North Carolina Same-Sex Marriage, Amendment 1 (May 2012)
|Same-Sex Marriage Amendment|
|Constitution:||North Carolina Constitution (Art. 14, Sec. 6)|
|Referred by:||North Carolina General Assembly|
- 1 Aftermath
- 2 Election results
- 3 Text of measure
- 4 Background
- 5 Support
- 6 Opposition
- 7 Controversies and developments
- 8 Media endorsements
- 9 Polls
- 10 Path to the ballot
- 11 Timeline
- 12 Related measures
- 13 See also
- 14 External links
- 15 Additional reading
- 16 References
Debated in the state legislature during the Spring 2011 legislative session, the amendment failed to receive sufficient votes to qualify for the ballot. However, the measure was debated during the Fall session which began September 12, 2011. That very day, the House voted 75-42 in favor of referring the proposed amendment to the statewide ballot. The State Senate echoed the House with a 30-16 approval vote a day later on September 13, 2011.
The US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit became the second federal court to make a ruling about same-sex marriage on July 28, 2014. The court ruled that same-sex marriage bans such as Amendment 1 were unconstitutional.
In their decision, the court said:
|“||The choice of whether and whom to marry is an intensely personal decision that alters the course of an individual’s life. Denying same-sex couples this choice prohibits them from participating fully in our society, which is precisely the type of segregation that the Fourteenth Amendment cannot countenance.||”|
United States Supreme Court
On October 6, 2014, the Supreme Court of the United States declined to hear the case appealing the decision of the federal circuit court, thus allowing the ruling of the Fourth Circuit Court to stand and making same-sex marriage "presumptively legal" in North Carolina.
United States District Court
On October 10, 2014, Judge Max Cogburn of the U.S. District Court of Western North Carolina officially struck down the ban on same-sex marriages in North Carolina. The ruling was implemented immediately.
The following are official election results:
|North Carolina Amendment 1 (May 2012)|
|Overturned Case:General Synod of the United Church of Christ v. Cooper|
Results via the North Carolina Board of Elections.
Text of measure
The language that voters saw on the ballot reads:
Constitutional amendment to provide that marriage between one man and one woman is the only domestic legal union that shall be valid or recognized in this State.
| Sec. 6. Marriage.
Marriage between one man and one woman is the only domestic legal union that shall be valid or recognized in this State. This section does not prohibit a private party from entering into contracts with another private party; nor does this section prohibit courts from adjudicating the rights of private parties pursuant to such contracts.
Neither measure received sufficient votes to qualify for the ballot during the regular 2011 legislative session. However, in late June 2011 House Speaker Thom Tillis said he expected the measure to resurface during the Fall 2011 special legislative session.
- The committee that supported of the measure was Vote for Marriage NC
- Rep. Paul Stam
- Rep. Larry Brown
- Rep. Mitch Gillespie
- N.C. Values Coalition
- Bishop Peter Jugis of Charlotte and Bishop Michael Burbidge of Raleigh
- Durham County Republican Party
- Faith & Freedom Coalition
- Newt Gingrich
- Rev. Billy Graham
- Supporters of the amendment argued that without an amendment banning same-sex unions, situations in which married same-sex couples move from states like New York would seek legal rights and they argued that the state was not "equipped to handle that." Rep. Paul Stam said, "They're going to bring with them their same-sex marriages. They're going to want to get divorced" and have custody issues decided, he said. "We're not equipped to handle that."
- Supporters also argued that the issue should be settled by voters and that polls indicate that there was support for such an amendment. "It is too serious a topic for a handful of people (legislators) to make a decision like that," said Rep. Larry Brown.
- Rep. Mitch Gillespie said, "We've been fighting for this for a long time. I fully expect it to pass this year and I expect a large bipartisan vote on it."
- Tami Fitzgerald, executive director of N.C. Values Coalition, argued that placing the amendment was the "right thing to do" and it fulfilled the democratic process by allowing everybody to vote. Fitzgerald added, "The people of North Carolina want to determine for themselves how they want to define marriage. They don’t want activist judges doing it for them."
- In a response to President Obama's statement of opposition to the measure, Bishop Burbidge and Bishop Jugis penned a joint statement further explaining their support of the amendment, saying, "Our profound regard for marriage, as the complementary and fruitful union of a man and a woman does not negate our concern for the well-being of all people, but reinforces it."
