Public education in New York

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K-12 Education in New York
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Education facts
State Superintendent: John King (New York)
Number of students: 2,704,718[1]
Number of teachers: 209,527
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:12.9
Number of school districts: 923
Number of schools: 4,752
Graduation rate: 77%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $19,076[3]
See also
New York Department of EducationList of school districts in New YorkNew YorkSchool boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in New York
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The New York public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 New York had 2,704,718 students enrolled in a total of 4,752 schools in 923 school districts. While the national ratio of teachers to students was 1:16, in New York there were 209,527 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 13 students. There was roughly one administrator for every 293 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average New York spent $19,076 per pupil in 2011, which ranked it highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 77 percent in 2012. This was the Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate reported to the United States Department of Education for all students in 2011-2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
New York Commissioner of Education
List of school districts in New York
Public education in New York
School board elections portal
The New York State Education Department is led by the New York Commissioner of Education. John King currently serves in that role. The State Education Department has eight main offices: the Office of P-12 Education, the Office of Higher Education, the Office of Cultural Education, the Office of Performance Improvement and Management Services, the Chief Financial Office, the Office of Counsel, the Office of the Professions and the Office of Adult Career and Continuing Educational Services.[6]

The mission statement of the New York State Education Department reads:[6]

Our mission is to raise the knowledge, skill, and opportunity of all the people in New York. Our vision is to provide leadership for a system that yields the best educated people in the world.[7]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The New York State Education Department adopted these standards on July 19, 2010.[8] Implementation of the Common Core State Standards began in 2011. The standards will be fully implemented for the 2014-2015 school year.[9]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states and Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how New York compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional Comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
New York 4,752 923 2,704,718 209,527 1:12.9 1:293.2 $19,076
Massachusetts 1,835 401 953,369 69,342 1:13.7 1:210.1 $13,941
New Jersey 2,596 700 1,356,431 109,719 1:12.4 1:288.0 $15,968
Pennsylvania 3,181 784 1,771,395 124,646 1:14.2 1:334.6 $13,467
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in New York as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[10]

Demographic Information for New York's K-12 Public School System
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 14,675 0.54% 1.10%
Asian 226,656 8.38% 4.68%
African American 500,175 18.49% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 5,214 0.19% 0.42%
Hispanic 630,920 23.33% 24.37%
White 1,304,500 48.23% 51.21%
Two or More 22,578 0.83% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A majority of New York students attend city or suburban schools. This is the same in Massachusetts. However, in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, students are more likely to attend rural schools than city schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural Schools
New York 44.1% 35.3% 7.3% 13.2%
Massachusetts 20.8% 66.1% 2.2% 11.0%
New Jersey 7.2% 80.8% 2.0% 10.0%
Pennsylvania 19.2% 45.7% 12.1% 23.0%
U.S. average 28.9% 34.0% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD) (timed out)

Academic performance

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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceAdaptive softwareBlended learningCarnegie unitCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateDual enrollmentEnglish Language LearnersFree or reduced-price lunchGlobal competence learningHomeschoolingImmersion learningKhan AcademyLocal education agencyMagnet schoolsNAEPOnline learningParent trigger lawsProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool choiceSchool vouchersTeacher merit payVirtual charter schools
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania), New York had the lowest percentage of students score at or above proficient in math and reading in fourth grade and eighth grade.[11]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
New York 40 32 37 35
Massachusetts 58 55 47 48
New Jersey 49 49 42 46
Pennsylvania 44 42 40 42
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state and ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for New York and surrounding states.[11][12][13]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
New York 77% Fourth 23.3 29% 1463 76%
Massachusetts 85% Second 24.1 23% 1553 83%
New Jersey 86% First 23.4 20% 1521 78%
Pennsylvania 84% Second 22.4 18% 1480 71%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for New York was higher than the national average at 3.6 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 3.8 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[14]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in New York

New York has the sixth highest private school attendance rate in the United States. Other school choice options in the state include charter schools, homeschooling, online learning and voluntary inter-district public school open enrollment.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: New York state budget and finances
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 19.8 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. This is down 1.1 percentage points, a 5.3 percent decrease in the share of the budget from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 20.9 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[15][16][17][18][19] Just over half of New York's education revenue comes from local funding. State funding accounts for just over 40 percent, and federal funding accounts for approximately nine percent.

