New York Freedom of Information Law
- 1 Relevant legal cases
- 2 Proposed changes
- 3 Transparency report card
- 4 Changes in 2008
- 5 Features of the law
- 5.1 Declared legal intention
- 5.2 What records are covered?
- 5.3 What agencies are covered?
- 5.4 Who may request records?
- 5.5 Must a purpose be stated?
- 5.6 How can records be used?
- 5.7 Time allowed for response
- 5.8 Fees for records
- 5.9 Records commissions and ombudsmen
- 5.10 Role of the Attorney General
- 6 Open meetings
- 7 See also
- 8 External links
- 9 References
The Freedom of Information Law (FOIL) is a series of laws designed to guarantee that the public has access to public records of governmental bodies in New York. New York's first such law was passed in 1974. That law was repealed and replaced in 1977 with a significantly changed law. Important amendments to the law were made in 1982, 2005 and 2008.
The New York Open Meetings Law (OML) was enacted in 1976 that broadly asserts the right of the public in New York to "be fully aware of and able to observe the performance of public officials and attend and listen to the deliberations and decisions that go into the making of public policy."
To learn more about how to make a public records request in this state, please see New York FOIA procedures.
Relevant legal cases
- See also: Court cases with an impact on state FOIA
Here is a list of relevant lawsuits in New York (cases are listed alphabetically; to order them by year, please click the icon to the right of the "year" heading).
|Buffalo News v. Buffalo Enterprise Development Corporation||1994|
|Buffalo News v. Buffalo Municipal Housing Authority||1990|
|COMPS v. Town of Islip||2006|
|Capital Newspapers v. Burns||1986|
|Capital Newspapers v. Whalen||1987|
|Daily Gazette v. Schenectady||1999|
|Fink v. Lefkowitz||1979|
|Kryston v. Board of Education, East Ramapo School District||1980|
|Lucas v. Pastor||1986|
|Muniz v. Roth||1994|
|New York News v. Grinker||1989|
|New York News v. Staten Island||1995|
|Newsday v. State Department of Transportation||2004|
|Perez v. City Univ. of New York||2005|
|Russo v. Nassau Community College||1993|
|Scott, Sardano &. Pomeranz v Records Access Officer||1985|
|Washington Post v. Insurance Department||1984|
|Westchester Rockland Newspapers v. Kimball||1980|
|Whitehead v. Morgenthau||1990|
|Zaleski v. Hicksville Union Free School District||1978|
We do not have any legislation for New York in 2011.
We do not have any legislation for New York in 2010.
Transparency report card
A 2008 study, BGA - Alper Integrity Index, conducted by the Better Government Association and sponsored by Alper Services, ranked New York #36 in the nation (tied with Utah) with an overall percentage of 47.30%.
A 2007 study, Graded state responsiveness to FOI requests, conducted by BGA and the NFOIC, gave New York 41 points out of a possible 100, a letter grade of "F" and a ranking of 37 out of the 50 states.
Changes in 2008
Several provisions that modernize and clarify FOIL went into effect on August 7, 2008.
The changes include limits on fees that can be charged individuals for electronic records, provisions regarding large requests, and for new records created from electronic information systems. A new subparagraph clarifies that access to records to ascertain the fairness of real property tax assessments is not an invasion of others' privacy. When government agencies install new information management systems, they are now legally required to build systems that provide maximum public access.
Features of the law
- Compare States: Sunshine variations
- Click on the heading to compare your state's law to other state's transparency laws.
Declared legal intention
The declared legal intention of the FOIL states:
"The legislature hereby finds that a free society is maintained when government is responsive and responsible to the public, and when the public is aware of governmental actions. The more open a government is with its citizenry, the greater the understanding and participation of the public in government.
