Melvin Watt

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Melvin L. Watt
Melvin L. Watt.jpg
Director of Federal Housing Finance Agency
In office
December 11, 2013-Present
PartyDemocratic
PredecessorN/A
Elections and appointments
Last electionNovember 6, 2012
Cost per vote$3.47 in 2012
First electedNovember 3, 1992
ConfirmedDecember 10, 2013
Term limitsN/A
Prior offices
United States House of Representatives
1993-2013
North Carolina State Senate
1985 - 1987
Education
Bachelor'sUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
J.D.Yale University
Personal
BirthdayAugust 26, 1945
Place of birthSteele Creek, North Carolina
ProfessionAttorney
Net worth$929,020.50
ReligionPresbyterian
Websites
Office website
Melvin Luther "Mel" Watt (b. August 26, 1945, in Steele Creek, NC) is the current Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency. He was nominated to the position by President Barack Obama on May 1, 2013, and was confirmed by the Senate on December 10, 2013, by a vote of 57-41.[1][2]

His nomination was successfully blocked by Senate Republicans in October 2013. It was the first time a sitting member of Congress had a nomination filibustered since 1843.[3]

Watt was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1992, where he served eleven terms.[4] Watt resigned from his seat in January 2014 to take a position with the Federal Housing Finance Agency.[5] Prior to his congressional career, Watt was a member of the North Carolina State Senate from 1985 to 1987.[6]

Biography

Watt was born in Steele Creek, North Carolina. He earned his B.A. from the University of North Carolina in 1967 and his J.D. from Yale University in 1970.[6]

Career

After earning his degrees, Watt worked as an attorney in private practice. He was also a member of the North Carolina State Senate from 1985 to 1987.[6]

Confirmation vote

Watt was confirmed as director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) by the U.S. Senate on December 10, 2013, by a vote of 57-41.[7] Watt's nomination was blocked by Senate Republicans in October 2013.[1]

Mel Watt confirmation vote, December 10, 2013
Party Votes for Approveda Votes against Defeatedd Total votes
Democratic Party Democrats 53 0 53
Republican Party Republicans 2 41 43
Independent Independents 2 0 2
Total Votes 57 41 98


Committee assignments

U.S. House

2013-2014

Watt served on the following committees:[8]

2011-2012

Watt served on the following committees:[9]

  • Judiciary Committee
    • Subcommittee on Intellectual Property, Competition and the Internet (Ranking Member)
    • Subcommittee on Courts, Commercial and Administrative Law
  • Financial Services Committee
    • Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit
    • Subcommittee on Insurance, Housing and Community Opportunity

Key votes

113th Congress

CongressLogo.png

The 113th Congress has had 55 out of 5,401 introduced bills enacted into law (1 percent) as of November 30, 2013. Comparatively, the 112th Congress had 1.14 percent of introduced bills enacted into law in the first session.[10] For more information pertaining to Watt's voting record in the 113th Congress, please see the below sections.[11]

National security

NDAA

Nay3.png Watt voted against HR 1960 - the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. The bill passed the House on June 14, 2013, with a vote of 315 - 108. Both parties were somewhat divided on the vote.[12]

DHS Appropriations

Nay3.png Watt voted against HR 2217 - the DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014. The bill passed the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 245 - 182 that was largely along party lines.[13]

CISPA (2013)

Nay3.png Watt voted against HR 624 - the CISPA (2013). The bill passed the House on April 18, 2013, with a vote of 288 - 127. The bill permitted federal intelligence agencies to share cybersecurity intelligence and information with private entities and utilities. The bill was largely supported by Republicans, but divided the Democratic Party.[14]

Economy

Government shutdown

See also: United States budget debate, 2013

Nay3.png On September 30, 2013, the House passed a final stopgap spending bill before the shutdown went into effect. The bill included a one-year delay of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate and would have also stripped the bill of federal subsidies for congressional members and staff. It passed through the House with a vote of 228-201.[15] At 1 a.m. on October 1, 2013, one hour after the shutdown officially began, the House voted to move forward with going to a conference. In short order, Sen. Harry Reid rejected the call to conference.[16] Watt voted against the stopgap spending bill that would have delayed the individual mandate.[17]