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
New York 19.8% $19,076 8.9% 40.27% 50.82%
Massachusetts 10.7% $13,941 7.85% 37.91% 54.24%
New Jersey 24.7% $15,968 5.14% 37.06% 57.8%
Pennsylvania 18.4% $13,467 12.74% 34.2% 53.06%
Sources:NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in New York totaled approximately $57.6 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for New York and surrounding states.[20]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
New York $5,127,425 $23,189,453 $29,266,236 $57,583,114
Massachusetts $1,197,383 $5,783,240 $8,275,257 $15,255,880
New Jersey $1,320,021 $9,521,328 $14,847,190 $25,688,539
Pennsylvania $3,469,273 $9,309,365 $14,444,802 $27,223,440
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in New York totaled approximately $58.5 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for New York and surrounding states.[20]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
New York $51,203,701 $4,655,961 $2,680,715 $58,540,377
Massachusetts $12,894,969 $817,228 $767,052 $14,479,249
New Jersey $22,686,943 $930,701 $1,393,507 $25,011,151
Pennsylvania $23,541,287 $2,269,812 $1,477,788 $27,288,887
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.
Note: Salaries given are averages for the state. Within states there can be great variation in salaries between urban, suburban and rural districts. When comparing nominal teachers' salaries, it is important to remember that for a true comparison, salaries must be adjusted for the cost of living in each area. For example, when adjusted for cost of living, Los Angeles drops from second highest to 17th highest; New York City drops even further, from third highest to 59th out of 60.[21]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in New York, the average salary increased by eight percent.[22]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
New York $69,723 $76,464 $74,620 $75,279 8.0%
Massachusetts $63,656 $73,945 $72,915 $73,129 14.9%
New Jersey $71,083 $69,523 $68,194 $68,797 -3.2%
Pennsylvania $66,035 $63,146 $62,965 $63,521 -3.8%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012, the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. New York ranked ninth overall, or strongest, which was in the first tier of five.[23]

The main union related to the New York school system is the New York State United Teachers (NYSUT), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA).

List of local New York school unions:[24]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: New York government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the New York State School Boards Association.

Transparency

The state of New York has two transparency resources that monitor government spending: Open Book New York, created by State Comptroller Thomas DiNapoli, and Project Sunlight, created by Governor Andrew Cuomo.

Studies and reports

Quality Counts 2014

See also: Quality Counts 2014 Report

Education Week, a publication that reports on many education issues throughout the country, began using an evaluation system in 1997 to grade each state on various elements of education performance. This system, called Quality Counts, uses official data on performance from each state to generate a report card for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report card in 2014 uses six different categories:

  1. Chance for success
  2. K-12 achievement
  3. Standards, assessments and accountability
  4. The teaching profession
  5. School finance
  6. Transitions and Alignment

Each of these six categories had a number of other elements that received individual scores. Those scores were then averaged and used to determine the final score in each category. Every state received two types of scores for each of the six major categories: A numerical score out of 100 and a letter grade based on that score. Education Week used the score for the first category, "chance for success," as the value for ranking each state and the District of Columbia. The average grade received in the entire country was 77.3, or a C+ average. The country's highest average score was in the category of "standards, assessments and accountability" at 85.3, or a B average. The lowest average score was in "K-12 achievement", at 70.2, or a C- average.

New York received a score of 81.0, or a B- average in the "chance for success" category. This was above the national average. The state's highest score was in "standards, assessments and accountability" at 92.0, or an A- average. The lowest score was in "K-12 achievement" at 70.2, or a C- average. New York had the third highest score in the "school finance" category in the country. The chart below displays the scores of New York and its surrounding states.[25]

Note: Click on a column heading to sort the data.

Public education report cards, 2014
State Chance for success K-12 achievement Standards, assessments and accountability The teaching profession School finance Transitions and Alignment
New York 81.0 (B-) 70.2 (C-) 92.0 (A-) 81.5 (B-) 87.2 (B+) 85.7 (B)
Massachusetts 91.4 (A-) 83.7 (B) 88.4 (B+) 78.7 (C+) 83.5 (B) 75.0 (C)
New Jersey 88.2 (B+) 82.1 (B-) 75.5 (C) 67.2 (D+) 84.5 (B) 82.1 (B-)
Pennsylvania 82.6 (B) 75.6 (C) 77.7 (C+) 74.6 (C) 82.0 (B-) 78.6 (C+)
United States Average 77.3 (C+) 70.2 (C-) 85.3 (B) 72.5 (C) 75.5 (C) 81.1 (B-)
Source: Education Week, "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 18, 2015

A full discussion of how these numbers were generated can be found here.

