Missouri State Senate

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Missouri State Senate

Seal of Missouri.svg.png
General Information
Type:   Upper house
Term limits:   2 terms (8 years)
2014 session start:   January 8, 2014
Website:   Official Senate Page
Leadership
Senate President:   Peter Kinder (R)
Majority Leader:   Ron Richard (R)
Minority leader:   Jolie Justus (D)
Structure
Members:  34
   Vacant (2)
Length of term:   4 years
Authority:   Art IV, Missouri Constitution
Salary:   $35,915/year + per diem
Elections
Last Election:  November 6, 2012 (17 seats)
Next election:  November 4, 2014 (17 seats)
Redistricting:  Missouri Legislature Commissions have control
Meeting place:
Missouristatecapitol.jpg
The Missouri State Senate is the upper house of the Missouri General Assembly. It consists of 34 members. Each member represents an average of 176,145 residents, as of the 2010 Census.[1] After the 2000 Census, each member represented 164,565 residents.[2]

The senators serve four-year terms, with a limit of two terms.[3]

Half of the senate is up for re-election every two years.

As of August 2014, Missouri is one of 14 states that is under divided government and is therefore not one of the state government trifectas.

See also: Missouri State Legislature, Missouri House of Representatives, Missouri Governor

Sessions

Article III of the Missouri Constitution establishes when the Missouri General Assembly, of which the Senate is a part is to meet. Section 20 of Article III states that the General Assembly shall convene its regular session on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in January of each year. Section 20 requires the General Assembly to adjourn its regular session by May 30th.

Section 20 of Article III also allows for a special session of the General Assembly to be convened by a joint proclamation of three-fourths of the members of both houses.

2014

See also: Dates of 2014 state legislative sessions

In 2014, the General Assembly was in session from January 8 through May 19.

Major issues

Major issues in the 2014 legislative session included Medicaid expansion, tax cuts and reform, student transfers and right-to-work.[4][5][6]

2013

See also: Dates of 2013 state legislative sessions

In 2013, the Legislature was in session from January 9 through May 30.

Major issues

Major issues during the 2013 legislative session included tax credits, capital improvements, an income tax cut, and a major revision to the state's criminal code.[7]

2012

See also: Dates of 2012 state legislative sessions

In 2012, the Senate was in session from January 4 through May 30.

Major issues

The budget was the main focus of the session, as the state faced a $500 million spending gap in January. The agenda at the start of the session also included economic development, Workers Compensation reforms, and overhauling public school funding.[8] Those items joined health care exchanges, birth control, charter schools, and sentencing guidelines for crack cocaine crimes as points of contention and accomplishment over the course of the session.[9]

2011

In 2011, the Senate was in regular session from January 5 through May 30.[10] Governor Jay Nixon called for a special legislative session for September 6, however, the session was called off when Republicans hesitated on a push to overhaul state tax credits and authorize several new incentive programs, including one for a China freight hub in St. Louis. Assembly members were sent home so that they might read the revised 219-page measure over the weekend. According to Senate President Pro Tem Robert Mayer, the "important" bill "needs the attention of every member of this body."[11]

2010

In 2010, the Senate was in session from January 6 to May 13.[12][13]

Role in state budget

See also: Missouri state budget

The state operates on an annual budget cycle. The sequence of key events in the budget process is as follows:[14][15]

  1. Budget instruction guidelines are sent to state agencies in July of the year preceding the start of the new fiscal year.
  2. State agencies submit their budget requests to the governor in October.
  3. Agency hearings are held from January through April. Public hearings are held in January and February.
  4. The governor submits his or her proposed budget to the state legislature in January.
  5. The legislature typically adopts a budget in April or May. A simple majority is required to pass a budget. The fiscal year begins July 1.

In Missouri, the governor may exercise line item veto, item veto of appropriations, or item veto of selected words authority.[15]

The governor is legally required to submit a balanced budget. The legislature is not required to pass a balanced budget, but the governor is required to sign one.[15]

Cost-benefit analyses

See also: Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative Cost-Benefit Study
Map showing results of the Pew-MacArthur cost-benefit study.

The Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative released a report in July 2013 which indicated that cost-benefit analysis in policymaking led to more effective uses of public funds. Looking at data from 2008 through 2011, the study's authors found that some states were more likely to use cost-benefit analysis while others were facing challenges and lagging behind the rest of the nation. Among the challenges states faced were a lack of time, money and technical skills needed to conduct comprehensive cost-benefit analyses. Missouri was one of the 10 states that used cost-benefit analysis more than the rest of the states with respect to determining return on investment regarding state programs. In addition, these states were more likely to use cost-benefit analysis with respect to large budget areas and when making policy decisions.[16]

Ethics and transparency

Following the Money report

See also: Following the Money 2014 Report

The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending.[17] According to the report, Missouri received a grade of C+ and a numerical score of 75, indicating that Missouri was "middling" in terms of transparency regarding state spending.[17]

Open States Transparency

See also: Open States' Legislative Data Report Card

The Sunlight Foundation released an "Open Legislative Data Report Card" in March 2013. Missouri was given a grade of C in the report. The report card evaluated how adequate, complete and accessible legislative data is to the general public. A total of 10 states received an A -- Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Kansas, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Washington.[18]

Elections

2014

See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2014

Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate will take place in 2014. A primary election was held on August 5, 2014, and a general election will take place on November 4, 2014. The signature-filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in this election was March 25, 2014.

2012

See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2012

Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate were held in Missouri on November 6, 2012. A total of 17 seats were up for election.

The signature filing deadline was March 27, 2012 and the primary date was August 7, 2012.

Missouri state senators are subject to term limits and may not serve more than two four-year terms. In 2012, 9 state senators were termed-out.

The following table details the 8 districts with the smallest margin of victory in the November 6 general election.

During the 2012 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $14,925,692. The top 10 contributors were:[19]

2012 Donors, Missouri State Senate
Donor Amount
Missouri Republican State Senate Campaign Committee $645,706
Missouri Club For Growth $371,665
Missouri Republican Party $286,165
Humphreys, David Craig $240,000
Missouri Democratic Party $188,824
Missouri Hospital Association $180,660
Ameren $180,002
Noranda Aluminum $157,000
Sinquefield, Rex A. $155,001
Dempsey For Senate $154,125

2010

See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2010

Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate were held in Missouri on November 2, 2010. The signature-filing deadline for candidates wishing to run in these elections was March 30, 2010 and the primary Election Day was on August 3, 2010.

In 2010, the candidates for state senate raised a total of $12,861,549 in campaign contributions. The top 10 donors were:[20]

2008

See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2008

Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate consisted of a primary election on August 5, 2008, and a general election on November 4, 2008. A total of 17 seats were up for election.

During the 2008 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $9,291,012. The top 10 contributors were:[21]

2008 Donors, Missouri State Senate
Donor Amount
Missouri Senate Republicans $348,200
Missouri Democratic Party $97,654
Humphreys, David Craig $95,675
Missouri Healthcare Association $85,917
Democratic Senatorial Committee Of Missouri $77,625
Missouri Bankers Association $68,175
3rd Republican Senatorial District Committee $63,863
Missouri Hospital Association $63,125
Citizens For Shields $62,150
Elect Nodler Committee $59,700

2006

See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2006

Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate consisted of a primary election on August 8, 2006, and a general election on November 7, 2006. A total of 17 seats were up for election.

During the 2006 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $8,555,192. The top 10 contributors were:[22]

2006 Donors, Missouri State Senate
Donor Amount
Holzknecht, Michael D $231,910
Flaherty, Mike $120,950
Henke, Wayne J. $101,167
Missouri Bankers Association $92,550
23rd Republican Senatorial District Committee $56,600
31st Republican Senatorial District Committee $50,450
Ministers Benefit Association $50,000
Missouri Hospital Association $45,825
14th Republican Legislative District Committeee $45,000
Missouri Democratic Party $41,441

2004

See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2004

Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate consisted of a primary election on August 3, 2004, and a general election on November 2, 2004. A total of 17 seats were up for election.

During the 2004 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $6,925,632. The top 10 contributors were:[23]

2004 Donors, Missouri State Senate
Donor Amount
Missouri Bankers Association $111,955
Stouffer, Bill $65,256
Missouri Association Of Trial Attorneys $56,614
34th Republican Senatorial District Committee $52,925
4th Democratic Senatorial District Committee $40,400
Mays, Carol Jean $33,695
Missouri Healthcare Association $32,200
6th Republican Congressional District Committee $30,875
Kolkmeyer, Glen $30,487
90th Democratic Legislative District Committee $25,850

2002

See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2002

Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate consisted of a primary election on August 6, 2002, and a general election on November 5, 2002. A total of 17 seats were up for election.

