Maui County Genetically Modified Organism Moratorium Initiative (November 2014)

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A Maui County Genetically Modified Organism Moratorium Initiative ballot question was on the November 4, 2014 election ballot for voters in Maui County, Hawaii, where it was approved. A temporary injunction against the enforcement of this initiative, however, was issued by Federal Judge Barry Kurren of the Hawaii District. The injunction was designed to allow time for arguments for and against the initiative to be heard in court and was set to end on December 5, 2014.

The county agreed to wait until March 31, 2015, to start enforcing the initiative. Proponents, however, are suing the county to try to force it to enforce the initiative despite the lawsuit against it.[1]

The measure was designed to prohibit any growth, testing or cultivation of genetically modified or engineered crops and put a stop to any genetic modification and engineering operations in the county until an environmental and public health study is conducted and finds the proposed cultivation practices to be safe and harmless. This measure was the first ever initiative attempt in Maui County, where the initiative power was granted through its charter in 1983.[2][3][4]

Proponents reported overwhelmingly positive responses from the Maui voters, collecting their first batch of signatures in less than six weeks, while they were allowed 6 months by law.[4]

The activists largely targeted Monsanto, the agriculture company that was, at the time of the initiative's approval, responsible for the most genetic modification experiments and operations in the county. Monsanto unsuccessfully opposed a full GMO ban in Jackson County, Oregon, donating a large sum to the campaign against the initiative, which amassed a war chest of nearly a million dollars, largely donated by big agriculture companies like Monsanto. Although the proposed Maui initiative was only a temporary moratorium requiring a study on the safety of GMOs, Monsanto was expected to spend heavily to defeat the initiative. In fact, Monsanto was early to launch a counter-campaign against the initiative before it was even certified for the ballot.[2][5]

Aftermath

Lawsuits

Immediately after the initiative was approved, Monsanto and Dow Chemical, two of the most active opponents of the initiative, filed a lawsuit against it in federal court. The suit claims that the initiative conflicts with state and federal law. This lawsuit was expected, especially as the pro-GMO side was encouraged by a recent court case over a GMO and agricultural regulation law in Kauai County was ruled in favor of agro-chemical companies. That case claimed that Kauai County had no authority to regulate agriculture and GMOs since state and federal law already did so. A similar argument will be made against this Maui County initiative. John Purcell, Monsanto Hawaii's business and technology lead, said, "This local referendum interferes with and conflicts with long-established state and federal laws that support both the safety and lawful cultivation of GMO plants." The Shaka Movement, the group behind the initiative, successfully petitioned the courts to allow it to join the county as a co-defendant against the suit from Monsanto and Dow Chemical.[6][7]

Another suit was filed by initiative proponents against the county in the Maui District of state court in an effort to force the county to enforce the initiative. Proponents have requested federal court to put off ruling until the state court court case has been decided.[6]

A hearing on this initiative was set for March 31, 2015, in federal court.[8]

Election results

Maui County, GMO Initiative
ResultVotesPercentage
Approveda Yes 23,082 51.19%
No22,00548.81%

Election results via: Hawaii Secretary of State

Enforcement

The measure was designed to provide strict penalties for violations of the prohibition against bio-engineering and genetic modification. Civil penalties prescribed by the measure consist of fines that range from $10,000 to $50,000 per day for cultivation of genetically modified organisms. The measure also dictated criminal penalties consisting of $2,000 in fines and a year in prison for each offense, which could result in extremely harsh maximum criminal penalties since each day of violation is considered a separate infraction.[9]

Text of measure

Ballot title

The official ballot title appeared as:[10]

Voter Initiative: Genetically Engineered Organisms[11]

A lawsuit was filed by opponents to change the text in order to indicate more clearly to voters that the measure sought to ban GMOs. The lawsuit was unsuccessful, however. Details can be found below under the section called "Lawsuits."[10][12]

Ballot question

The official ballot summary and question was:[13]

Should the proposed initiative prohibiting the cultivation or reproduction of genetically engineered organisms within the County of Maui, which may be amended or repealed as to a specific person or entity when required environmental and public health impact studies, public hearings, a two thirds vote and a determination by the County Council that such operation or practice meets certain standards, and which establishes civil and criminal penalties, be adopted for Maui County?[11]

Full text

See also: Maui County Genetically Modified Organism Moratorium Initiative (November 2014), full text

The first section of the proposed initiative ordinance read as:[14]

A BILL PLACING A MORATORIUM ON THE CULTIVATION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ORGANISMS

Chapter 20.39 of the Maui County Code 19__ (20__ Edition, as amended) is amended by adding a new article to be appropriately designated and to read as follows:

“Article __ Moratorium on the Cultivation of Genetically Engineered Organisms.”