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states that spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Issues

New York City preschool expansion

One of New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio's (D) primary campaign planks in 2013 was the establishment of free, full-day prekindergarten to help low-income families who live in the city's school district. His initial proposal financed the expansion by raising taxes on high-income city residents.[26] On March 29, 2014, Governor Andrew Cuomo and leaders in the New York State Legislature reached an agreement on the state budget. The budget included $300 million in funding for the New York City prekindergarten expansion, but it did not use Mayor de Blasio's tax plan to finance the expenditures. The funding was also less than the $340 million requested by the city, and the budget included a requirement for the New York City government to allocate space in public school buildings or to pay a share of the overhead expenses for charter schools on private land in the city, which Mayor de Blasio had previously fought. He still celebrated the announcement, arguing that it was "an extraordinary and historic step forward for New York City. [...] It’s clearly the resources we need to create full-day pre-K for every child in this city. That’s what we set out to do."[27]

The city intended to enroll approximately 53,000 full-day preschool children during the 2014-2015 school year. Before the expansion, the city had facilities for approximately 20,000 full-day preschool students. Center for Children's Initiatives Executive Director Nancy Kolben, who served on the committee formed by Mayor de Blasio to handle the prekindergarten plan, stated that the goal is to have 70,000 full-day children enrolled for the 2015-2016 school year.[28] Mayor de Blasio charged Sophia Pappas, executive director of the city's Office of Early Childhood Education, with the implementation of the program.[29]

Buffalo Superintendent Pamela Brown

Significant divisions arose within the Buffalo Board of Education after the election of former gubernatorial candidate and local businessman Carl P. Paladino in 2013. In that race, Paladino campaigned for the removal of incumbent board members and the dismissal of the district's top administrators, including Superintendent Pamela Brown.[30] After joining the board, Paladino continued to call for Superintendent Brown's resignation or firing, stating that she was "obviously incapable."[31][32] In September 2013, the board ruled in a 5-4 decision to keep the superintendent in place.[33]

In May 2014, Superintendent Brown announced her intention to resign after her opponents on the board won a governing majority following the election of Larry Quinn and Patricia B. Pierce.[34] The school voted 7-2 to accept her resignation on June 16, 2014. In exchange for her voluntary resignation, the district agreed to pay her a year's salary and other compensation that totaled up to $238,667. The school board appointed district administrator Will Keresztes to the position of interim superintendent while it conducted a hiring search for Brown's long-term replacement.[35][36] Less than a month later, the board appointed Donald A. Ogilvie as the new interim superintendent of the district to replace Keresztes.[37]

School districts

See also: School board elections portal

District types

New York contains seven types of school districts:[38][39]

  • Central districts are traditional school districts that provide K-12 educational services to students. They can be created through mergers of common, union free or other central districts.
  • Central high school districts provide secondary education services to common or union free district students. The governing body is made up of appointed representatives from the constituent school districts it serves.
  • City districts are traditional school districts that provide K-12 educational services to students within the boundaries of the city limits. The city must have a population of less than 125,000 residents to receive this classification.
  • Enlarged city districts are identical to city districts except that the boundaries of the district extend beyond the city limits.
  • Dependent city districts are in cities with a population greater than 125,000 residents. The district operates as part of the municipal government, including the school district's funding. The governing body does not have the power to levy taxes or incur debt in a dependent city district. The five dependent city districts are Buffalo, New York City, Rochester City, Syracuse City and Yonkers. Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse have elected governing bodies. The governing body in New York City is appointed by the mayor and the borough presidents, and the governing body in Yonkers is appointed by only the mayor.
  • Common districts are the oldest form of school district in New York. Common districts are not legally authorized to establish high schools, so common districts send their students to high schools in a neighboring district or districts. The governing body can consist of one or three board members.
  • Union free districts consist of two or more common districts merged together. The purpose was initially to provide high schools to students, but some union free districts operating today only provide K-8 educational services and still send their students to high schools in a neighboring district or districts.