- When asked why elected officials were focusing on social issues during hard economic times, Union County Commissioner Todd Johnson responded by saying, "One thing comes to mind. If the moral and social issues of our country are not addressed, we don’t have to worry about the economic issues. They will not matter at that point in time."
The group Vote FOR Marriage NC ran a series of ads supporting the amendment, including one specifically targeting an ad from the opposition.
Tactics and strategies
- On May 17, 2011 an estimated 3,500 Christian conservatives gathered in Raleigh, North Carolina. Supporters included pastors and evangelists. The rally was also attended by amendment opponents. "It's not a right that they have. God designed marriage between one man, and one woman. That's it," said Diane Bridgeman, a supporter of traditional marriage.
- The Durham County Republican Party passed a resolution at their annual convention, on March 17, 2012, expressing support for the amendment and arguing that the amendment gives citizens of North Carolina a vote on the issue before it can be decided by the court or state without the people's consent. The resolution further argues that the amendment does not change existing law and can be revoked by voters in the future. The text of the resolution can be found here.
- On Friday, April 20, 2012, supporters of the amendment gathered in Raleigh for Return America rally. The rally hosted a number of high profile speakers, including Mary Frances Forrester, widow of the amendment's primary sponsor, Senator James Forrester.
According to news reports, N.C. Values Coalition, the organization that supported the measure during the legislative review, made the first donation ($1,000) to the pro-amendment committee.
The following data was obtained from the North Carolina Board of Elections.
|Vote for Marriage NC||$1,192,278.59|
Rise Up Against Amendment One, May 6, 2012
- Several committees in opposition of the measure filed with the state. Those committees were included in the Coalition to Protect NC Families; Human Rights Campaign NC Families PAC.
- President Barack Obama
- Rep. Larry Hall
- Rep. Joe Hackney, the House Minority Leader
- Rev. T. Anthony Spearman, pastor of Clinton Tabernacle African Methodist Episcopal Zion
- Chapel Hill Town Council
- Congresswoman Renee Ellmers
- Log Cabin Republicans
- Equality North Carolina
- Gov. Bev Purdue
- Raleigh City Council
- Sherre Toler, former Director of Elections for Harnett County, who resigned because of the referendum
- Orange County Board of Commissioners
- Bob Etheridge, candidate for Governor of North Carolina
- Sen. Kay Hagan
- John Hood, president of the conservative John Locke Foundation in Raleigh
- Robert Orr, former justice of the N.C. Supreme Court
- Richard Vinroot, former mayor of Charlotte
- North Carolina chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
- Former President Bill Clinton
- Martin Eakes, CEO of Self Help and the Center for Responsible Lending;
- Kel Landis, a partner in Pelux Capital;
- Ping Fu, CEO of Geomagic;
- Marc Noel, chairman of the Noel Group;
- Ryan Allis, CEO of iContact;
- Barbara Goodmon, president of the A.J. Fletcher Foundation;
- Andy and Barbara Rotchschild, principals of Scientific Properties;
- Gordon Grubb, CEO of Grubb Ventures;
- Chuck Wilson, owner and president of CT Wilson Construction;
- Scott Custer, CEO of Piedmont Community Bank;
- Joseh DeSimone, founder of Liquidia Technologies;
- Peter Norvig, Director of Research, Google Inc.
- Opponents of the measure argued that a ban on legal same-sex unions should not be added to the state constitution. They also argued that the subject - "rights of a minority" - should not be up for a vote. Others argued that the proposed amendment may lead to more bullying of gay youth; in addition, the amendment could invalidate certain domestic violence protections for unmarried couples, gay or straight.
- Some lawmakers argued that the proposed amendment would hurt employment in the state. Rep. Larry Hall said, "Instead of creating an environment where we can create employment, attract entrepreneurs (and) attract talent, we're going to try to put a sign up to say, 'You are not welcome if you want to contribute to our society.'"
- Rev. T. Anthony Spearman, pastor of Clinton Tabernacle African Methodist Episcopal Zion said that the amendment "is not fair and it certainly is not just."
- According to reports, Democrats argued that the amendment was a tactic to help Republicans attract more voters to the election polls in 2012 which would reportedly would have close elections for president and governor.
- "This is a transient issue of public policy and it has no place in the Constitution of North Carolina," said Rep. Joe Hackney, the House Minority Leader.
- On September 12, 2011 the Chapel Hill Town Council passed a resolution in opposition of the proposed amendment. "We do not believe in discriminating against people, no matter who they are," said council member Penny Rich. The town at the time offered equal benefits to couples in a domestic partnership regardless of sexual orientation, and would not be permitted to continue offering these benefits if the amendment passed.