As state and local government services increase and public problems become more sophisticated and complex and therefore harder to solve, and with the resultant increase in revenues and expenditures, it is incumbent upon the state and its localities to extend public accountability wherever and whenever feasible.The people's right to know the process of governmental decision-making and to review the documents and statistics leading to determinations is basic to our society. Access to such information should not be thwarted by shrouding it with the cloak of secrecy or confidentiality. The legislature therefore declares that government is the public's business and that the public, individually and collectively and represented by a free press, should have access to the records of government in accordance with the provisions of this article."
What records are covered?
- See also: Defining public records
- Under FOIL, a "record" is defined as "any information kept, held, filed, produced, or reproduced by, with or for an agency or the state legislature, in any physical form whatsoever."
- In Capital Newspapers v. Whalen, a 1987 case, a New York court said that a document in the keeping of a government agency does not have to have a specifically governmental purpose in order to fall under FOIL. The court said that looking at the legislative history of FOIL, they did not see a "content-based limitation in defining the term 'record'... Moreover ... permitting an agency to engage in a unilateral prescreening of those documents which it deems to be outside the scope of FOIL would be inconsistent with [the statute]."
- Documents are still covered by the act if a promise of confidentiality has been given. In Washington Post v. Insurance Department, a 1984 case, a court said that a "promise of confidentiality ... is irrelevant to whether the requested documents fit within the Legislature's definition of records ... Nor is it relevant [whether] the documents originated outside the government."
- Documents that are in temporary possession of someone else or some other agency are still covered by the act, and must be furnished to a requestor by the agency that is or should be responsible for the documents.
- Documents that originated outside the government, but which have come into the possession of the government, are covered by the law.
- Agencies that are covered by FOIL are required prepare a "reasonably detailed current list by subject matter" of all records in their possession.
- See also: Deliberative process exemption
What agencies are covered?
- See also: Defining public body
- The law requires disclosure of all non-exempt documents for "agencies." An "agency" is:
- "any state or municipal department, board, bureau, division, commission, committee, public authority, public corporation, council, office or other governmental entity performing a governmental or proprietary function for the state or any one or more municipalities thereof, except the judiciary or the state legislature."
- The records of the state legislature and the state's courts are often available under laws other than FOIL.
- See also: Legislatures and transparency
The New York state legislature is explicitly exempt from the New York Freedom of Information Law under section 86.
Privatized governmental agencies
The New York FOIL incorporates all private entities that perform a governmental function into their definition of public body.
- See also: Universities and open records
The definition of public body presumably includes public universities within the state. However, the New York judiciary has assembled a confusing collection of cases associated with particular exemptions, including:
- Rothenberg v. City University of New York - exempted documents relating to a professor's failed application for tenure.
- Harris v. City University - granted access to faculty C.V.'s.
- Russo v. Nassau Community College - granted access to film used in courses.
Who may request records?
Anyone may request public documents in New York. The law explicitly states that the "public, individually and collectively and represented by a free press, should have access to the records of government."
Must a purpose be stated?
- See also: States requiring a statement of purpose
The reason a requestor may have for asking for copies of public documents is generally not considered when complying with a records request. A few court cases support this:
- In New York News v. Staten Island (1995), a judge wrote, "FOIL does not require that the party requesting records make any showing of need, good faith or legitimate purpose ..."
- In Daily Gazette v. Schenectady (1999), a judge wrote, "An agency's inquiry into, or reliance upon the status and motive of a FOIL applicant would be administratively infeasible, and its intrusiveness would conflict with the remedial purposes of FOIL."
However, New York courts have considered the requestor's motives to be relevant in several cases where the motive of the document requestor was to obtain documents relative to pending litigation.
- In Newsday v. State Department of Transportation, a 2005 case, a judge wrote, "Where a FOIL request for materials subject to [23 U.S.C. § 409] is made by a tort plaintiff, or by someone acting on such a plaintiff's behalf, perhaps denial of the request will be justified."