Yea3.png The shutdown ended on October 16, 2013, when the House took a vote on HR 2775 after it was approved by the Senate. The bill to reopen the government lifted the $16.7 trillion debt limit and funded the government through January 15, 2014. Federal employees also received retroactive pay for the shutdown period. The only concession made by Senate Democrats was to require income verification for Obamacare subsidies.[18] The House passed the legislation shortly after the Senate, by a vote of 285-144, with all 144 votes against the legislation coming from Republican members. Watt voted for HR 2775.[19]

Federal Pay Adjustment Act

Nay3.png Watt voted against HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees. The bill passed the House on February 15, 2013, with a vote of 261 - 154. The bill called for a stop to a 0.5 percent pay increase for all federal workers from taking effect, saving the federal government $11 billion over 10 years.[20]

Immigration

Morton Memos Prohibition

Nay3.png Watt voted against House Amendment 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order. The amendment was adopted by the House on June 6, 2013, with a vote of 224 - 201. The purpose of the amendment as stated on the official text is to "prohibit the use of funds to finalize, implement, administer, or enforce the Morton Memos." These memos would have granted administrative amnesty to certain illegal aliens residing in the United States.[21] The vote largely followed party lines.[22]

Healthcare

Healthcare Reform Rules

Nay3.png Watt voted against House Amendment 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The amendment was adopted by the House on August 2, 2013, with a vote of 227-185. The amendment requires that all changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act be approved by Congress before taking effect. The vote was largely along party lines.[23]

Social issues

Abortion

Nay3.png Watt voted against HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act. The resolution passed the House on June 18, 2013, with a vote of 228 - 196 that largely followed party lines. The purpose of the bill was to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.[24]

Previous congressional sessions

Fiscal Cliff

Yea3.png Watt voted for the fiscal cliff compromise bill, which made permanent most of the Bush tax cuts originally passed in 2001 and 2003 while also raising tax rates on the highest income levels. He was one of 172 Democrats who voted in favor of the bill. The bill was passed in the House by a 257 - 167 vote on January 1, 2013.[25]

Issues

On The Issues Vote Match

Melvin Watt's Vote Match results from On The Issues.
See also: On The Issues Vote Match

On The Issues conducts a VoteMatch analysis of elected officials based on 20 issue areas. Rather than relying on incumbents to complete the quiz themselves, the VoteMatch analysis is conducted using voting records, statements to the media, debate transcripts or citations from books authored by or about the candidate. Based on the results of the quiz, Watt is a Hard-Core Liberal. Watt received a score of 88 percent on social issues and 20 percent on economic issues.[26]

On The Issues organization logo.

The table below contains the results of analysis compiled by staff at On The Issues.

On The Issues Vote Quiz[27]
Economic Issues Social Issues
Issue Stance Issue Stance
Legally require hiring women & minorities Strongly Favors Abortion is a woman's unrestricted right Strongly Favors
Expand ObamaCare Strongly Favors Comfortable with same-sex marriage Strongly Favors
Vouchers for school choice Strongly Opposes Keep God in the public sphere Strongly Opposes
Absolute right to gun ownership Strongly Opposes Human needs over animal rights Strongly Opposes
Higher taxes on the wealthy Favors Stricter punishment reduces crime Strongly Opposes
Support & expand free trade Opposes Pathway to citizenship for illegal aliens Strongly Favors
Stricter limits on political campaign funds Favors Maintain US sovereignty from UN Strongly Opposes
Prioritize green energy Strongly Favors Expand the military Opposes
Stimulus better than market-led recovery Strongly Favors Stay out of Iran Strongly Favors
Privatize Social Security Opposes Never legalize marijuana Strongly Opposes
Note: Information last updated: 2014.[26]