- President Barack Obama spoke out against the proposed amendment. "While the president does not weigh in on every single ballot measure in every state, the record is clear that the president has long opposed divisive and discriminatory efforts to deny rights and benefits to same-sex couples," said White House spokesman Cameron French.
- A spokesperson for Congresswoman Renee Ellmers said, "As a voter, she [Ellmers] would vote against a piece of legislation that would add a ban on civil unions to the protection of marriage since they are two different issues and should be dealt with separately."
- Log Cabin Republicans Executive Director R. Clarke Cooper said, "The proposed constitutional amendment is an unnecessary and overreaching incursion on North Carolina families, and with the opposition of conservatives like Rep. Ellmers, it will fail."
- On October 7, 2011 Gov. Bev Perdue announced that she planned to vote against the amendment. In a press release she said, "I continue to support that law today. But I'm going to vote against the amendment because I cannot in good conscience look an unemployed man or woman in the eye and tell them that this amendment is more important than finding them a job."
- On December 6, 2011 Raleigh City Council passed a resolution (6-2 vote) in opposition of the same-sex marriage amendment.
- In a statement made against the amendment, Sen. Kay Hagan said, "North Carolina is one of the most business-friendly states in the nation, and this amendment would harm our state’s ability to recruit the innovators and businesses that are driving our economic recovery."
- Some opponents of the measure, such as Ed Hanes Jr., a candidate for NC House District 72, and Rev. Paul Lowe, pastor of Shiloh Baptist Church, expressed their belief that the purpose of the amendment was to divide voters during a crucial election year. Hanes spoke to Democratic voters in Winston-Salem saying, "It's an amendment put in place to ensure that we stay not focused on what our ultimate goal needs to be, and that is ensuring that our president, Barack Hussein Obama, is re-elected this year."
At the launch of the campaign against the proposed measure, "Protect All North Carolina Families" released a couple of videos. One video highlighted people discussing reasons why to oppose the measure, the other called for increased conversation about the proposed amendment. Since then, the organization has produced many more videos opposing the Amendment, including statements from law professors and politicians.
The state chapter of the NAACP launched a radio campaign against the amendment asking that North Carolina voters oppose the amendment in the name of keeping discrimination out of the state constitution. The state NAACP said that although it opposed the amendment, its campaigning at the time should not be viewed as a stance on gay marriage.
Tactics, strategies and events
- On May 17, 2011 opponents of the proposed measure gathered in Raleigh, North Carolina. According to reports, an estimated 3,500 supporters of traditional marriage were also in attendance.
- According to reports, on June 24, 2011 hundreds marched from the Convention Center to Marshall Park in Charlotte, North Carolina in protest of the proposed anti-gay marriage amendment.
- In August 2011 Matt Phillippi of Equality North Carolina launched an effort at the N.C. Gay and Lesbian Film Festival where opponents of the proposed legislation signed postcards. According to Phillippi more than 500 postcards were signed. The group planned to deliver an estimated 5,000 postcards to legislators in September when lawmakers return to session to consider the proposed amendment.
- On September 6, 2011 key members of the House Democratic Caucus gathered for a news conference at the Legislative Building to speak against the amendment. Among the speakers were business executives.
- On September 13, 2011 a rally was scheduled on the same day that the North Carolina State Senate was expected to debate the proposed amendment. The rally took place behind the Legislative Building in Raleigh, North Carolina.
- On October 15, 2011 activists gathered in uptown Charlotte.
- On March 15, 2012 a group called "Honest NC," which consists of North Carolina State University alumni, planned to hold a march in downtown Raleigh.
- In late January the group "Equality NC" began a pledge drive called "Race to the Ballot." The event took place over the course of several weeks in February. Reportedly, the event's goal was to raise voter awareness of what will be on this year's primary ballot.
- According to reports, opponents of the amendment moved arguments away from civil-union issues and, instead, focused on the possibility that the amendment would compromise a variety of legal assets available to all unmarried couples. Opponents cited domestic violence protection, wills, employment benefits and custody agreements as legal rights endangered by the amendment.
- On February 8, 2012, an event was held at the Episcopal Church of the Redeemer in Shelby, N.C., during which local faith leaders spoke out against the amendment. The event was hosted by Neighbors for Equality, Gardner-Webb University’s chapter of Amnesty International, and the church itself. Speaking about the groups' attempts at reaching out to voters, Tyler J. McCall, co-executive director for Neighbors for Equality, said, "The conversations surrounding this legislation are not easy, and we look forward to creating a welcoming environment for our neighbors to join us in talking about this difficult topic."