SECTION 1: Summary Statement

The Hawaii Constitution states that the Public Trust Resources (including but not limited to the land, water, and air) shall be conserved and protected for current and future generations.
The Genetically Engineered (GE) Operations and Practices occurring in Maui County (also known as GMO) are different than GE food production farming and therefore pose different circumstances, risks, and concerns. In Maui County, GE Operations and Practices include the cultivation of GE seed crops, experimental GE test crops, and extensive pesticide use including the testing of experimental Pesticides and their combinations in what is effectively an outdoor laboratory.
The citizens of Maui County have serious concerns as to whether GE Operations and Practices and associated use and testing of Pesticides, occurring in Maui County are causing irreparable harm to the people, Environment, and Public Trust Resources.
Therefore, the citizens of Maui County call for a suspension of all GE Operations and Practices within the County through a Temporary Moratorium Initiative until an Environmental Public Health Impact Statement analysis of the impacts stemming from GE Operations and Practices and their associated Pesticide use is provided and reviewed by County Council.[11]

The full text of the proposed ordinance is available here.

Support

ShakaMovementlogo.jpg

Supporters

The group behind the initiative was called the Shaka Movement, which claimed the slogan "Sustainable Hawaiian Agriculture for the Keiki and the Aina."[15] The five chief petitioners for the initiative were:[15]

  • Mark Sheehan Ph.D., environmentalist and health advocate
  • Lorrin Pang M.D., MPH and consultant to the World Health Organization since 1985

"Shaka Movement" video
  • Lei’ohu Ryder, Spiritual Kumu
  • Alika Atay, indigenous Hawaiian natural farmer and Hawaiian Spiritual Leader
  • Dr. Bonnie Marsh N.D., a naturopathic doctor

During a rally of initiative proponents, speeches supporting a GMO moratorium were given by:[4]

  • Elle Cochran, Maui County council member
  • Terez Amato, state senate candidate
  • John Fitzpatrick, environmentalist and county council candidate
  • Kory Payne, a campaign finance reformer
  • Courtney Bruch, a local activist
  • Dr. Joe Marshalla
  • Bruce Douglas
  • Ben Cohen from Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream

Cohen announced that Ben and Jerry's ice cream was dedicated to becoming completely GMO free by 2016. Cohen said, “It’s a very difficult task these days to become GMO free in the ice cream industry because most of the feed given to cows comes from GMO crops. We're making


"Shaka Movement" video

great headway in that area yet it’s even more difficult finding GMO free sources for all the other products that are added to ice cream.”[4]

Arguments in favor

Supporters of the initiative claimed that biotech companies have used Maui County as a site for large amounts of biological engineering and chemical testing. Proponents claimed that, because of the recent discovery of certain strains of "super weeds" and "super bugs" that are resistant to the herbicides currently in use, these agro-chemical companies are testing even more powerful herbicides, as well as genetically modified plants to go along with them. Alika Atay, one of the chief petitioners for this initiative, said, “They’ve turned us into guinea pigs for their experiments. We say: ‘Nuff Already. If there’s a doubt, vote it out, until we’re absolutely sure it’s safe.”[4]

Mark Sheehan, another of the five citizens that stepped forward with the initiative, released a statement in which he said, “They're using this land and endangering everything on these islands in an attempt to control the new outbreaks and problems evolving everywhere GE crops are grown." Sheehan said that the chemical tests that have been done by Monsanto on their products to show their safety are misleading and, because they are laboratory controlled, do not reflect the true effect of massive amounts of chemicals sprayed throughout Maui County. He claimed that the chemicals being used could stay in the air and in people's bodies, combining with other chemicals or changing properties to cause additional toxic effects.[4]


"Shaka Movement" video: petition turn in ceremony

Dr. Lorrin Pang, consultant to the World Health Organization since 1985 and also a chief petitioner of the initiative, released the following statement:[4]

Where are the clinical human studies of GMO’s? Monsanto’s website itself will tell you there are none, because they don’t feel it’s necessary.