House Judiciary Committee

Congressman Watt was first appointed to the House Judiciary Committee shortly after he was first sworn into Congress in 1993.[28] Watt served on the House Judiciary Subcommittees on Courts and Competition Policy, the Constitution, Civil Rights, Civil Liberties Members and Commercial and Administrative Law.[29][30][31]

Campaign themes

2012

Watt's campaign website listed the following issues:[32]

  • The Economy and Jobs
Excerpt: "Corporate irresponsibility and the loss of our manufacturing base have resulted in an economic meltdown and loss of jobs like we have not seen since the Great Depression. My votes for the stimulus bill and for financial services reform were tough votes that required political courage. But they were necessary votes to get us headed in the right direction again."
  • Healthcare
Excerpt: "The new health care reform law represents a giant step toward providing basic health care to all our citizens, changing the focus from reacting to diseases to preventing them and getting our arms around the rising cost of health care. While the health care reform law is not perfect and must be carefully implemented, I am proud that I supported this historic legislation."
  • Education
Excerpt: "I believe that every citizen has a right to a quality education and I am a strong proponent of funding public education at the highest levels possible. I have consistently supported maximum funding for Head Start, programs authorized under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and federal student aid programs."
  • Homeland Security
Excerpt: "I certainly favor protecting our country against attacks from people or groups plotting to do our citizens harm. But we must not require the American people to sacrifice their right of privacy and trample the principles underlying the individual rights of each citizen in the name of fighting terrorism."
  • Voting Rights
Excerpt: "We should want and encourage more, not fewer, Americans to vote and participate in our democracy. The Voting Rights Act facilitates that goal. By breaking down entrenched barriers to voter access and equity, the Voting Rights Act invites and protects the full and equal participation of all citizens. We must not fear that participation, we must embrace and celebrate it."

Elections

2012

See also: North Carolina's 12th Congressional District elections, 2012

Watt won re-election in the 2012 election for the U.S. House, representing North Carolina's 12th District. Watt won the nomination on the Democratic ticket after defeating Matt Newton in the Democratic primary on May 8, 2012.[33][34] He then defeated Jack Brosch (R) in the general election on November 6, 2012.

On March 30, 2012, the 12th District was included in a list released by the National Journal of the top ten most contorted congressional districts, as a result of redistricting.[35]

The Washington Post listed the House of Representatives elections in North Carolina in 2012 as one of the 10 states that could have determined whether Democrats retook the House or Republicans held their majority in 2013.[36] North Carolina was rated eighth on the list.[36]

U.S. House, North Carolina District 12 General Election, 2012
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngMelvin L. Watt Incumbent 79.6% 247,591
     Republican Jack Brosch 20.4% 63,317
Total Votes 310,908
Source: North Carolina State Board of Elections "Official Election Results, 2012 General Election"
U.S. House, North Carolina District 12 Democratic Primary, 2012
Candidate Vote % Votes
Green check mark transparent.pngMel Watt 80.9% 52,968
Matt Newton 19.1% 12,495
Total Votes 65,463

Full history


Campaign donors

Comprehensive donor information for Watt is available dating back to 2000. Based on available campaign finance records, Watt raised a total of $3,791,750 during that time period. This information was last updated on May 16, 2013.[47]

Melvin Watt's Campaign Contribution History
Year Office Result Contributions
2012 U.S. House (North Carolina, District 12) Won $852,387
2010 U.S. House (North Carolina, District 12) Won $604,719
2008 U.S. House (North Carolina, District 12) Won $680,471
2006 U.S. House (North Carolina, District 12) Won $503,513
2004 U.S. House (North Carolina, District 12) Won $579,199
2002 U.S. House (North Carolina, District 12) Won $260,595
2000 U.S. House (North Carolina, District 12) Won $310,866
Grand Total Raised $3,791,750

2014

Candidates for Congress were required to file up to seven main reports with the Federal Election Commission during the 2014 elections season. Below are Watt’s reports before he announced his resignation.[48]