- On the weekend before the vote, several concerts were scheduled to attempt to raise awareness of the amendment. On May 5 the Nightlight in Chapel Hill hosted an Amendment One Awareness Show. The Coalition to Protect All North Carolina Families, Cat’s Cradle in Carrboro, and Durham’s Merge Records all contributed to a May 6 event, called Concert to Defeat Amendment One, held at the Haw River Ballroom in Saxapahaw.
- The Coalition to Protect NC Families held an online fundraiser through Twitter on April 30, 2012. According to Nation Hahn, director of online engagement for the group, about $43,000 was raised in the effort.
The following data was obtained from the North Carolina Board of Elections.
|Coalition to Protect NC Families||$2,261,849.63|
|Human Rights Campaign NC Families PAC||$79,315.18|
Controversies and developments
|Hear about these developments|
| Episode 6 (2012)|
| February 16, 2012|
In mid-September 2011 following the referral of the same-sex marriage amendment to the 2012 statewide ballot, it was identified that a sentence was not included in the text scheduled to appear on the ballot. The sentence clarified that the ban would not prohibit private businesses from offering employment contracts that include benefits to domestic partners.
Rep. Paul Stam, one of the proponents of the amendment said that the missing sentence was unnecessary. "The sentence is not even strictly necessary because that's the effect of the first sentence anyway," he said.
However, others argued that the omission of the second sentence could have opened the proposed amendment to legal challenge and various interpretations by the courts. Rep. Rick Glazier said, "That sentence was crucial in some legislators' minds about why they were willing to vote for it (and) pretty crucial to the business community. To say you can have half of this constitutional amendment with half of it gone ... makes no sense whatsoever."
May 2012 vote
According to reports, the move to the primary ballot alleviated concerns by Democratic lawmakers who believed a November vote may have been boosted by a higher conservative turnout for the presidential election. However, others argued that a May primary vote may make it more likely that the amendment would gain approval due to a potentially higher turnout by conservatives for the GOP presidential primary.
In January of 2012, Governor Beverly Perdue decided not to run for re-election. This decision could have affected the outcome of the amendment due to the fact that her decision added a Democratic primary for governor to the May 8 ballot. Jeremy Kennedy, campaign coordinator for the Coalition to Protect All NC Families, believed this would aid the efforts to defeat the amendment, saying, "We know that progressive voters who would turn out in a democratic primary by in large tend to be with us on this issue, but I'll temper that by saying there's still a lot of work to be done." For more on this race, please see here.
- North Carolina newspaper The Pilot published an editorial on April 19 showing opposition to the amendment, they had this to say about the measure: "Besides being unnecessary, Amendment One is dictatorial, demeaning and discriminatory. Here’s hoping it will soon be dead."
- Triangle-area newspaper The Independent Weekly published its endorsements for the primary and came out against the amendment. They wrote, "North Carolina can cast a clarion vote against discrimination and in favor of human dignity and loving relationships by rejecting Amendment 1."
- On April 29, The New York Times published an editorial opposing the measure, writing, "North Carolinians need to consider whether they really want to inflict this gratuitous bigotry on their fellow citizens and their children."
- The Spring Hope Enterprise published an opinion opposing the amendment on April 5, 2012, saying, "The amendment is not necessary, is seriously flawed legally and over-broad, and even its supporters acknowledge is likely to be repealed in only a few years."
- See also: Polls, 2012 ballot measures
- A March 15-19, 2009, poll by Elon University Poll revealed that 43% support an amendment on same-sex marriage, while 50% were opposed and 5% were undecided. A total of 620 registered voters were polled.
- A February 20-24, 2011, poll by Elon University Poll revealed that 38% support an amendment, while 56% were opposed and 5% were undecided. A total of 467 registered voters were polled.
- An August 15-16, 2011, poll by National Research, Inc. revealed that 49% support an amendment on same-sex marriage, while 43% were opposed and 7% were undecided. A total of 400 registered voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-4.9%. The poll was sponsored by the John W. Pope Civitas Institute.
- A September 25-29, 2011, poll by Elon University Poll revealed that 39% supported the amendment, while 56% opposed the amendment and 5% were undecided. A total of 594 registered voters were polled. The margin of error is plus or minus 4.02 percentage points.
