New Jersey State Legislature
|New Jersey State Legislature|
|2014 session start:||January 14, 2014|
|Website:||Official Legislature Page|
|Senate President:||Stephen Sweeney (D)|
|House Speaker:||Vincent Prieto (D)|
|Majority Leader:|| Loretta Weinberg (D) (Senate),|
Louis Greenwald (D) (General Assembly)
|Minority leader:|| Thomas Kean (R) (Senate),|
Jon Bramnick (R) (General Assembly)
|Members:||40 (Senate), 80 (General Assembly)|
|Length of term:||4 years (Senate), 2 years (General Assembly)|
|Authority:||Art Article IV, New Jersey Constitution|
|Last Election:||November 3, 2013|
40 seats (Senate)
November 3, 2013
80 seats (General Assembly)
|Next election:||November 3, 2015|
40 seats (Senate)
November 3, 2015
80 seats (General Assembly)
|Redistricting:||New Jersey Redistricting Commission has control|
- 1 Overview
- 2 Sessions
- 3 Ethics and transparency
- 4 Senate
- 5 General Assembly
- 6 History
- 7 Legislators
- 8 Joint Legislative Committees
- 9 See also
- 10 External links
- 11 References
As of October 2014, New Jersey is one of 14 states that is under divided government and is therefore not one of the state government trifectas.
Legislative elections are held in November of every odd-numbered year. (The state is in this regard unusual, as most states hold legislative elections in even-numbered years, when Congressional elections are also held.)
The Legislature is empowered to make new law, subject to the Governor of New Jersey's power to veto a bill. However, the veto may be overridden by the Legislature if there is a two-thirds majority in favor of overriding in each House.
Furthermore, by a three-fifths vote, the Legislature may propose an amendment to the New Jersey Constitution. An amendment may also be proposed if the Legislature passes it by a majority in two consecutive years. Whichever manner is adopted, the Amendment must be approved in a referendum to become valid as a part of the Constitution. Another major legislative power is vested in the Senate, which has the sole authority to confirm or reject gubernatorial nominees for judicial and some executive positions.
Unlike most state legislatures, many New Jersey legislators also concurrently hold another office at the county or municipal level.
Article IV of the New Jersey Constitution provides that each Legislature is constituted for a term of two years, split into two annual sessions. Because the Constitution also specifies that all business from the first year may be continued into the second year, the distinction between the two annual sessions is more ceremonial than actual. The two-year legislative term begins at noon on the second Tuesday in January of each even-numbered year, which for the 2010-2012 term was on January 12, 2010. At the end of the second year, all unfinished business expires.
Article IV also allows the Governor of New Jersey to call special sessions of the Legislature. Additionally, a special session can be called if a majority of each legislative house petitions the Governor requesting a special session.
- See also: Dates of 2014 state legislative sessions
In 2014, the Legislature will be in session from January 14 through January 1, 2016.
Major issues in the 2014 legislative session include lowering property taxes, establishing the "Hurricane Sandy Bill of Rights," pay equity for women, funding for women’s health care and making college more affordable.
- See also: Dates of 2013 state legislative sessions
In 2013, the Legislature was in session from January 10, 2013, to January 13, 2014.
The major issue for the Legislature is rebuilding the state after superstorm Sandy. Gun control is also expected to be addressed.
- See also: Dates of 2012 state legislative sessions
In 2012, the Legislature was in session from January 10, 2012, to January 9, 2013.
In 2011, the Legislature was in session from January 12, 2011, to January 9, 2012.
Role in state budget
- See also: New Jersey state budget
- Budget instruction guidelines are sent to state agencies in Augufst.
- State agency requests are submitted in October.
- Agency hearings are held in November and December.
- Public hearings are held in March and June.
- The governor submits his or her proposed budget to the New Jersey State Legislature on or before the fourth Tuesday in February.
- The legislature adopts a budget in June. A simple majority is required to pass a budget.
- The fiscal year begins July 1.
The governor is constitutionally required to submit a balanced budget. In turn, the legislature is also constitutionally required to pass a balanced budget.
The Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative released a report in July 2013 which indicated that cost-benefit analysis in policymaking led to more effective uses of public funds. Looking at data from 2008 through 2011, the study's authors found that some states were more likely to use cost-benefit analysis while others were facing challenges and lagging behind the rest of the nation. Among the challenges states faced were a lack of time, money and technical skills needed to conduct comprehensive cost-benefit analyses. New Jersey was one of 29 states with mixed results regarding the frequency and effectiveness in its use of cost-benefit analysis.
Ethics and transparency
Following the Money report
- See also: Following the Money 2014 Report
The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending. According to the report, New Jersey received a grade of C+ and a numerical score of 79, indicating that New Jersey was "middling" in terms of transparency regarding state spending.
Open States Transparency
The Sunlight Foundation released an "Open Legislative Data Report Card" in March 2013. New Jersey was given a grade of A in the report. The report card evaluated how adequate, complete and accessible legislative data is to the general public. A total of 10 states received an A -- Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Kansas, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Washington.
The New Jersey Senate is the upper house of the New Jersey Legislature. It consists of 40 Senators. Each member represents an average of 219,797 residents, as of the 2010 Census. After the 2000 Census, each member represented 210,359. Senators must be 30 years of age or older, must have lived in the state a minimum of four years, and must live in the district represented.