Melvin Watt (2014) Campaign Finance Reports
ReportDate FiledBeginning BalanceTotal Contributions
for Reporting Period
ExpendituresCash on Hand
April Quarterly[49]April 15, 2013$102,690.75$1,000.00$(11,865.91)$91,824.84
July Quarterly[50]July 15, 2013$91,824.84$2,344.55$(14,774.24)$79,395.15
October Quarterly[51]October 12, 2013$79,395.15$10.00$(11,223.08)$68,182.07
Year-End Quarterly[52]December 31, 2013$68,182$5,000$(11,449)$60,932
Running totals
$8,354.55$(49,312.23)

2012

Breakdown of the source of Watt's campaign funds before the 2012 election.

Watt won election to the U.S. House in 2012. During that election cycle, Watt's campaign committee raised a total of $852,387 and spent $857,241.[53]

Cost per vote

Watt spent $3.47 per vote received in 2012.

2010

Breakdown of the source of Watt's campaign funds before the 2010 election.
Watt was re-elected to the U.S. House in 2010 for a tenth term. His campaign committee raised a total of $604,719 and spent $591,204.[54]

Personal Gain Index

Congressional Personal Gain Index graphic.png
See also: Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress)

The Personal Gain Index (U.S. Congress) is a four-part measurement that illustrates the extent to which members of the U.S. Congress have prospered during their tenure as public servants.
It consists of four different metrics:

PGI: Change in net worth

See also: Changes in Net Worth of U.S. Senators and Representatives (Personal Gain Index) and Net worth of United States Senators and Representatives
Net Worth Metric graphic.png

Based on congressional financial disclosure forms and calculations made available by OpenSecrets.org, Watt's net worth as of 2012 was estimated between $444,041 and $1,414,000. That averages to $929,020.50, which is lower than the average net worth of Democratic representatives in 2012 of $5,700,168.36. Watt ranked as the 217th most wealthy representative in 2012.[55] Between 2004 and 2012, Watt's calculated net worth[56] decreased by an average of 2 percent per year. Between 2004 and 2012, the average annual percentage increase for a member of Congress was 15.4 percent.[57]

Melvin Watt Yearly Net Worth
YearAverage Net Worth
2004$1,140,098
2012$929,020
Growth from 2004 to 2012:-19%
Average annual growth:-2%[58]
Comparatively, the American citizen experienced a median yearly decline in net worth of -0.94%.[59]
The data used to calculate changes in net worth may include changes resulting from assets gained through marriage, inheritance, changes in family estates and/or trusts, changes in family business ownership and many other variables unrelated to a member's behavior in Congress.

PGI: Donation Concentration Metric

See also: The Donation Concentration Metric (U.S. Congress Personal Gain Index)

Filings required by the Federal Election Commission report on the industries that give to each candidate. Using campaign filings and information calculated by OpenSecrets.org, Ballotpedia calculated the percentage of donations by industry received by each incumbent over the course of his or her career (or 1989 and later, if elected prior to 1988). Watt received the most donations from individuals and PACs employed by the Commercial Banks industry.

From 1991-2014, 28.04 percent of Watt's career contributions came from the top five industries as listed below.[60]

Donation Concentration Metric graphic.png
Melvin Watt Campaign Contributions
Total Raised $5,473,412
Total Spent $5,411,605
Top five industries that contributed to campaign committee
Commercial Banks$392,072
Lawyers/Law Firms$385,696
Public Sector Unions$272,571
Industrial Unions$271,750
Securities & Investment$212,568
% total in top industry7.16%
% total in top two industries14.21%
% total in top five industries28.04%

Analysis

Ideology and leadership

See also: GovTrack's Political Spectrum & Legislative Leadership ranking

Based on an analysis of bill sponsorship by GovTrack, Watt is a "moderate Democratic follower" as of August 2014.[61] Watt was rated as a "rank-and-file Democrat" in June 2013.