- A September 30-October 3, 2011, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 61% support an amendment to establish marriage between one man and one woman, while 34% were opposed. A total of 760 registered voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-3.6%.
- An October 27-31, 2011, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 59% support the amendment, while 35% were opposed and 6% were undecided. A total of 615 registered voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-4.0%.
- An October 31-November 2, 2011, poll by Elon University Poll revealed that 37% support the amendment, while 57% were opposed and 6% were undecided. A total of 529 voters were polled. The margin of error was +/- 4.26 percentage points.
- A December 1-4, 2011, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 58% support the amendment, while 32% were opposed and 10% were undecided. A total of 865 registered voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-3.3%.
- A January 5-6, 2012, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 56% would vote for the amendment (as written, without explanation), while 34% were opposed and 10% were undecided. A total of 780 registered voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-3.5%.
- A March 26-29, 2012, poll by Elon University Poll revealed that 32% would support an amendment banning same-sex marriage, civil unions, and domestic partnerships, while 61% would oppose such an amendment, and 6% are undecided. A total of 534 state residents were polled.
- An April 20-22, 2012, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 54% would vote for the amendment, while 40% would vote against it, and 6% were undecided. A total of 1,139 likely primary voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-2.9%.
- An April 27-29, 2012, poll by Public Policy Polling revealed that 55% would vote for the amendment, while 41% would vote against it, and 4% were undecided. A total of 982 likely primary voters were polled. The margin of error was +/-3.1%.
|Date of Poll||Pollster||In favor||Opposed||Undecided||Number polled|
|March 15-19, 2009||Elon University Poll||43%||50%||5%||620|
|Feb. 20-24, 2011||Elon University Poll||38%||56%||5%||467|
|August 15-16, 2011||National Research, Inc.||49%||43%||7%||400|
|Sept. 25-29, 2011||Elon University Poll||39%||56%||5%||594|
|Sept. 30-Oct. 3, 2011||Public Policy Polling||61%||34%||5%||760|
|Oct. 27-31, 2011||Public Policy Polling||59%||35%||6%||615|
|Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 2011||Elon University Poll||37%||57%||6%||529|
|Dec. 1-4, 2011||Public Policy Polling||58%||32%||10%||865|
|Jan. 5-8, 2012||Public Policy Polling||56%||34%||10%||780|
|Mar. 26-29, 2012||Elon University Poll||32%||61%||6%||534|
|Apr. 20-22, 2012||Public Policy Polling||54%||40%||6%||1,139|
|Apr. 27-29, 2012||Public Policy Polling||55%||41%||4%||982|
Path to the ballot
- See also: Amending the North Carolina Constitution
The North Carolina Constitution, Section 4 of Article XIII, requires that a legislatively-referred amendment go on the ballot after it is approved by a 60% vote of each house of the North Carolina State Legislature.
On September 12, 2011, the House voted 75-42 in favor of referring the proposed amendment to the statewide ballot. The State Senate echoed the House with a 30-16 approval vote a day later on September 13, 2011.
The following is a timeline of events relating to the measure:
|SB 106||Feb. 22, 2011||SB 106 filed in the Senate|
|SB 514||April 5, 2011||SB 514 filed in the Senate|
|HB 777||April 6, 2011||HB 777 filed in the House|
|House vote||Sept. 12, 2011||North Carolina House of Representatives votes 75-42 in favor on SB 514|
|Senate vote||Sept. 13, 2011||North Carolina Senate votes 30-16 in support on SB 514|
|Explanation prepared||March 1, 2012||NC Constitutional Amendments Publication Commission prepares explanation of measure for media and election boards.|
Voters in 30 states have approved legislatively-referred constitutional amendments or initiated constitutional amendments prohibiting same-sex marriages at the ballot box. The first constitutional prohibition was in 1998, and the latest one occurred in May 2012. Most of these amendments define marriage along the lines of a "union of one male and one female."
