Governor of Oregon

From Ballotpedia
(Redirected from Oregon Governor)
Jump to: navigation, search
Oregon Governor
General information
Office Type:  Partisan
Office website:  Official Link
2011-2013 FY Budget:  $18,762,015
Term limits:  8 years in office during any 12 year period
Structure
Length of term:   4 years
Authority:  Oregon Constitution, Article V, Section I
Selection Method:  Elected
Current Officeholder

Kate Brown.jpg
Name:  Kate Brown
Officeholder Party:  Democratic
Assumed office:  February 18, 2015
Compensation:  $98,600
Elections
Next election:  November 2016 (special)
Last election:  November 4, 2014
Other Oregon Executive Offices
GovernorSecretary of StateAttorney GeneralTreasurerAuditorSuperintendent of EducationAgriculture CommissionerInsurance CommissionerNatural Resources CommissionerLabor CommissionerPublic Service Commission
The Governor of the State of Oregon is an elected constitutional officer, the head of the executive branch, and the highest state office in Oregon. The governor is popularly elected every four years by a plurality and is limited to two four-year terms out of a 12-year span.[1]

As of April 2015, Oregon is one of 7 Democratic state government trifectas.

See also: Oregon State Legislature, Oregon House of Representatives, Oregon State Senate

Current officeholder

The current officeholder is Kate Brown. Brown was sworn into office on February 18, 2015, to replace John Kitzhaber, who resigned from office due to an ethics scandal. She previously served as the secretary of state from 2009 to 2015. The governor's office will be up for election in 2016 with the winner serving out the remainder of a term expiring in 2018.[2]

Learn more about how Brown came to replace Kitzhaber in 2015 by reading the Ethics investigation section below.[3]

Ethics investigation

See also: John Kitzhaber recall, Oregon (2015)

John Kitzhaber 2013.jpg

Resignation of Oregon Governor John Kitzhaber

Term in office: 1995-2003, 2011-2015

Next in succession:
Secretary of State Kate Brown (D)

Related pages
Resignation overview
February 11 story
February 13 story
Impeachment amendment
Recall effort
Cylvia Hayes
Kate Brown
Ellen Rosenblum
Governor of Oregon
Governor
Vacancy process

Flag of Oregon.png

Kitzhaber announced his resignation from office on February 13, 2015, effective February 18. The following sections detail the story surrounding Kitzhaber's resignation.

Ethics concerns before 2014 election

On October 13, 2014, Kitzhaber requested an investigation by the Oregon Government Ethics Commission into whether his fiancee, Cylvia Hayes, used her access to the governor's office to improve her consulting business. A story in the Willamette Week indicated that Hayes advised Kitzhaber about economic and energy issues while also providing consulting services in the same policy areas. On February 5, 2015, Kitzhaber announced that Hayes would no longer serve as a policy advisor following conflict of interest allegations.[4] Oregon's government ethics regulations are designed to prevent conflicts of interest among public officials. Hayes did not receive payments from the state when advising Kitzhaber, but the governor's general counsel, Liani Reeves, noted that she was considered a public official due to her dual role as advisor and first lady.[5]

Kitzhaber's aides insisted that all contracts and policy documents were reviewed prior to approval to comply with state ethics laws. Hayes stated that accusations about conflicts of interest are inaccurate and that she worked as an advisor and outside consultant to ensure "a clean economy and more sustainable future for Oregon."[5] Dennis Richardson (R), Kitzhaber's opponent in the 2014 election, jumped on the opportunity to criticize the governor over ethics concerns, calling his administration "inept and unethical" and musing rhetorically that he might be hiding more secrets.[5][6]

Financial disclosures

Three ethics complaints were filed against Kitzhaber following his October 13 request, including an October 15 complaint by the Oregon Republican Party, an October 16 complaint by state Rep. Vicki Berger (R) and an October 30 complaint by 2014 Democratic primary foe Ifeanyichukwu Diru.[7][8] The seven-member ethics commission held no meetings prior to the November 4 general election. A hearing in March 2015 would have determined if the commission proceeded with a formal investigation of these complaints, though Kitzhaber's resignation cast doubt about the commission's role in future investigations.