Like-minded colleagues

The website OpenCongress tracks the voting records of each member to determine with whom he or she votes most and least often. The results include a member from each party.[62]

Watt most often votes with:

Watt least often votes with:

Lifetime voting record

See also: Lifetime voting records of United States Senators and Representatives

According to the website GovTrack, Watt missed 279 of 14,072 roll call votes from January 1993 to December 2013. This amounts to 2.0 percent, which is better than the median of 2.5 percent among current congressional representatives as of August 2014.[61]

Congressional staff salaries

See also: Staff salaries of United States Senators and Representatives

The website Legistorm compiles staff salary information for members of Congress. Melvin paid his congressional staff a total of $1,027,436 in 2011. Overall, North Carolina ranked seventh in average salary for representative staff. The average U.S. House of Representatives congressional staff was paid $954,912.20 in fiscal year 2011.[63]

National Journal vote ratings

See also: National Journal vote ratings

Each year National Journal publishes an analysis of how liberally or conservatively each member of Congress voted in the previous year. Click the link above for the full ratings of all members of Congress.

2013

Watt ranked 31st in the liberal rankings in 2013.[64]

2012

Watt ranked 45th in the liberal rankings in 2012.[65]

2011

Watt ranked 50th in the liberal rankings in 2011.[66]

Voting with party

The website OpenCongress tracks how often members of Congress vote with the majority of the chamber caucus.

2013

Watt voted with the Democratic Party 93.1 percent of the time, which ranked 81st among the 201 House Democratic members as of June 2013.[67]

Personal

Watt is married to Eulada Paysour Watt, an educator. They have two sons, Brian and Jason, both of whom are graduates of Yale University and have earned graduate degrees.[68]

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term Melvin + Watt + North Carolina + House