The following constitutional bans were approved by voters, but later overturned by courts:
- Alaska Marriage Amendment, Measure 2 (1998)
- Nevada Marriage Amendment, Question 2 (2002)
- Montana Marriage Verification, Measure CI-96 (2004)
- Oklahoma Marriage Question 711 (2004)
- Oregon Marriage Measure 36 (2004)
- Utah Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Amendment 3 (2004)
- Kansas Marriage Amendment (2005)
- Alabama Sanctity of Marriage, Constitutional Amendment 774 (June 2006)
- Colorado Definition of Marriage, Initiative 43 (2006)
- Idaho Marriage Definition, HJR 2 (2006)
- South Carolina Amendment 1, the Marriage Act (2006)
- Virginia Question 1, Marriage Amendment (2006)
- Wisconsin Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (2006)
- Arizona Marriage Protection, Proposition 102 (2008)
- California Proposition 8, the "Eliminates Right of Same-Sex Couples to Marry" Initiative (2008)
- Florida Definition of Marriage, Amendment 2 (2008)
- North Carolina Same-Sex Marriage, Amendment 1 (May 2012)
Cases overturning the following bans have been appealed to higher courts and are currently stayed:
- Note: Same-sex marriage is legal in St. Louis County and the state recognizes same-sex marriages.
- Mississippi Marriage Definition, Amendment 1 (2004)
- Arkansas Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Proposed Constitutional Amendment 3 (2004)
- South Dakota Marriage Amendment (2006)
- Texas Definition of Marriage Act, Proposition 2 (2005)
The following constitutional bans were approved by voters and have been upheld or not overturned by courts:
- Nebraska Marriage Definition Amendment, Initiative 416 (2000)
- Louisiana Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (September 2004)
- Georgia Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (2004)
- Kentucky Marriage Amendment (2004)
- Michigan Marriage Amendment, Proposal 2 (2004)
- North Dakota Definition of Marriage, Constitutional Measure 1 (2004)
- Ohio Issue 1, the Marriage Amendment (2004)
- Tennessee Same-Sex Marriage Ban, Amendment 1 (2006)
The following constitutional bans were defeated by voters:
- Note: Arizonans defeated a measure in 2006, but approved one in 2008, which has been overturned.
- Campaign heats up with less than two weeks before voters head to North Carolina polls
- Less than one month until North Carolina primary
- Durham County Republican Party joins list of NC Amendment 1 supporters
- House and Senate clear North Carolina same-sex marriage amendment for 2012 ballot
- House clears North Carolina same-sex marriage amendment, remains pending in the Senate
- North Carolina legislators face more than 10 proposed constitutional amendments
- North Carolina legislature to take up marriage amendment in September special session
Other 2011 bills
|Ballot measure||Main website||YouTube|
|Amendment 1||Vote For Marriage NC||Vote for Marriage NC||Vote for Marriage NC||Vote for Marriage NC|
|The Coalition to Protect NC Families||Protect NC Families||Protect NC Families||Protect NC Families|
- QNotes, "Funds sought for amendment campaign," December 24, 2011
- The Charlotte Post, "Marriage referendum could affect all couples," December 22, 2011
- The Bellingham Herald, "Foes gird to fight proposed N.C. gay-marriage ban," November 15, 2011
- The Washington Independent, "Three anti-gay groups were pivotal in N.C. marriage amendment push," November 6, 2011
- The Daily Tar Heel, "Seventeen-year-olds will not be able to vote on NC marriage amendment," October 11, 2011
- WRAL, "Perdue on marriage amendment, viral remark," October 5, 2011
- WITN, "Two Ballots Will Be Used In May Primary," September 27, 2011
- Associated Press, "NC marriage campaigns likely passionate, pricey," September 18, 2011
- Citizen-Times, "Asheville, NC activists prepare for battle over gay-marriage ban," September 17, 2011
- News & Observer, "Gay marriage ban put on ballot; opposition drive begins," September 16, 2011
- The Republic, "GOP leaders say they don't expect NC General Assembly to linger after amendments debate," September 12, 2011
- The News & Observer, "Balance of left and right," September 11, 2011
- SalisburyPost.com, "Lawmakers back bills that would put item banning gay marriage on 2012 ballot," September 10, 2011
- TheTimesNews.com, "GOP talks up marriage amendment," August 30, 2011 (dead link)
- Mother Jones, "North Carolina GOP Trying to Ban Gay Marriage Twice," August 31, 2011
- QNotes, "Rally planned to oppose anti-LGBT amendment," August 18, 2011