Disclosures made to the commission in January 2015 revealed $213,000 in earnings as a consultant from 2011 to 2014, including $118,000 in unreported payments from the Clean Economy Development Center. These totals were at odds with statements made by the governor and his staff as well as federal income tax documents from that period.[9] The editorial board of The Oregonian made national news by calling for Kitzhaber's resignation on February 4, given the paper's endorsement of the governor during his previous election bids.[10]

Emails about Genuine Progress Indicator

On February 6, 2015, the Oregon Department of Administrative Services released emails between Hayes, Kitzhaber and department director Michael Jordan regarding a new economic policy called the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI). These emails, sent between April 2013 and April 2014, revealed Hayes' close involvement in implementing the policy. Hayes was under contract with Demos, a New York-based think tank, from June to November 2013. Hayes sent an email to Jordan requesting a meeting on May 13, 2013, to discuss challenges for the GPI, only three days after signing a contract with Demos. An email from October 30, 2013, requested $125,000 to launch the GPI and listed Hayes and Demos among the "Oregon GPI Team."[11]

Emails from the same period showed Kitzhaber's efforts to hire Sean McGuire, an advisor under contract with Demos. McGuire had previously worked with Demos to install the GPI, a measurement of economic progress that takes into account well-being and productivity, in Maryland. On December 30, 2013, Kitzhaber lobbied Jordan to hire McGuire, indicating that he was the "best person to do this work...and we need to find a way to bring him on." McGuire was hired in spring 2014 for a one-year contract totaling $65,000, though Jordan downplayed suggestions that Kitzhaber pressured him into the decision.[11]

Investigation by Attorney General

Oregon Attorney General Ellen Rosenblum (D) announced on February 9 that she was initiating a criminal investigation of Kitzhaber and Hayes.[12] She announced the investigation on the same day as Kitzhaber publicly requested a criminal investigation of his administration. The attorney general's office has the ability to request records, issue subpoenas to witnesses and charge the governor and his advisors with illegal activity. Rosenblum delayed an investigation because she was concerned about her office's role as attorney for the executive branch, though former state officials argued that she is responsible for investigating corruption within the branch. Republican legislators including Ted Ferrioli support the investigation, but are arguing that a special prosecutor should be appointed to eliminate concerns about Rosenblum's objectivity in dealing with a fellow Democratic official.[13]

On February 20, defense attorney Janet Hoffman sent a request to halt review of Kitzhaber's emails by the attorney general until she had an opportunity to evaluate the documents. Hoffman argued that the former governor's personal emails were co-mingled with official emails without his permission. She also argued that DAS did not "legitimately possess" personal emails, invalidating the documents from becoming evidence in state or federal investigations. Hoffman also requested an independent investigation into leaks of Kitzhaber's emails to Willamette Weekly and The Oregonian.[14]

Speculation about resignation

On February 11, local and national media speculated that Kitzhaber could resign from office. The governor cancelled a Valentine's Day appearance with Tigard-based Friends of Trees on that day. The head of Friends of Trees, Scott Fogarty, noted that the plans were tentative and saw no connection with ongoing ethics concerns.[15] Jim McDermott, an attorney representing Kitzhaber, told reporters on the 11th that the governor had no intention of resigning.[16] Kitzhaber confirmed McDermott's statement later in the day in an interview with The Statesman Journal.[17]

Secretary of State Kate Brown (D) also stoked speculation by ending a trip to Washington, D.C., two days early to return home on the 11th.