Senators serve four-year terms, except in the first term of a new decade, which only lasts for two years. The "2-4-4" cycle was put into place so that Senate elections can reflect the changes made to the district boundaries on the basis of the decennial United States Census. (If the cycle were not put into place, then the boundaries would sometimes be four years out of date before being used for Senate elections. Rather, with the varied term, the boundaries are only two years out of date). Thus elections for Senate seats take place in years ending with a "1," "3" or "7" (e.g., 2011, 2013 and 2017 this decade).
Interim appointments are made to fill vacant legislative seats by the county committee or committees of the party of the vacating person. The office is on the ballot for the next general election (regardless if all other Senate seats are up in that year, such as in years ending with a "5" or "9," such as 2015 and 2019 this decade), unless the vacancy occurred within 51 days of the election. Then the appointment stands until the following general election.
|Party||As of October 2014|
The New Jersey General Assembly is the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature. The Assembly consists of 80 members. Two members are elected from each of New Jersey's 40 legislative districts for a term of two years. Each member represents an average of 219,797 residents, as of the 2010 Census. After the 2000 Census, each member represented approximately 210,359 residents. To be eligible to run, a potential candidate must be at least 21 years of age, and must have lived in New Jersey for at least two years prior to the election. They also must be residents of their districts. Membership in the Assembly is considered a part-time job, and many members have employment in addition to their legislative work. Assembly members serve two-year terms, elected every odd-numbered year in November. Several members of the Assembly hold other elective office.
The Assembly is led by the Speaker of the Assembly, who is elected by the membership. The Speaker is the third in line after the Lieutenant Governor and President of the Senate to replace the Governor, should he prove unable to execute his duties. The Speaker decides the schedule for the Assembly, which bills will be considered, appoints committee chairmen, and generally runs the business of the Assembly.
|Party||As of October 2014|
Partisan balance 1992-2013
New Jersey State Senate: From 1992-2013, the Democratic Party was the majority in the New Jersey State Senate for the first 10 years and the Republicans were the majority for the last 10 years.
Across the country, there were 541 Democratic and 517 Republican state senates from 1992 to 2013.
New Jersey State House of Representatives: From 1992-2013, the Democratic Party was the majority in the New Jersey State House of Representatives for the last 12 years and the Republicans were the majority for the first 10 years.
Across the country, there were 577 Democratic and 483 Republican State Houses of Representatives from 1992 to 2013.
Over the course of the 22-year study, state governments became increasingly more partisan. At the outset of the study period (1992), 18 of the 49 states with partisan legislatures had single-party trifectas and 31 states had divided governments. In 2013, only 13 states had divided governments, while single-party trifectas held sway in 36 states, the most in the 22 years studied.
SQLI and partisanship
New Jersey was one of eight states to demonstrate a dramatic partisan shift in the 22 years studied. A dramatic shift was defined by a movement of 40 percent or more toward one party over the course of the study period.
The chart below depicts the partisanship of New Jersey state government and the state's SQLI ranking for the years studied. For the SQLI, the states were ranked from 1-50, with 1 being the best and 50 the worst. New Jersey had Republican trifectas from 1994-2001 and Democratic trifectas from 2004-2009. There were four years when New Jersey finished in the top-10, all of those years with Republican trifectas.
- SQLI average with Democratic trifecta: 18.67
- SQLI average with Republican trifecta: 9.75
- SQLI average with divided government: 21.86
- See also: Comparison of state legislative salaries
As of 2013, members of the New Jersey Legislature are paid $49,000/year. There is no per diem.
When sworn in
New Jersey legislators assume office at noon of the second Tuesday in January following the election.
Joint Legislative Committees
- Joint Budget Oversight
- Joint Committee on Housing Affordability
- Joint Committee on the Public Schools
- Joint Legislative Committee on Ethical Standards
- Joint State Leasing and Space Utilization Committee
- New Jersey Legislative Select Committee on Investigation
- New Jersey State Senate
- New Jersey General Assembly
- New Jersey state legislative districts
- State legislative scorecards in New Jersey
- www.nj.com, "New N.J. Legislature sworn in as Democrats focus on taxes, Hurricane Sandy," accessed January 15, 2014
- Wall Street Journal, "Sandy Sets New Agenda for Christie ," January 6, 2013
- National Conference of State Legislatures, "2011 Legislative Sessions Calendar," accessed June 6, 2014(Archived)
- National Conference of State Legislatures, "2010 Legislative Sessions Calendar," accessed July 7, 2014(Archived)
- National Conference of State Legislatures "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
- National Association of State Budget Officers "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
- Pew Charitable Trusts, "States’ Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis," July 29, 2013
- U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
- Sunlight Foundation, "Ten Principles for Opening Up Government Information," accessed June 16, 2013
- census.gov, "Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010," accessed May 15, 2014
- census.gov, "Census 2000 PHC-T-2. Ranking Tables for States: 1990 and 2000," accessed May 15, 2014
- NCSL.org, "2012 State Legislator Compensation and Per Diem Table," accessed March 18, 2013
State of New Jersey
|State executive officer||
Governor | Lieutenant Governor | Attorney General | Secretary of State | Treasurer | Comptroller | Commissioner of Education | Commissioner of Insurance | Secretary of Agriculture | Commissioner of Environmental Protection | Commissioner of Labor and Workforce Development | President of Public Utilities |