- The Daily Tar Heel, "New bills in state legislature seek to constitutionally define marriage," June 1, 2011
- The Pendulum, "Proposed N.C. amendment targets marriage definition," March 29, 2011
- The Chapel Hill News, "Same-sex marriage ban gains traction," March 6, 2011
- Public Policy Polling, "NC supports recognition for gay couples," March 3, 2011
- The (Raleigh) News & Observer, "North Carolina senator wants gay marriage ban in state's Constitution," March 1, 2011
- Associated Press, "NC marriage question explanation OK'd by panel," March 2, 2012
- Durham County Republican Party press release, March 18, 2012
- MinnPost, "Memos in NOM suit reveal anti-gay-marriage strategies," April 4, 2012
- QNotes, "Anti-gay marriage amendment filed in N.C. Senate," February 22, 2011
- ENCToday.com, "Same sex marriage ban aims to protect definition of marriage," February 24, 2011
- The Huffington Post, "North Carolina Puts Gay Marriage Ban On May 2012 Ballot," September 13, 2011
- The American Independent, "North Carolina legislators to propose constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage," August 26, 2011
- News Observer, "N.C. House OKs amendment banning gay marriage," September 13, 2011
- The Washington Independent, "Anti-gay marriage amendment heads to N.C. ballot without public input," September 13, 2011
- USA Today, "Appeals panel strikes down Virginia gay marriage ban," July 28, 2014
- NBC News, "Second Appeals Court Strikes Down Same-Sex Marriage Ban," July 28, 2014
- Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
- The Guardian, "US supreme court decision paves way for sweeping expansion of gay rights," October 6, 2014
- Charlotte Observer, "Federal judge overturns NC same-sex marriage ban," October 10, 2014
- North Carolina General Assembly, "SB 514 full text," accessed September 13, 2011
- goqnotes.com, "Anti-gay amendment filed in N.C. House," April 6, 2011
- Citizen Times, "N.C. Speaker defends staff salaries, talks about gay marriage in Asheville interview," June 30, 2011
- North Carolina State Board of Elections, "Committee filings," accessed December 8, 2011
- News & Record, "Marriage Amendment committees," December 1, 2011
- Associated Press, "Referendum committee to back passage of gay marriage ban referendum in North Carolina formed," December 1, 2011
- Goston Gazette, "Local Catholic leaders show support for marriage amendment," February 12, 2012 (dead link)
- Durham County Republican Party press release, March 18, 2012
- Star News Online, "Faith leaders on both sides of Amendment One," April 20, 2012
- Huffington Post, "North Carolina Amendment 1: Newt Gingrich Encourages Anti-Gay Ballot Measure," April 23, 2012
- Huffington Post, "Billy Graham Backs Anti-Gay Marriage Amendment In North Carolina," May 2, 2012
- Winston-Salem Journal, "Same-sex marriage back on N.C. front burner," September 18, 2011
- News Observer, "Same-sex marriage foes rally for amendment," May 18, 2011
- Advocate.com, "N.C. Marriage Ban Supporter Wants the People to Decide," August 23, 2011
- NBC 17 "NC Catholic Bishops denounce Obama's stance on Amendment 1," March 26, 2012
- Charlotte Observer, "Union County board favors ban on same-sex marriage," April 3, 2012
- Baptist Press, "NC gay 'marriage' backers try to change subject," April 26, 2012
- The Miami Herald, "N.C. gay marriage foes rally for constitutional ban," May 18, 2011
- CBNNews.com, "Traditional Marriage Supporters Rally at NC Capitol," May 18, 2011
- News & Observer, "Dome: Anti-gay marriage forces are marshaling," December 2, 2011
- Vote for Marriage NC pre-referendum campaign finance report," accessed May 2, 2012
- North Carolina State Board of Elections, "Committee filings - Coalition to Protect NC Families," accessed December 8, 2011
- North Carolina State Board of Elections, "Committee filings - Human Rights Campaign," accessed December 8, 2011
- Huffington Post, "Obama Opposes Amendment One, North Carolina Ballot Question Banning Gay Marriage," accessed March 16, 2012
- Towleroad, "NC Elections Official Resigns Over Anti-Gay Marriage Amendment," January 10, 2012
- Chapel Hill News, "Commissioners reject marriage amendment," February 1, 2012
- Associated Press, "Etheridge makes clear views on NC taxes, amendment," February 6, 2012
- Advocate.com, "N.C. Senator Kay Hagan Speaks Out Against Antigay Amendment 1," February 22, 2012
- Creative Loafing Charlotte, "How would Amendment One affect your life?" April 24, 2012
- WXII12 "N.C. NAACP goes on radio against marriage amendment," April 27, 2012