The FDA’s regulatory position of substantial equivalence, the assumption that the proteins, fats, and carbohydrates of a GM plant will always be “the same as or substantially similar” to the non GMO version was written by people who are also Monsanto executives. I’m just not comfortable with that.

I’m very concerned also with the results of the mixing of pesticides and herbicides in the environment and in people’s bodies. You may know the effects of each chemical individually but each new combination could have stunning effects. The minute you combine them, all hell can break loose. We’ve only recently learned that, on Kauai for example, they are regularly spraying 70 to 80 different chemicals to kill everything in the soil, the microbes, the viruses, the fungi. That represents 10 to the 23rd possible combinations, a trillion trillion, more than all the drops of water in the ocean.

And they certainly haven’t cleared any of this with the people who have to live with the risk of being exposed to whatever is being tested. This is all quite unethical... [11]

—Dr. Lorrin Pang, [4]

Videos


Paul Hugel, "Dr. Lorrin Pang FDA insights HD 1080p," April 2, 2014

Paul Hugel, "Maui GMO March," April 5, 2014

Paul Hugel, "Maui GMO March Opening Ceremony," April 1, 2014

Opposition


Citizens Against Maui County Farming Ban, "Local Perspectives," September 12, 2014

Opponents

Citizens Against Maui Farming Ban logo

The chief committee in opposition to the initiative was called Citizens Against the Maui County Farming Ban.[16]

The agriculture company called Monsanto employs, as of 2014, 540 Maui County residents and paid a county tax bill of $3.5 million in 2013.[5][17] Mycogen Seeds, an affiliate of Dow AgroSciences, which is also a large, national agriculture and agro-chemical company, has more than 90 workers in Maui County. Both companies strongly opposed the initiative and were likely to be the largest contributors to pro-GMO campaign.[17]

The Hawaii Crop Improvement Association and the Maui County Farm Bureau also opposed the initiative.[18][19]

Arguments against


Citizens Against Maui County Farming Ban, "Look into the Facts," September 5, 2014
Monsanto officials organized a rally in opposition to the GMO initiative in front of the Maui County Building. Fearful for their jobs, labor activists and Monsanto workers cheered, held signs and wore shirts with pro-bio-tech messages. Monsanto employee Lowella Oasay said, "I think the initiative will threaten not only agriculture, but a lot of great jobs for the people of Maui." Monsanto representatives claimed that they have submitted a large volume of research, studies and tests showing their products to be safe and free of harmful side effects.[5]

Representatives of Monsanto and Mycogen Seeds argued that the measure could jeopardize the entire operation of the respective companies, hurting the entire economy of Maui County.[17]


Citizens Against Maui County Farming Ban, "The Farming Ban Initiative Would Affect Us All," September 5, 2014

Dawn Bicoy, community affairs manager for Monsanto, announced that the company would be mounting “an aggressive campaign against this initiative." Bicoy said that the initiative would “devastate our county’s fragile agricultural economy.” He continued to say that the measure is based on “false claims that are not supported at all by the overwhelming body of scientific evidence" and that biotech crops are “critical to making food available and affordable to the world while also protecting crops threatened by disease, like Hawaii’s own papaya.”[18]

The Hawaii Crop Improvement Association released the following statement in opposition to the GMO moratorium: “With almost 18 million farmers worldwide growing genetically engineered crops — 90% of whom are small farmers in developing countries — the Shaka Initiative would stop Maui farmers from taking advantage of modern technology to help address some of the most pressing problems facing agriculture today.”[18]

TV ads

September saw the anti-initiative group Citizens Against Maui County Farming Ban spend large sums - including over $80,000 in the first week of September - on news block and prime time tv ads urging voters to reject the moratorium. The ads focused on the alleged harm the initiative would do to the agricultural industry in the county and on the possibility of unintended consequences, including criminal penalties that could be imposed on backyard farmers and unaware, small-time gardeners.[20]


Citizens Against Maui County Farming Ban, "Puts Maui County Farmers at Risk," September 25, 2014

Citizens Against Maui County Farming Ban, "Serious Legal Consequences," September 24, 2014

