Notable federal judicial legislation

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Since the creation of the federal judiciary, the United States Congress has enacted legislation to reform the third branch in order to improve the administration of justice.[1]

Framework for the judiciary

Article III of the United States Constitution

The original framework for the federal judiciary when the Constitution of the United States was ratified in 1787.

Judiciary Act of 1789

This Act sets up the charter and operating procedures for the federal judiciary.

Judiciary Act of 1802

This Act created the first circuit system for the federal judiciary, setting up the original six circuit system.
United States Capitol

Federal judiciary expansions

Evarts Act of 1891

This Act established the United States court of appeals and the position of federal appeals judge.

Judicial Code of 1911

This finished the work of the Evarts Act; abolishing the previous circuit courts and creating the system of district courts.

Federal Magistrates Act of 1968

This Act established the position of Federal magistrate judge.

Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978

The Bankruptcy Reform Act established the new position of Federal bankruptcy judge and determined the procedure for selecting those judges.

Federal court reorganizations

The page United States court reorganization legislation discusses the reorganization of the federal judiciary, including:

  • Judiciary Act of 1789
  • Judiciary Act of 1801
  • Judiciary Act of 1802
  • Seventh Circuit Act of 1807
  • Eighth and Ninth Circuits Act of 1837
  • California Circuit Act of 1855
  • Tenth Circuit Act of 1863
  • Judicial Circuits Act of 1866
  • Judiciary Act of 1869
  • Evarts Act of 1891
  • Tenth Circuit Reorganization Act of 1929
  • Eleventh Circuit Act of 1980
  • Federal Circuit Act of 1982

Federal judicial administration

Conference of Senior Circuit Judges Act of 1922

This established what is called today the Judicial Conference of the United States.

Judges Act of 1925

The Judges Act changed what cases could be appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States in order to improve the efficiency of the nation's highest court.

Administrative Office Act of 1939

This act created a separate Administrative Office of the United States Courts in which allowed for more efficient operations of the federal judiciary.

Federal Judicial Center Act of 1967

This Act created the Federal Judicial Center to conduct research and educate the public on the judicial system.

Federal Magistrates Act of 1979

This Act gave greater, defined authority to federal magistrate judges, including involvement in civil cases.

Judicial Conduct and Disability Act of 1980

This Act sets up a formal procedure for filing complaints against judges for misconduct and allows for the creation of circuit level judicial councils to investigate complaints.

The Court Security Improvement Act of 2007

This Act created a new set of penalties for individuals found guilty of threatening judges and their families, in addition to providing more resources for the protection of federal judges.

Bankruptcy legislation

The page United States Bankruptcy Courts legislation discusses establishment of these courts, in addition to:

  • The Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978
  • The Bankruptcy Amendment Act of 1984
  • The Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1994
  • The Bankruptcy Reform Act of 2005

Proposed legislation

Inspector General of the Federal Courts

This would establish the position of Inspector General to investigate allegations of misconduct and waste, fraud, abuse, and misconduct of any employee in the federal judiciary.

State Court Interpreters Grant Program Act of 2009

This would have establish a federal grant program for states to use federal funding for more interpreters in state-level courts and/or to establish interpreter programs.

Federal Judgeship Act of 2009

This bill would have established 63 new judgeships on the federal circuit and district courts.

Federal Judgeship Act of 2013

This bill would establish 91 new judgeships on the federal circuit and district courts.

See also

External links