Kitzhaber denies intent to resign

Late in the day on February 11, Kitzhaber issued an official statement denying that he had any intention of resigning: "Let me be as clear as I was last week, that I have no intention of resigning as Governor of the state of Oregon."[18]

Sources report Kitzhaber change-of-heart

On February 12, multiple outlets reported that Kitzhaber told aides on the 8th that he would resign, requested Brown's return to Salem and met with legislative leaders on the 10th before reconsidering resignation on the 11th.[19][20]

Kate Brown's February 12 statement

Brown issued a statement in the mid-afternoon on February 12 saying that her return to Oregon on February 11 was requested by Kitzhaber but that when she returned and met with him, he asked her why she had returned to the state. She described this back-and-forth as "bizarre."[21]

The following is Brown's full statement:

Late Tuesday afternoon, I received a call from the Governor while I was in Washington, DC at a Secretaries of State conference. He asked me to come back to Oregon as soon as possible to speak with him in person and alone.

I got on a plane yesterday morning and arrived at 3:40 in the afternoon. I was escorted directly into a meeting with the Governor. It was a brief meeting. He asked me why I came back early from Washington, DC, which I found strange. I asked him what he wanted to talk about. The Governor told me he was not resigning, after which, he began a discussion about transition.

This is clearly a bizarre and unprecedented situation.

I informed the Governor that I am ready, and my staff will be ready, should he resign. Right now I am focused on doing my job for the people of Oregon. [21][22]

Legislative leaders, treasurer call for resignation

On the same afternoon as Brown's statement, Senate President Pete Courtney (D), House Speaker Tina Kotek (D) and State Treasurer Ted Wheeler (D) called on Kitzhaber to resign from office.[23][24] The trio announced their support for Kitzhaber's resignation following an emergency caucus of state Democrats. Wheeler made the following statement to The Oregonian:

It is with deep sadness that I ask Governor John Kitzhaber to resign his position as Governor of Oregon. He has accomplished many great things during his long career, and history will be kinder to him than current events suggest.

Unfortunately, the current situation has become untenable, and I cannot imagine any scenario by which things improve. Oregon deserves a Governor who is fully focused on the duties of state.

I hope the Governor will do the right thing for Oregon and its citizens. [22]

The Oregonian, (2015) [25]

Attempted deletion of personal emails

A records request by Willamette Week and 101.9 FM KINK in Oregon found that the governor's office ordered the deletion of emails from Kitzhaber's personal account on February 5. The order, sent by executive assistant Jan Murdock, asked for all messages in Kitzhaber's personal email to be removed from servers. Several supervisors at the Department of Administrative Service's Technology Support Center refused to comply with the order. Any personal emails used to discuss government business would be considered public records according to the state's open records laws.[26]

Attorney general order for Hayes emails

On February 12, Rosenblum ordered Hayes to deliver personal emails related to state business to The Oregonian following a public records request by the newspaper on December 29, 2014. Attorney Whitney Boise, speaking on behalf of Hayes, argued to Rosenblum that his client's emails are private because she is not a public official. This claim was rejected by Rosenblum's office, which issued the order based on the fact that Hayes worked "extensively on government matters." Hayes had to comply with the attorney general's order or seek an injunction by February 19.[27]

February 13 resignation

Kitzhaber announced his resignation from the governor's office on the morning of Friday, February 13. His resignation became effective on Wednesday, February 18. In a statement to the media, Kitzhaber stated:

I am announcing today that I will resign as Governor of the State of Oregon.

It is not in my nature to walk away from a job I have undertaken – it is to stand and fight for the cause. For that reason I apologize to all those people who gave of their faith, time, energy and resources to elect me to a fourth term last year and who have supported me over the past three decades. I promise you that I will continue to pursue our shared goals and our common cause in another venue.

I must also say that it is deeply troubling to me to realize that we have come to a place in the history of this great state of ours where a person can be charged, tried, convicted and sentenced by the media with no due process and no independent verification of the allegations involved. But even more troubling – and on a very personal level as someone who has given 35 years of public service to Oregon – is that so many of my former allies in common cause have been willing to simply accept this judgment at its face value.