Citizens Against Maui County Farming Ban, "Stand with Molokai in Voting NO," September 4, 2014

Responses & controversy

Supporters of the initiative resented the ads, which they believed were being funded by Monsanto and Dow Chemical, the two large agro-chemical companies opposing the initiative. Shaka members and other anti-GMO activists said that the ads entirely misrepresented the proposal and said that it is ridiculous to claim that small-time gardeners could be prosecuted under its provisions. Bruce Douglas, a member of the Shaka Movement, called the ads propaganda and intentionally misleading, saying, "They are specifically written to deceive and trick people into thinking that it's a farming ban, into thinking it'll affect family farmers, and into people thinking there will be job loss, all of which are not true."[19]

Maui farmer Darrell Tanaka thought some of the ads brought up real concerns. He said, "The same people who back the anti-GMO movement also back the anti-pesticide movement. What all small farmers don't want to see is a ban on pesticides."[19]

Douglas implied that this was just the beginning of the massive offensive initiative supporters should expect from the large agro-business companies. He said, "Our best estimate is they have $2 million in their coffers to spend."[19]

Anita Hofschneider, writing for the Honolulu Civil Beat analyzed each commercial and said, "The ads are well-made and persuasive, but sometimes make overstatements about the ballot initiative."[20]

Campaign finance

Total campaign cash Campaign Finance Ballotpedia.png
as of October 27, 2014
Category:Ballot measure endorsements Support: $64,780
Circle thumbs down.png Opposition: $7,896,164

Below is the campaign finance information filed by committees in support of and opposition to this initiative as of October 27, 2014.[21]

Support

Petition committee and PAC info:

Committee or PAC Amount raised Amount spent
Maui Citizen's Initiative for a Temporary Moratorium on GMO Crop Cultivation[22] $52,422 $55,342
Maui United[23] $12,358 $12,354
Total $64,780 $67,696

Top 5 contributors:
The following were the top five contributors to the campaign opposing this initiative, as of October 27, 2014. Contributions from these five donors essentially made up the entire war chest of the support.[24]

Donor Amount
John Elder, Makawao, Hi $30,000
Deborah Mader, Kihei, Hi $11,615
Dawn Bergin, Centennial, Co $5,000
Jeffrey Bronfman, Haiku, Hi $2,000
Daniel Pike, Naples, Fl $1,500

Opposition

Petition committee and PAC info:[25]

Committee or PAC Amount raised Amount spent
Citizens Against the Maui County Farming Ban[24] $7,896,164 $6,335,083
Total $7,896,164 $6,335,083

Top 3 contributors:
The following were the top three contributors to the campaign opposing this initiative, as of October 27, 2014. Contributions from these three donors essentially made up the entire war chest of the opposition.[24]

Donor Amount
Monsanto $5,101,047
Dow AgroSciences, LLC $1,775,200
Council for Biotechnology Information $1,000,000

Lawsuits

Ballot title & election date

Status: Ruled in favor of initiative, restoring the measure to the ballot and allowing ballots to be mailed

The opposing group called the Citizens Against the Maui County Farming Ban filed a lawsuit against the initiative. The lawsuit sought two things:[10]

1.) It sought to change the ballot title from simply "Voter Initiative: Genetically Modified Organisms" to the more explanatory "Voter Initiative: prohibiting cultivation or reproduction of genetically engineered organisms." The lawsuit claimed that the original ballot title provided could confuse voters by not being clear on the effects of the initiative. They claimed that the title could influence voters in favor of GMOs to vote yes on the measure, as well as creating a chance that voters opposed to GMOs will vote against it.

2.) The lawsuit also sought to remove the initiative from the November 2014 ballot, placing it on the November 8, 2016, ballot instead. The basis for this argument was that the Maui Charter gives voters a minimum of 90 days to review and consider any initiative's ballot title and summary before the general election. The lawsuit argued that the ballot language for the Shaka initiative was not finalized in time to allow for this before the November 2014 election.