District statistics

See also: List of school districts in New York

The following table displays the state's top 10 school districts by total student enrollment and per-pupil spending:[40][41]

Student enrollment Per-pupil spending
1.) New York City Department of Education 1.) Kiryas Joel
2.) Buffalo 2.) Bridgehampton Union Free
3.) Rochester City 3.) Long Lake Central
4.) Yonkers 4.) Fishers Island Union Free
5.) Syracuse City 5.) Amagansett Union Free
6.) Brentwood Union Free 6.) Newcomb Central
7.) Sachem Central 7.) Pocantico Hills Central
8.) Wappingers Central 8.) Southampton Union Free
9.) Greece Central 9.) Minerva Central
10.) Newburgh Enlarged City 10.) Shelter Island Union Free

School board composition

New York school board members are generally elected by residents of the school district, although school board members in New York City and Yonkers are appointed. New York school board elections typically follow one of these three methods, or a mixture thereof:

  • At-large: All voters residing in the school district may vote for any candidates running, regardless of geographic location.
  • Trustee area: Only voters residing in a specific geographic area within the school district may vote on certain candidates, who must also reside in that specific geographic area.
  • Trustee area at-large: All voters residing in the school district may vote for any candidates running, but candidates must reside in specific geographic areas within the school district.

School boards typically consist of between one to nine members, although there are exceptions. Most board members serve three, four or five-year terms, although there are exceptions to that, as well.[42]

Term limits

New York does not impose statewide term limits on school board members.[43]

Elections

See also: New York school board elections, 2014 and New York school board elections, 2015

A total of 16 New York school districts among America's largest school districts by enrollment held elections for 44 seats in 2015. Fourteen districts held elections on May 19, 2015. The other two will hold elections on November 3, 2015.

Here are several quick facts about New York's school board elections in 2015:

  • The largest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 was Rochester City School District with 30,145 K-12 students.
  • The smallest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 was North Syracuse Central School District with 9,239 K-12 students.
  • Three districts were tied the most seats on the ballot in 2015 with four seats up for election in both.
  • Utica City School District had the fewest seats on the ballot in 2015 with one seat up for election.

The districts listed below served 207,170 K-12 students during the 2012-2013 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Click on the district names for more information on the district and its school board elections.

2015 New York School Board Elections
District Date Seats up for election Total board seats Student enrollment
Brentwood Union Free School District 5/19/2015 3 7 17,492
Greece Central School District 5/19/2015 3 9 11,602
Half Hollow Hills Central School District 5/19/2015 2 7 9,427
Middle Country Central School District 5/19/2015 3 9 10,398
New Rochelle School District 5/19/2015 2 9 10,907
Newburgh Enlarged City School District 5/19/2015 3 9 11,406
North Syracuse Central School District 5/19/2015 4 9 9,239
Sachem Central School District 5/19/2015 3 9 14,231
Schenectady City School District 5/19/2015 2 7 9,790
Shenendehowa Central School District 5/19/2015 2 7 9,776
Smithtown Central School District 5/19/2015 2 7 10,317
Utica City School District 5/19/2015 1 7 9,714
Wappingers Central School District 5/19/2015 3 9 11,865
Williamsville Central School District 5/19/2015 3 9 10,239
Rochester City School District 11/3/2015 4 7 30,145
Syracuse City School District 11/3/2015 4 7 20,622

Path to the ballot

To qualify for the ballot as a school board candidate in New York, a person must be:

  • 18 years of age or older
  • Able to read and write
  • A qualified voter in the district
  • A resident of the district for between 30 days and three years before the election, depending on the district

A person must not be:

  • Employed by the school district
  • Married or related to a current member of the board

The process of running for office as a school board candidate begins with filing nomination papers with the school district clerk. The number of petition signatures required varies from a flat number of 100 qualified voters in the district to either 25 qualified voters or two percent of the number of voters in the previous election, whichever number is greater. Nominating petitions must be filed with the district clerk either 30 or 20 days before the election, depending on the district.[42]

Campaign finance

New York requires all school board candidates to file three campaign finance reports with the district clerk during the election cycle. If a candidate's expenditures exceed $500, the candidate must file an additional report with the New York Commissioner of Education.[42]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of New York ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked the following statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. New York Bonds for School Technology Act, Proposal 3 (2014)
  2. New York Proposal 2, Small City School Districts Excluded from Debt Limits (2003)
  3. New York School Bonds, Proposal 3 (1997)

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "New + York + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

New York Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 New York State Education Department, "About the New York State Education Department," accessed June 2, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed July 12, 2014
  9. Engage NY, "Common Core Implementation Timeline," accessed June 17, 2014
  10. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  12. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  14. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. 20.0 20.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014 (timed out)
  21. Maciver Institute, "REPORT: How much are teachers really paid?," accessed October 29, 2014
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