- In Fink v. Lefkowitz, a 1979 case, access to portions of an office manual of the Special Prosecutor for Nursing Homes was denied under FOIL's "law enforcement" exemption, with the judge writing, "the purpose of the Freedom of Information Law is not to enable persons to use agency records to frustrate pending or threatened investigations nor to use that information to construct a defense to impede a prosecution."
FOIL also allows agencies to deny requests for lists if the lists that would be obtained would be used for commercial or fundraising purposes.
How can records be used?
- See also: Record use restrictions
FOIL places no restrictions on how public records may be used, once they have been obtained.
Time allowed for response
- See also: Request response times by state
New York law allows five days to respond to FOIL requests.
Fees for records
- See also: How much do public records cost?
According to the law:
- The fee for copies is not to exceed $0.25 per photocopy, if the copies are on paper that is 9x14 inches in dimension or less.
- For other copies, the fee is not to exceed the agency's actual reproduction costs.
- In cases where a state statute sets a specific fee for a specific type of record, that statute governs what can be charged.
- Fees for copies of audio and audio-visual records are not to exceed the actual costs for reproduction, unless allowed by law. Agencies cannot charge for staff time involved in reproduction, according to a 1978 court ruling.
- See also: Sunshine laws and search fees
FOIL does not allow agencies to charge for the time spent searching for the requested records.
Some states allow records custodians to waive fees when the request is considered to be of public interest and value. New York is not one of those states. A court ruled in 1990 that fee waivers could not be given to inmates or impoverished people.
Records commissions and ombudsmen
- See also: State records commissions
Role of the Attorney General
- See also: Role of the Attorney General
In the event a legal proceeding is enacted against a public agency or state governmental official under Article 78 for failure to properly comply with the state's Freedom of Information Law, the State Attorney General will act as the agency's defense.
"It is essential to the maintenance of a democratic society that the public business be performed in an open and public manner and that the citizens of this state be fully aware of and able to observe the performance of public officials and attend and listen to the deliberations and decisions that go into the making of public policy. The people must be able to remain informed if they are to retain control over those who are their public servants. It is the only climate under which the commonweal will prosper and enable the governmental process to operate for the benefit of those who created it."
- New York Committee on Open Government
- New York FOIA procedures
- New York transparency advocates
- New York transparency legislation
- Private agency, public dollars-New York
- New York Open Meetings Law
- New York statutes Freedom of Information Law
- New York statutes Open Meetings Law
- Committee on Open Government website
- Open Government Guide to New York
- Your Right to Know, a lengthy report on FOIL, revised in February 2008
- New York on WikiFOIA
- 2008 BGA-Alper Integrity Index
- States Failing FOI Responsiveness, National Freedom of Information Coalition, October 2007
- Freedom of Information in the USA, 2002
- New Provisions Modernize and Clarify FOIL
- Access to government
- N.Y. touches up its open government laws
- Freedom of Information Law section 84
- Freedom of Information Law section 86
- Freedom of Information Law section 87
- Freedom of Information Law section 86
- NY Public Officers Law § 84
- Open Government Guide to FOIL, "Purpose of Request"
- Freedom of Information Law section 89
- Freedom of Information Law section 89
- Freedom of Information Law section 87-88
- Zaleski v. Hicksville Union Free School District
- Whitehead v. Morgenthau
- Open Meetings Law section 100
State of New York
|State executive officers||
Governor | Lieutenant Governor | Attorney General | Secretary of State | Comptroller | Commissioner of Education | Superintendent of Insurance | Commissioner of Agriculture | Commissioner of Environmental Conservation | Commissioner of Labor | Chairman of Public Service Commission |
State of New York Court of Appeals | Supreme Court, Appellate Division | Supreme Courts (Trial Courts) | County Courts | Family Courts | Surrogates' Courts | Court of Claims | District Courts | New York City Civil Court | New York City Criminal Courts | New York City Courts | Problem Solving Courts | Town and Village Courts | Judicial selection in New York |