It is something that is hard for me to comprehend – something we might expect in Washington, D.C. but surely not in Oregon. I do not know what it means for our shared future but I do know that it is seriously undermining civic engagement in this state and the quality of the public discourse that once made Oregon stand out from the pack.

Nonetheless, I understand that I have become a liability to the very institutions and policies to which I have dedicated my career and, indeed, my entire adult life. As a former presiding officer I fully understand the reasons for which I have been asked to resign. I wish Speaker Kotek and President Courtney and their colleagues on both sides of the aisle success in this legislative session and beyond. And I hope that they are truly committed to carrying forward the spirit of bipartisanship and collaboration that has marked the last four years in Oregon. [22]

—Oregon Public Broadcasting, (2015) [28]

Federal subpoena
Copy of subpoena available here

On February 12, federal prosecutors issued a subpoena to the Department of Administrative Services for emails and records from Kitzhaber, Hayes and other members of the outgoing administration. The subpoena also sought records of payments to Hayes and her firm, 3E Strategies. All subpoenaed documents were presented to a federal grand jury scheduled to convene on March 10.[29]

Authority

The state Constitution addresses the office of the governor in Article V, the Executive Department.[1]

Under Article V, Section I:

The cheif [sic] executive power of the State, shall be vested in a Governor...

Qualifications

Governors
GovernorsLogo.jpg
Current Governors
Gubernatorial Elections
201520142013201220112010
Current Lt. Governors
Lt. Governor Elections
201520142013201220112010
Breaking news

A candidate for the governorship must be:

  • a United States citizen
  • at least 30 years old
  • a resident of Oregon for at least three years

The age requirements does not apply to someone who succeeds to office under Section 8a of Article V.[1]


Vacancies

See also: How gubernatorial vacancies are filled

Details of vacancy appointments are addressed under Article V, Section 8a.[1]

The state of Oregon has no formal office of the lieutenant governor. Instead, the secretary of state serves as the ex officio lieutenant governor and succeeds the governor is the latter dies, resigns, is removed from office or is unable to discharge the office.

After the secretary of state, the treasurer, the President Pro Tem of the Senate, and then the Speaker of the House shall follow in the line of succession.

An acting governor holds the office until the governor's disability is removed or until the next biennial election, when a special election shall be held. When the treasurer or secretary of state is the acting governor, an appointment is made for someone to fill the office of the treasurer or secretary of state.

An appointed treasurer or secretary of state may not succeed to the elected governorship.

Elections

Oregon state government organizational chart

Oregon elects governors in the midterm elections, that is, even years that are not presidential election years. For Oregon, 2018, 2022, 2026, 2030 and 2034 are all gubernatorial election years. Legally, the gubernatorial inauguration is always set for the second Monday in the January following an election.

In the event of a tie, a joint session of the legislature shall cast ballots to choose from the two top vote getters. If the election is contested, the legislature shall decide the manner of addressing and settling the contest.

Term limits

See also: States with gubernatorial term limits

Oregon governors are restricted to 8 years in office during any 12 year period.

Oregon Constitution, Article V, Section 1

The cheif [sic] executive power of the State, shall be vested in a Governor, who shall hold his office for the term of four years; and no person shall be eligible to such office more than Eight, in any period of twelve years.

Partisan composition

The chart below shows the partisan breakdown of Oregon governors from 1992-2013.
Governor of Oregon Partisanship.PNG

Full history

2014

See also: Oregon gubernatorial election, 2014

Democratic incumbent John Kitzhaber won re-election on November 4, 2014.

Governor of Oregon, 2014
Party Candidate Vote % Votes
     Democratic Green check mark transparent.pngJohn Kitzhaber Incumbent 49.9% 733,230
     Republican Dennis Richardson 44.1% 648,542
     Pacific Green Jason Levin 2% 29,561
     Libertarian Paul Grad 1.5% 21,903
     Constitution Aaron Auer 1.1% 15,929
     Progressive Chris Henry 0.9% 13,898
     Nonpartisan Write-in votes 0.5% 6,654
Total Votes 1,469,717
Election Results via Oregon Secretary of State.