Injunction

After initial arguments were made, the court issued a temporary injunction to prevent the county from printing and mailing ballots that included the GMO initiative. The county, which needed to send out ballots by mail to absentee and overseas voters, sued to lift the injunction. It was joined by the Shaka Movement in the counter-suit.[12]

Final ruling

Second Circuit Court Judge Rhonda Loo ultimately ruled that the initiative must go on the ballot.[12]

The Shaka movement stated, "The judge clearly understands that Maui's first-ever successful citizens' initiative should not be blocked by a well-funded corporate campaign designed to thwart the democratic process."[12]

Attorneys for Citizens Against the Maui County Farming Ban stated they would investigate the ruling to see if any further legal action could be taken against the initiative.[12]

Background

Kauai lawsuit

In November of 2013, the Kauai County Council approved a law that required large agriculture operations to report any pesticides or genetically engineering they used. This measure was quickly targeted by a lawsuit filed jointly by DuPont’s Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Syngenta Seeds, Agrigenetics, Inc. and BASF Plant Sciences LP. On August 25, 2014, Hawaii District Federal Court Judge Barry Kurren ruled that the county's ordinance was illegal and invalidated it. Although this law and the initiative sought in Maui County are not the same, Judge Kurren's ruling disturbed many Maui County initiative supporters because his decision stated that Kauai County had no authority to regulate pesticides or GMOs because state and federal law already regulate these aspects of agriculture. Specifically, the ruling looked at the Hawaii Pesticide Law. Kurren said that, although the state law did not directly conflict with the Kauai County ordinance, it was written with a broad scope, intending to establish the state legislature's exclusive control over such regulation of crops. The ruling did, however, insist that federal laws were not an impediment to the content of the ordinance, implying that the state government might be the proper arena for the proposal of additional restrictions on GMOs.[26]

Kauai Mayor Bernard Carvalho Jr. stated, “I always said and I agree with the intent of Ordinance 960, but I felt the law was not proper and legal in ways to proceed." He continued, “The county’s special counsel is reviewing the court’s decision. Aside from all else, we are committed to continue working closely with the state on matters relating to agricultural pesticide use. We also hope that the ruling won’t preclude us from following through on the joint fact finding process as well as the Environmental Public Health Impact Study that were called for in Ordinance 960 and a subsequent resolution passed by the County Council. Having good solid information will help us all better address concerns about the health impacts of pesticides as we move forward.”[26]

Path to the ballot

See also: Laws governing local ballot measures in Hawaii

On April 8, 2014, the Shaka Movement, including over 400 volunteer signature gatherers, turned in its initiative petitions, which contained over 9,500 signatures, to the county clerk. After validation, the county elections office found this first submission several thousand signatures short of the required threshold. The county charter, however, allowed for a supplemental secondary submission. On May 27, 2014, the Shaka Movement turned in an additional 9,626 signatures.[2][4][27]

Petitioners needed valid signatures equaling 20 percent of the votes cast for county mayor in the last mayoral election to qualify their initiative for the ballot. In the 2010 mayoral election, 42,322 ballots were cast, which means 8,464 of submitted signatures needed to be valid to qualify the initiative for the ballot. On June 6, 2014, the Maui County clerk stated that 9,062 valid signatures were found and announced the certification of the county's first ever initiative. According to the charter, the county council had 60 business days from the date of certification to enact the ordinance directly or it would go before voters on the next general election ballot - in this case the November 4, 2014, election ballot. On July 24, 2014, the county council met to discuss the initiative and vote on it. Ultimately, the council voted to not take any action on the initiative, sending it on to a county vote.[2][4][27]

Initiative process in the county of Maui for ordinances:

See also: Laws governing the initiative process in Maui

The signature requirement for initiated ordinances is 20 percent of the total number of voters who cast ballots in the last mayoral general election. Any five qualified voters may commence initiative proceedings by filing with the county clerk an affidavit with the content required in the Maui Charter, Sec. 11-2. Petition content requirements are in Sec. 11-3 of the charter. Completed petitions must be assembled as one instrument and filed with the county clerk within 180 days of the initial affidavit. After certification, the council has 60 days to adopt the ordinance or submit it at the next general election, provided the next general election is not scheduled for less than 90 days from the council meeting. Any ordinances enacted pursuant to this article may be amended or repealed by an ordinance enacted after one year from the date of certification, but only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the council membership. (Maui Charter, Art. 11)[3]

The Maui County Charter features restrictions prohibiting an initiative ordinance from applying or extending to the following subjects (Maui Charter, Sec. 11-1):[3]

  • any part or all of the capital program or annual budget;
  • any property tax levied;
  • any ordinance making or repealing any appropriation of money;
  • any ordinance authorizing the issuance of bonds;
  • any ordinance authorizing the appointment of employees; or,
  • any alteration or enactment of an emergency ordinance.