- Care2 "Bill Clinton: Amendment 1 Will Hurt Families and Drive Away Jobs," May 7, 2012
- The News & Observer, "Business leaders ask lawmakers to think about jobs, not marriage," September 12, 2011
- Fulltext of the letter available on The Business Journals website
- ProtectAllNCFamilies, "Domestic Violence Protections"
- WRAL, "Business, religion cited in NC gay marriage events," September 6, 2011
- The Daily Tar Heel, "Chapel Hill Town Council against NC Defense of Marriage Act," September 12, 2011
- Huffington Post, "Obama Opposes Amendment One, North Carolina Ballot Question Banning Gay Marriage" March 16, 2012
- goqnotes.com, "Gay Republicans applaud Ellmers opposition to amendment," October 3, 2011
- The Charlotte Observer, "Political, not principled, stand on gay marriage," October 11, 2011
- Associated Press, "N.C. governor opposes gay-marriage amendment," October 8, 2011
- The Progressive Pulse, "Raleigh passes resolution opposing anti-gay constitutional amendment (video)," December 6, 2011
- News & Observer, "Raleigh council opposes same-sex marriage amendment," December 7, 2011
- YesWeekly, "Black leaders reject marriage amendment," April 4, 2012
- On Top Magazine, "Campaign To Defeat North Carolina Gay Marriage Ban Launched," January 19, 2012
- Protect All NC Families - Videos, "Protect All NC Families - Videos,"
- WBTV, "Hundreds rally in Charlotte against anti-gay marriage amendment," June 24, 2011
- The Charlotte Observer, "Fight gears up on same-sex marriage in North Carolina," August 15, 2011 (dead link)
- Associated Press, "Rhetoric heats up in fight over same-sex marriage," September 7, 2011
- Associated Press, "Marriage amendment foes rally at N.C. Legislature," September 13, 2011 (dead link)
- ShelbyStar.com, "Gay marriage ban prompts street protest in Charlotte," October 20, 2011 (dead link)
- WXII12, "Gay Marriage Amendment Opponents Planning NC March," January 20, 2012
- Mountain Xpress, "Equality NC kicks off "race to the ballot," January 29, 2012
- newsobserver.com, "Marriage amendment debate focuses on domestic violence," March 4, 2012
- Shelby Star, "Church to host discussion on same-sex marriage ban," February 3, 2012 (dead link)
- The Herald-Sun, "Musicians, artists rally against amendment," April 28, 2012 (dead link)
- Washington Blade, "Twitter fundraiser aids N.C. amendment fight," May 1, 2012
- Coalition to Protect NC Families pre-referendum campaign finance report," accessed May 2, 2012
- Human Rights Campaign NC Families PAC pre-referendum campaign finance report," accessed May 2, 2012
- News & Observer, "Ballot's omitted clause on same-sex marriage ban raises objections," September 22, 2011
- News & Observer, "Amendment to ban same-sex marriage to be on May ballot," September 12, 2011
- Public News Service, "Analysts: Perdue Decision Could Affect Marriage Amendment," January 27, 2012
- The Pilot, "Amendment One Deserves Defeat," April 19, 2012
- The Indy Week, "2012 Primary Endorsements - Constitutional Amendment 1," April 18, 2012
- The New York Times, "Bigotry on the Ballot," April 29, 2012
- Spring Hope Enterprise, "Amendment a very bad idea," April 5, 2012
- Elon University Polll, "March poll," March 23, 2009
- Elon University Poll, "February Poll," February 28, 2011
- John W. Pope Civitas Institute, "Civitas Poll: Unaffiliated Voters Still Support Marriage Amendment," September 6, 2011
- Digtriad.com, "A New Poll Shows 56% of North Carolinians Oppose Gay Marriage Ban," September 30, 2011
- The Times News.com, "Elon poll: Most opposed to constitutional ban on same-sex marriage," September 30, 2011
- Public Policy Polling, "NC marriage amendment has plenty of support in primary test," October 7, 2011
- Adocate.com, "Poll Has Bad News for North Carolina, But Not All Bad," October 13, 2011
- Public Policy Polling, "Marriage amendment leading by 24, Perdue down 9," November 4, 2011
- Elon University Poll, "Elon Poll: State residents divided on OWS movement," November 7, 2011
- Public Policy Polling, "Perdue remains down to McCrory by 10, would romp Faison," December 9, 2011
- Public Policy Polling, "N.C. GOP legislators’ popularity in the toilet," January 12, 2012
- Elon University Polll, "Support growing for same-sex marriage rights," April 2, 2012
- Public Policy Polling, "Momentum turning against NC marriage amendment," April 24, 2012
- Public Policy Polling, "Amendment One still up 14 points in N.C.," May 1, 2012
- The Washington Independent, "Anti-gay marriage amendment heads to N.C. ballot without public input," September 13, 2011