Montana Definition of Marriage, CI-96 (2004)
The Montana Definition of Marriage Amendment, also known as CI-96, was on the November 2, 2004 ballot in Montana as an initiated constitutional amendment, where it was approved. The measure provided that only a marriage between a man and a woman may be valid if performed in Montana, or recognized if performed in another state.
|Montana CI-96 (2002)|
Election results via: Montana Secretary of State
Text of measure
The text of the measure can be read here.
The initiative was introduced by Rep. Jeff Laszloffy (R) and supported by Senator Duane Grimes (R) and Terry Murphy (R-39). They argued that the new amendment would put the definition of marriage in the hands of the people, rather than the courts. They also argued that the acceptance of homosexual marriage, "[e]very public school in Montana would be required to teach children that same-sex marriage and homosexuality are perfectly normal." According to Laszloffy, Grimes and Murphy, this would cause Montanans to "lose the freedom to teach [their] children as [they] wish."
They also argued that if the initiative failed, small business employers could someday be required to provide expanded health coverage, retirement and fringe benefits to same sex "spouses" of employees, which could hurt Montana's economy and jobs. They also argued that churches would be "legally pressured" to perform same-sex weddings and that same-sex marriage is a "vast, untested, social experiment."
CI-96 was opposed by Rep. Tom Facey (D-48), Karl Olson, Joan Hurdle, and Jennifer S. Hendricks. They argued that CI-96 denies basic rights to upstanding citizens of Montana and would ban churches and their clergy from legally solemnizing same-sex partnerships, infringing on the diverse religious beliefs of Montanans.
They also argued that the amendment would do nothing to actually strengthen marriages or the family unit in montana; "What CI-96 does do is diminish the freedom to be 'let alone' that Montanans have historically treasured."
Financing the campaign
The "yes" campaign spent about $10,700, while the "no" campaign spent about $51,500.
The major donors to the pro-campaign were:
- Montana Family Foundation, $6,765.
- Focus on the Family, $2,194.
The major donors to the anti-campaign were:
- Pride, Inc., $15,067.
- National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, $10,000.
The following are measures that banned or attempted to ban same-sex marriages. Note that a number of them have been overturned.
- Alaska Marriage Amendment, Measure 2 (1998)
- Nevada Marriage Amendment, Question 2 (2002)
- Missouri Marriage Definition, Amendment 2 (August 2004)
- Louisiana Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (September 2004)
- Arkansas Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Proposed Constitutional Amendment 3 (2004)
- Georgia Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (2004)
- Kentucky Marriage Amendment (2004)
- Michigan Marriage Amendment, Proposal 2 (2004)
- Mississippi Marriage Definition, Amendment 1 (2004)
- Montana Marriage Verification, Measure CI-96 (2004)
- North Dakota Definition of Marriage, Constitutional Measure 1 (2004)
- Ohio Issue 1, the Marriage Amendment (2004)
- Oklahoma Marriage Question 711 (2004)
- Oregon Marriage Measure 36 (2004)
- Utah Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Amendment 3 (2004)
- Kansas Marriage Amendment (2005)
- Texas Definition of Marriage Act, Proposition 2 (2005)
- Alabama Sanctity of Marriage, Constitutional Amendment 774 (June 2006)
- Arizona Protect Marriage, Proposition 107 (2006)
- Colorado Definition of Marriage, Initiative 43 (2006)
- Idaho Marriage Definition, HJR 2 (2006)
- South Carolina Amendment 1, the Marriage Act (2006)
- South Dakota Marriage Amendment (2006)
- Tennessee Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Amendment 1 (2006)
- Virginia Question 1, Marriage Amendment (2006)
- Wisconsin Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (2006)
- Arizona Marriage Protection, Proposition 102 (2008)
- California Proposition 8, the "Eliminates Right of Same-Sex Couples to Marry" Initiative (2008)
- Florida Definition of Marriage, Amendment 2 (2008)
- North Carolina Same-Sex Marriage, Amendment 1 (May 2012)
- Minnesota Same-Sex Marriage Amendment, Amendment 1 (2012)
- Montana 2004 ballot measures
- 2004 ballot measures
- List of Montana ballot measures
- History of Initiative & Referendum in Montana
- Montana Constitutional Amendments
- Montana Initiative and Referendum
- Constitutional Initiative No. 96
- Montana Secretary of State, "Historical Constitutional Initiatives and Constitutional Amendments," accessed August 5, 2014
- Montana Secretary of State, "Archive Publications," accessed August 5, 2014
- Montana Secretary of State, "2004 Montana Voter Information Pamphlet," accessed August 5, 2014
- Follow the Money database for Montana CI-96
State of Montana
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|historical ballot measure article requires that the text of the measure be added to the page.|