any official business from proceeding should the Republicans try to do so.[26]

On March 7, 2011, House Minority Leader B. Patrick Bauer revealed the Democratic caucus' hideout to be the Comfort Suites in Urbana, Illinois.[27] According to the Indiana Constitution, Article 4, sections 11 and 14, the House may enforce fines and other methods to compel absent members to return. Beginning on March 7, 2011, each Democrat was subject to a fine of $250, to be withheld from future expense or salary payments, for each day they were not present in the statehouse.[28] Regarding their actual pay, House Speaker Brian Bosma announced that the 37 lawmakers were required to be physically present in the chambers to receive their per diem payment of $152/day.[27] This move came as a result of the approximated $40,000 in per diem payments automatically made to the legislators during their first seven days of absence. According to reports, the representatives promised to either return the money, or donate it to charity.[27]

March 22, 2011, marked the start of the fourth consecutive week of Democratic absenteeism, complete with an increased incentive to return. Governor Mitch Daniels and House Republicans upped the ante with daily fines increasing from $250/day to $350/day, effective March 21, 2011. Despite the increased penalties, Democratic resolve remained intact. House Minority Leader B. Patrick Bauer stated that Democrats "will remain steadfast" in their opposition to bills hurting wages and education in Indiana.[29] Rep. Winfield Moses, Jr. (D) called the increase "a poke in the eye," and promised that it would do nothing to break the impasse.[30]

The Democrats ended the standoff after 36 days, returning on March 28, 2011. The two sides agreed to compromise on a number of issues, including shelving the controversial "right-to-work" bill.[28] Although the Democrats returned with some of their demands met, their actions were not without consequence. Each absent member accrued a total of $3,500 in fines given by Republicans.[28]

The Legislature ended up passing "right-to-work" legislation on February 1, 2012, becoming the 23rd state to do so. Gov. Mitch Daniels (R) signed the measure into law.[31]

About the district

See also: Indianapolis Public Schools, Indiana
Indianapolis Public Schools is located in Marion County, Indiana.

Indianapolis Public Schools is located in Marion County, Indiana. The county seat is Indianapolis. Marion County is home to 928,281 residents, according to the United States Census Bureau.[32] In the 2011-2012 school year, Indianapolis Public Schools was the largest school district in Indiana and served 31,999 students.[33]


Marion County overperformed compared to the rest of Indiana in terms of higher education achievement in 2012. The United States Census Bureau found that 27.6 percent of Marion County residents aged 25 years and older had attained a bachelor's degree compared to 23.0 percent for Indiana as a whole. The median household income for Marion County was $42,603 compared to $48,374 for the state of Indiana. The percentage of people below poverty level for Marion County was 19.4 percent while it was 14.7 percent for the state of Indiana.[32]

Racial Demographics, 2013[32]
Race Marion County (%) Indiana (%)
White 66.7 86.3
Black or African American 27.6 9.5
American Indian and Alaska Native 0.5 0.4
Asian 2.4 1.9
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.1 0.1
Two or more race 2.6 1.8
Hispanic or Latino 9.7 6.4

Presidential Voting Pattern, Marion County[34]
Year Democratic Vote Republican Vote
2012 216,336 136,509
2008 241,987 134,313
2004 162,249 156,072

Note: Each column will add up to 100 percent after removing the "Hispanic or Latino" percentage, although rounding by the Census Bureau may make the total one- or two-tenths off. Read more about race and ethnicity in the Census here.[35]

Recent news

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See also

External links

Suggest a link


  1. Project Vote Smart, "Mary Ann Sullivan's Political Summary," accessed October 8, 2014
  2. Marion County Election Board, "(CFA-4) Summary Sheet," accessed October 20, 2014
  3. Marion County Election Board, "(CFA-11)," accessed October 20, 2014
  4. Indy Chamber, "HobNob 2014-Walk-ins Welcome-registration is closed," accessed October 17, 2014
  5. Stand for Children Indiana, "Stand for Children Indiana Endorses School Board Candidates," September 3, 2014
  6. Indiana Election Division, "May 8, 2012 Primary Election," accessed March 6, 2014
  7. Indiana Election Division, "Indiana General Election, November 6, 2012," accessed January 19, 2013
  8. Indiana Election Division, "Indiana General Election November 2, 2010," accessed March 6, 2014
  9. Indiana Election Division, "Indiana Primary Election, May 4, 2010," accessed March 6, 2014
  10. Indiana Election Division, "Indiana General Election November 4, 2008," accessed March 6, 2014
  11. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  12. Chalkbeat, "Survey: Mary Ann Sullivan argues charter-like autonomy would benefit IPS schools," October 6, 2014
  13. Chalkbeat, "The Next IPS School Board," accessed October 16, 2014
  14. Chalkbeat, "The basics of Indianapolis Public Schools: A new beginning," October 30, 2013
  15. Chalkbeat, "IPS audits: Ferebee is right on deficit, financial reporting deeply flawed," June 10, 2014
  16. Chalkbeat, "Outside groups gear up for ‘pivotal’ IPS school board race," August 25, 2014
  17. Chalkbeat, "IPS school board race heats up as challengers emerge," July 24, 2014
  18. Chalkbeat, "IPS school board candidates already are pulling in big bucks," September 27, 2014
  19. Chalkbeat, "IPS school board candidate Ramon Batts says mistake led to plagiarism," October 8, 2014
  20. Chalkbeat, "The basics of teacher evaluation in Indiana, part 2: Ratings formulas and merit pay," November 18, 2013
  21. Chalkbeat, "IPS rates just five teachers ineffective," April 7, 2014
  22. Chalkbeat, "New IPS teachers contract pays bonuses based on performance," September 24, 2014
  23. Indianapolis Public Schools, "IEA Contract 2014," accessed October 16, 2014
  24. Follow the Money, "Indiana House 2010 Donors," accessed October 8, 2014
  25. Follow the Money, "Indiana House 2008 Donors," accessed October 8, 2014
  26. 26.0 26.1, "Indiana Democrats trigger Statehouse showdown over anti-union legislation," February 22, 2011
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Fox 59, "Fines begin for absent House Democrats," March 7, 2011
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 The Wall Street Journal, "Pressure Mounts on Absent Democrats in Wisconsin, Indiana," March 3, 2011
  29., "Dems' walkout drags on, among nation's longest," March 23, 2011
  30., "Indiana Republicans say they're done negotiating," March 17, 2011
  31. Reuters, "Indiana becomes 23rd "right-to-work" state," February 1, 2012
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 United States Census Bureau, "Marion County, Indiana," accessed September 3, 2014
  33. National Center for Education Statistics, "ELSI Table Generator," accessed April 22, 2014
  34. Indiana Election Division, "Election Results," accessed September 3, 2014
  35. United States Census Bureau, "Frequently Asked Questions," accessed April 21, 2014
Political offices
Preceded by
Indiana House of Representatives District 97
Succeeded by
Justin Moed (D)