During the 2002 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $6,170,638. The top 10 contributors were:[24]

2002 Donors, Missouri State Senate
Donor Amount
Rizzo, Henry $110,000
Missouri Republican Party $107,355
Democratic Senatorial Cmte Of Missouri $99,000
Missouri Bankers Association $94,425
Gaskill, Sam $67,098
Missouri Healthcare Association $51,850
7th Republican Congressional District Cmte $42,857
Missouri Association Of Trial Attorneys $39,325
Missouri Democratic Party $35,000
Clemens, Dan $32,465

2000

See also: Missouri State Senate elections, 2000

Elections for the office of Missouri State Senate consisted of a primary election on August 8, 2000, and a general election on November 7, 2000. A total of 17 seats were up for election.

During the 2000 election, the total value of contributions to Senate candidates was $4,329,564. The top 10 contributors were:[25]

2000 Donors, Missouri State Senate
Donor Amount
Missouri Democratic Party $297,815
Missouri Republican Party $269,400
Ichord, Clara R. $238,000
Howard, Jerry T. $64,865
Missouri Bankers Association $42,425
Anheuser-Busch $36,586
Gibbons For Congress $33,203
8th Congressional District Republican Committee $29,500
Missouri Association Of Trial Attorneys $29,050
Russell, John T. $25,000

Qualifications

To be eligible to serve in the Missouri State Senate, a candidate must be:[26]

  • At least 30 years of age
  • Qualified Missouri voter for three years before election
  • Resident of the district which he is chosen to represent for 1 year before election
  • Is not delinquent in the payment of any state income taxes, personal property taxes, real property taxes on the place of residence as stated in the declaration of candidacy
  • is not a past or present corporate officer of any fee office that owes any taxes to the state.
  • Has not been found guilty of or pled guilty to a felony or misdemeanor under the federal laws of the United States of America.
  • Has not been convicted of or found guilty of or pled guilty to a felony under the laws of Missouri.
  • In addition to any other penalties provided by law, no person may file for any office in a subsequent election until he or the treasurer of his existing candidate committee has filed all required campaign disclosure reports for all prior elections.

Vacancies

See also: How vacancies are filled in state legislatures
How Vacancies are filled in State Legislatures
NevadaMassachusettsColoradoNew MexicoWyomingArizonaMontanaCaliforniaOregonWashingtonIdahoTexasOklahomaKansasNebraskaSouth DakotaNorth DakotaMinnesotaIowaMissouriArkansasLouisianaMississippiAlabamaGeorgiaFloridaSouth CarolinaIllinoisWisconsinTennesseeNorth CarolinaIndianaOhioKentuckyPennsylvaniaNew JerseyNew YorkVermontVermontNew HampshireMaineWest VirginiaVirginiaMarylandMarylandConnecticutConnecticutDelawareDelawareRhode IslandRhode IslandMassachusettsNew HampshireMichiganMichiganAlaskaVacancy fulfillment map.png

If a vacancy occurs in the senate, the Governor must call for a special election without delay. There is no time limit specified under law.[27] The mandate for a special election is sent to the election authority in the county that first established the legislative district.[28]

Term limits

See also: State legislatures with term limits

The Missouri legislature is one of 15 state legislatures with term limits. Voters enacted the Missouri Term Limits Act in 1992. That initiative said that Missouri senators are subject to term limits of no more than two four-year terms, or a total of eight years.[3]

The first year that the 1992 term limits impacted the ability of incumbents to run for office was in 2002.

Redistricting

See also: Redistricting in Missouri

Legislative redistricting in Missouri is handled by two bipartisan commissions, one for each chamber, with 10 members in the Senate commission and 18 members in the House commission. The Governor selects these members from lists of nominees submitted by the state committees of the Democratic and Republican parties. Two House commission members must come from each congressional district. This differs from the congressional redistricting method, which involves the Assembly simply passing new maps as routine legislation. If a commission cannot complete the process in six months following appointment, a panel of six appellate judges takes over the process for that particular commission; it cannot interfere with one that has already finished.