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Melvin Watt News Feed

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See also

External links


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Politico, "Mel Watt confirmed as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac regulator," December 10, 2013
  2. Washington Post, "Obama taps telecom lobbyist for FCC, Rep. Watt to head housing finance agency" accessed May 2, 2013
  3. BuzzFeed, "Senate Blocks Nomination Of Sitting Member Of Congress For First Time Since Reconstruction," October 31, 2013
  4. Politico, "2012 Election Map, North Carolina," accessed November 7, 2012
  5. Charlotte Observer, "Mel Watt to resign from Congress Jan. 6," accessed May 19, 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "WATT, Melvin L., (1945 - )"
  7. GovTrack, "On the Nomination: Melvin L. Watt," accessed December 10, 2013
  8. CQ.com, "House Committee Rosters for the 113th Congress," accessed March 3, 2013
  9. Congressman Mel Watt, Serving North Carolina's 12th District, "Committee Assignments"
  10. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, First Session of the 112th Congress," accessed September 5, 2013
  11. Congressional Record, "Resume of Congressional Activity, Second Session of the 113th Congress," accessed March 4, 2014
  12. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1960 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  13. Project Vote Smart, "HR 2217 - DHS Appropriations Act (2014) Act of 2014 - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  14. Project Vote Smart, "HR 624 - CISPA (2013) - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  15. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  16. Buzzfeed, "Government Shutdown: How We Got Here," accessed October 1, 2013
  17. Clerk of the U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 504," accessed October 31, 2013
  18. The Washington Post, "Reid, McConnell propose bipartisan Senate bill to end shutdown, extend borrowing," accessed October 16, 2013
  19. U.S. House, "Final vote results for Roll Call 550," accessed October 31, 2013
  20. Project Vote Smart, "HR 273 - Eliminates the 2013 Statutory Pay Adjustment for Federal Employees - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  21. The Library of Congress, "H.AMDT.136," accessed September 16, 2013
  22. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 136 - Prohibits the Enforcement of the Immigration Executive Order - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  23. Project Vote Smart, "H Amdt 450 - Requires Congressional Approval for Any Rules Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  24. Project Vote Smart, "HR 1797 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act - Voting Record," accessed September 16, 2013
  25. U.S. House, "Roll Call Vote on the Fiscal Cliff," accessed January 4, 2013
  26. 26.0 26.1 On The Issues, "Melvin Watt Vote Match," accessed June 23, 2014
  27. The questions in the quiz are broken down into two sections -- social and economic. In social questions, liberals and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while conservatives and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers. For the economic questions, conservatives and libertarians agree in choosing the less-government answers, while liberals and populists agree in choosing the more-restrictive answers.
  28. Black Americans in Congress, "Committee Assignments"
  29. House Judiciary Committee, "111th Congress Membership, Courts Subcommittee" (dead link)
  30. House Judiciary Committee, "111th Congress Membership, Constitution Subcommittee" (dead link)
  31. House Judiciary Committee, "111th Congress Membership, Commercial/Administrative Law Subcommittee" (dead link)
  32. Campaign website, "Issues," accessed September 13, 2013
  33. North Carolina State Board of Elections, "2012 Primary Results," accessed October 10, 2012
  34. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named nc
  35. National Journal, "Modern Gerrymanders: 10 Most Contorted Congressional Districts—MAPS," accessed March 31, 2012
  36. 36.0 36.1 Washington Post, "The 10 states that will determine control of the House in 2012," accessed April 25, 2012
  37. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010," accessed March 28, 2013
  38. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 4, 2008," accessed March 28, 2013
  39. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2006," accessed March 28, 2013
  40. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2004," accessed March 28, 2013
  41. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 2002," accessed March 28, 2013
  42. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 7, 2000," accessed March 28, 2013
  43. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1998," accessed March 28, 2013
  44. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 5, 1996," accessed March 28, 2013
  45. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1994," accessed March 28, 2013
  46. U.S. Congress House Clerk, "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1992," accessed March 28, 2013
  47. Open Secrets, "Melvin L. Watt," accessed May 16, 2013
  48. Federal Election Commission, "Melvin L. Watt Summary Report," accessed August 1, 2013
  49. Federal Election Commission, "Melvin L. Watt April Quarterly," accessed August 1st, 2013
  50. Federal Election Commission, "Melvin L. Watt July Quarterly," accessed July 30, 2013
  51. Federal Election Commission, "Melvin Watt October Quarterly," accessed October 22, 2013
  52. Federal Election Commission, "Melvin Watt Year-End Quarterly," accessed February 13, 2014
  53. Open Secrets, "Melvin Watt 2012 Election Cycle," accessed March 4, 2013
  54. Open Secrets, "Melvin L. Watt 2010 Election Data," accessed January 5, 2012
  55. OpenSecrets.org, "Melvin Watt (D-NC), 2012," accessed February 18, 2014
  56. This figure represents the average annual percentage growth from either 2004 (if the member entered office in 2004 or earlier) or their first year in office (as noted in the chart below) to 2012, divided by the number of years calculated.
  57. This number was found by dividing each member's total net worth growth percentage by the number of years included in the calculation.
  58. This figure represents the total percentage growth divided by the number of years for which there are net worth figures for each member.
  59. This figure was calculated using median asset data from the Census Bureau. Please see the Congressional Net Worth data for Ballotpedia spreadsheet for more information on this calculation.
  60. OpenSecrets.org, "Rep. Melvin L. Watt," accessed September 29, 2014
  61. 61.0 61.1 GovTrack, "Melvin Watt," accessed August 18, 2014
  62. OpenCongress, "Melvin L. Watt," accessed August 18, 2014
  63. LegiStorm, "Melvin L. Watt," accessed October 1, 2012
  64. National Journal, "2013 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed August 18, 2014
  65. National Journal, "2012 Congressional Vote Ratings," accessed March 7, 2013
  66. National Journal, "Searchable Vote Ratings Tables: House," accessed February 23, 2012
  67. OpenCongress, "Voting With Party," accessed July 2014
  68. Congressman Mel Watt, Serving North Carolina's 12th District, "About Mel"
Political offices
Preceded by
James Lockhart
Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency
2013-Present
Succeeded by
-
Preceded by
N/A
U.S. House of Representatives - North Carolina District 12
1993–2013
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
North Carolina State Senate
1985-1987
Succeeded by
'