Similar measures

See also: Local GMO on the ballot

Local bans

2015

2014

Approveda Maui County Genetically Modified Organism Moratorium Initiative (November 2014)
Approveda Humboldt County "Genetic Contamination Prevention Ordinance" GMO Ban Initiative, Measure P (November 2014)
Approveda Jackson County Genetically Modified Organism Ban, Measure 15-119 (May 2014)
Approveda Josephine County Genetically Modified Organism Ban, Measure 17-58 (May 2014)
Proposed ballot measures that were not on a ballot Lane County Genetically Modified Organism Ban (2014)

Statewide labeling measures

Defeatedd Colorado Mandatory Labeling of GMOs Initiative (2014)
Defeatedd Oregon Mandatory Labeling of GMOs Initiative (2014)
Defeatedd California Proposition 37, Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Engineered Food (2012)
Defeatedd Oregon Labeling of Genetically-Engineered Foods, Measure 27 (2002)
Defeatedd Washington Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Engineered Food Measure, Initiative 522 (2013)

See also

External links

BP-Initials-UPDATED.png
Suggest a link

Basic info

Support

Opposition

Additional reading

References

  1. KITV, "Maui Co. agrees not to enforce GMO ban until March 31," November 17, 2014
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 CT Post, "Maui group gathers signatures for GMO initiative," April 8, 2014
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Maui Charter, Art. 11 and 14," accessed April 17, 2014
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 CT Post, "Over 11,000 Maui County Citizens Stand Up and Say "Nuff Already" to Biotech Experimentation with a History Making Social Action," April 14, 2014
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 KITV 4 ABC, "Over 11,000 signatures gathered for moratorium on GMO companies," April 8, 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 Star Tribune, "Monsanto, Dow Chemical unit sue Maui County to stop law passed by voters that bans GMO growing," November 13, 2014
  7. KITV, "Temporary injunction granted against Maui GMO law," November 14, 2014
  8. KHON 2, "Why Maui GMO ban may be overturned despite voter approval," March 9, 2015
  9. Maui Weekly, "GMO Moratorium Initiative Heard in Council," July 10, 2014 (timed out)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Maui Now, "Group Files Lawsuit to Remove GMO Initiative from Ballot," September 11, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 The Bellingham Herald, "Judge rules GMO measure can appear on Maui ballots," September 16, 2014
  13. Maui Now, "2014 Constitutional and County Charter Amendment Questions," September 9, 2014, archived September 12, 2014
  14. Shaka Movement website, "Text of the Shaka Movement ordinance," accessed April 17, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 Shaka Movement website," accessed April 17, 2014
  16. Citizens Against the Maui County Farming Ban website, "Stop The Maui Farming Ban," accessed September 30, 2014
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Star Advertiser, "Maui seed companies say GMO moratorium could kill jobs," July 1, 2014
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Maui Now, "Maui Petition Filed Against GMO Industry, Monsanto Responds," April 8, 2014
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Hawaii News Now, "Maui GMO ads spur debate," September 24, 2014
  20. 20.0 20.1 Honolulu Civil Beat, "Ad Watch: Pro-GMO Group Calls Maui County Measure a ‘Farming Ban’," September 8, 2014
  21. Hawaii Government website, "Campaign contributions in 2014," accessed October 28, 2014
  22. Hawaii Government website, "Campaign finance reports for Maui Citizen's Initiative fore a Temporary Moratorium on GMO Crop Cultivation," accessed October 28, 2014
  23. Hawaii Government website, "Maui United," accessed October 28, 2014
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Hawaii Government website, "Citizens Against the Maui County Farming Ban," accessed October 28, 2014
  25. Note: This is the committee that was actually active in campaigning. Three other committees were formed, but only listed expenditures to the Citizens Against Maui County Farming Ban PAC.
  26. 26.0 26.1 khon2, "Federal judge declares new Kauai GMO, pesticide law invalid," August 25, 2014
  27. 27.0 27.1 Maui County Election Office website, "GMO moratorium petition gets required number of signatures," June 6, 2014