2010 census

Missouri received its local census data on February 24, 2011. The state's population increased by seven percent, with most growth coming in the southern half of the state. The five most populous cities showed mixed outcomes: Kansas City grew by 4.1 percent since the 2000 Census. St. Louis decreased by 8.3 percent, Springfield grew by 5.2 percent, Independence grew by 3.1 percent, and Columbia grew by 28.4 percent.[29]

Since 1970, Missouri has had the courts involved in finishing redistricting; despite the commissions' intent, 2011 did not end that streak. Both commissions came to an impasse in mid-August 2011, and the special court panel took over. On November 30, the panel finalized a new plan.

While the House plan -- which put 34 Republicans and 23 Democrats into incumbent races -- stood, the Missouri Supreme Court rejected the Senate plan. On January 31, 2012, Governor Jay Nixon appointed a new commission for the sake of redrawing the Senate districts. The commission approved a new plan on February 23; the plan -- which weakened Republican districts around St. Louis -- was met with hostility, then a lawsuit. After hearing testimony and tweaking the map, the commission approved the map again on March 12, and the lawsuit was dropped.

Senators

Salaries

See also: Comparison of state legislative salaries

As of 2013, members of the Missouri House of Representatives are paid $35,915/year. Per diem is $104/day tied to the federal rate. Roll call is used to verify per diem.[30]

When sworn in

See also: When state legislators assume office after a general election

Missouri legislators assume office the first day of the legislative session.

Partisan composition

See also: Partisan composition of state senates
Party As of August 2014
     Democratic Party 9
     Republican Party 23
     Vacancy 2
Total 34


The chart below shows the partisan composition of the Missouri State Senate from 1992-2013.
Partisan composition of the Missouri State Senate.PNG

Leadership

The Lieutenant Governor serves as President of the Senate.[31]

Current leadership

Current Leadership, Missouri State Senate
Office Representative Party
President of the Senate Peter Kinder Ends.png Republican
State Senate President Pro Tempore Tom Dempsey Ends.png Republican
State Senate Majority Floor Leader Ron Richard Ends.png Republican
State Senate Assistant Majority Floor Leader Mike Kehoe Ends.png Republican
State Senate Majority Caucus Leader Eric Schmitt Ends.png Republican
State Senate Majority Whip Brian Nieves Ends.png Republican
State Senate Minority Floor Leader Jolie Justus Electiondot.png Democratic
State Senate Assistant Minority Floor Leader S. Kiki Curls Electiondot.png Democratic
State Senate Minority Caucus Leader Joe Keaveny Electiondot.png Democratic

List of current members

Current members, Missouri State Senate
District Senator Party Assumed office
1 Scott Sifton Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
2 Vacant Ends.png Republican
3 Gary Romine Ends.png Republican 2013
4 Joseph Keaveny Electiondot.png Democratic 2009
5 Jamilah Nasheed Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
6 Mike Kehoe Ends.png Republican 2011
7 Jason Holsman Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
8 Will Kraus Ends.png Republican 2011
9 Shalonn Curls Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
10 Jolie Justus Electiondot.png Democratic 2007
11 Paul LeVota Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
12 Brad Lager Ends.png Republican 2007
13 Gina Walsh Electiondot.png Democratic 2013
14 Maria Chappelle-Nadal Electiondot.png Democratic 2011
15 Eric Schmitt Ends.png Republican 2009
16 Dan Brown Ends.png Republican 2011
17 Ryan Silvey Ends.png Republican 2013
18 Brian Munzlinger Ends.png Republican 2011
19 Kurt Schaefer Ends.png Republican 2009
20 Jay Wasson Ends.png Republican 2011
21 David Pearce Ends.png Republican 2009
22 Vacant
23 Tom Dempsey Ends.png Republican 2007
24 John Lamping Ends.png Republican 2011
25 Doug Libla Ends.png Republican 2013
26 Brian Nieves Ends.png Republican 2011
27 Wayne Wallingford Ends.png Republican 2013
28 Mike Parson Ends.png Republican 2011
29 David Sater Ends.png Republican 2013
30 Bob Dixon Ends.png Republican 2011
31 Ed Emery Ends.png Republican 2013
32 Ronald Richard Ends.png Republican 2011
33 Mike Cunningham Ends.png Republican 2013
34 Rob Schaaf Ends.png Republican 2011

Senate Committees

The Missouri Senate has 18 standing committees:

History

Partisan balance 1992-2013

Who Runs the States Project
See also: Ballotpedia:Who Runs the States and Ballotpedia:Who Runs the States, Missouri
Partisan breakdown of the Missouri legislature from 1992-2013

From 1992-2013, the Democratic Party was the majority in the Missouri State Senate for the first 9 years while the Republicans were the majority for the last 13 years.

Across the country, there were 541 Democratic and 517 Republican state senates from 1992 to 2013.

Over the course of the 22-year study, state governments became increasingly more partisan. At the outset of the study period (1992), 18 of the 49 states with partisan legislatures had single-party trifectas and 31 states had divided governments. In 2013, only 13 states had divided governments, while single-party trifectas held sway in 36 states, the most in the 22 years studied.

The chart below shows the partisan composition of the Office of the Governor of Missouri, the Missouri State Senate and the Missouri House of Representatives from 1992-2013. Partisan composition of Missouri state government(1992-2013).PNG

SQLI and Partisanship

Missouri was one of eight states to demonstrate a dramatic partisan shift in the 22 years studied. A dramatic shift was defined by a movement of 40 percent or more toward one party over the course of the study period.

The chart below depicts the partisanship of the Missouri state government and the state's SQLI ranking for the years studied. For the SQLI, the states were ranked from 1-50, with 1 being the best and 50 the worst. Missouri had Democratic trifectas from 1993-2000 and Republican trifectas from 2005-2008. Of the 22 years studied, Missouri never finished in the top-10 or bottom-10. It received its highest ranking of 13th overall in 2000, the most recent year of a Democratic trifecta. Its lowest ranking of 23rd overall occurred in 1993 and 2008, both years of which had government trifectas. In 1993 it was a Democratic trifecta, and in 2008 it was a Republican trifecta.

  • SQLI average with Democratic trifecta: 18.75
  • SQLI average with Republican trifecta: 20.00
  • SQLI average with divided government: 18.33
Chart displaying the partisanship of Missouri government from 1992-2013 and the State Quality of Life Index (SQLI).

External links

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References

  1. U.S. Census Bureau, "Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010," April 2011
  2. U.S. Census Bureau, "States Ranked by Population," April 2, 2001
  3. 3.0 3.1 termlimits.org, "State Legislative Term Limits," accessed December 17, 2013
  4. KQTV, "Missouri State Legislature Begins 2014 Session," January 8, 2014
  5. KSMU, "Tax Cuts, Student Transfers May Dominate Missouri Legislature's 2014 Session," January 9, 2014
  6. KSMU, "Missouri's Legislative Session 2014 Preview," January 6, 2014
  7. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, "Business issues at top of Republican legislative leaders' agenda in Missouri," January 5, 2013
  8. St. Louis Beacon, "Missouri legislature opens, with last session's issues at top of agenda," January 4, 2012
  9. St. Louis Public Radio,"2012 Missouri legislative session ends," May 19, 2012
  10. National Conference of State Legislatures, "2011 Legislative Sessions Calendar," accessed June 6, 2014(Archived)
  11. STLtoday.com, "Missouri Senate puts hold on economic development bill," September 9, 2011
  12. Missouri House of Representatives, "House Journals - 2010 Regular Session," accessed August 4, 2014
  13. Missouri State Senate, "Daily Journals," accessed August 4, 2014
  14. National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 National Association of State Budget Officers, "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
  16. Pew Charitable Trusts, "States’ Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis," July 29, 2013
  17. 17.0 17.1 U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
  18. Sunlight Foundation, "Ten Principles for Opening Up Government Information," accessed June 16, 2013
  19. Follow the Money, "Missouri 2012 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
  20. Follow the Money, "Missouri 2010 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
  21. Follow the Money, "Missouri 2008 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
  22. Follow the Money, "Missouri 2006 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
  23. Follow the Money, "Missouri 2004 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
  24. Follow the Money, "Missouri 2002 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
  25. Follow the Money, "Missouri 2000 - Candidates," accessed August 4, 2014
  26. Missouri Secretary of State, "Elected Officials Qualifications," accessed December 17, 2013
  27. Missouri General Assembly, "Missouri Revised Statutes," accessed December 17, 2013(Referenced Statute 21.110)
  28. Missouri General Assembly, "Missouri Revised Statutes," accessed December 17, 2013(Referenced Statute 21.120)
  29. U.S. Census Bureau, "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Missouri's 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting," February 24, 2011
  30. NCSL.org, "2012 State Legislator Compensation and Per Diem Table," accessed March 18, 2013
  31. Missouri State Senate, "List of Members, Officers, Committees and Rules of the Senate," accessed August 4, 2014