Duties

The governor is the commander-in-chief of state military (§ 9). The governor also has the power to grant pardons and reprieves and to commute sentences (§ 14). The governor may convene a special session of the state legislature (§ 12).

Additionally, the governor serves on the State Land Board which is tasked with managing state-owned lands to "obtain the greatest benefit for the people of Oregon, consistent with resource conservation and sound land management."

Other duties and privileges of the office include:

  • Making periodic addresses to the General Assembly concerning and the state of the state and making recommendations on legislation (§ 11)
  • Upholding and ensuring the faithful execution of all state laws (§ 10)
  • Requiring written information from the head of any Administrative or Military Department on their duties and offices (§ 13)
  • Vetoing bills, including enjoying a line item veto and an emergency clause veto (§ 15a). The gubernatorial veto is subject to a two-third majority override of the legislature (§ 15b)
  • Making vacancies, including recess vacancies, for all offices not otherwise provided for. The appointment shall be for the remainder of the term if the next general election is within 61 days. Otherwise, a special election shall be called (§ 16)
  • Issuing writs of special election for all vacancies that occur in the legislature (§ 17)
  • Signing all commissions issues in the name of the state of Oregon (§ 18)[1]

Divisions

Note: Ballotpedia's state executive officials project researches state official websites for information that describes the divisions (if any exist) of a state executive office. That information for the Governor of Oregon has not yet been added. After extensive research we were unable to identify any relevant information on state official websites. If you have any additional information about this office for inclusion on this section and/or page, please email us.

State budget

Role in state budget

See also: Oregon state budget and finances

The state operates on a biennial budget cycle. The sequence of key events in the budget process is as follows:[30][31]

  1. Budget instruction guidelines are sent to state agencies from February through May in the year preceding the start of the new biennium.
  2. State agencies submit their budget requests to the governor in September.
  3. Agency hearings are held from September through November.
  4. The governor submits his or her proposed budget to the state legislature in December.
  5. From January through June, the legislature debates and then adopts a budget. A simple majority is required to pass a budget. The biennium begins July 1.

Oregon is one of 44 states in which the governor has line item veto authority.[31]

The governor is legally required to submit a balanced budget proposal. Likewise, the legislature is legally required to pass a balanced budget.[31]

Governor's office budget

The budget for the governor's office in Fiscal Year 2011-2013 was $18,762,015.[32]

Compensation

See also: Comparison of gubernatorial salaries and Compensation of state executive officers

DocumentIcon.jpg See statutes: Chapter 292, Section 311 of the Oklahoma Statutes

The governor, along with the rest of Oregon's elected executives, is entitled to an annual salary, payable monthly, in accordance with Title 28, Chapter 292, Section 311 (§ 292.311) of the Oregon Statutes. The amount of compensation the governor receives is set at $98,600 for the year beginning January 1, 2014, plus $1,000 per month regularly for miscellaneous, job-related expenses.[33]

2014

In 2014, the governor received a salary of $98,600, according to the Council of State Governments.[34]

2013

In 2013, the governor's salary remained at $93,600.[35]

2012

In 2012, the governor was paid an estimated $93,600 according to the Council of State Governments.

Historical officeholders

There have been 38 gubernatorial administrations and 37 governors of Oregon since 1859. Of the 37 officeholders, 20 were Republican, 16 were Democratic and one was an Independent.[36]

Resignations from office

There have been five governors in the state's history who resigned prior to the conclusion of their terms. The most recent case of John Kitzhaber, who resigned due to an ethics and criminal investigation concerning conflicts of interest related to his fiancee and advisor Cylvia Hayes, was the first gubernatorial resignation in Oregon since 1952. The following table details these governors and their reasons for leaving office:[37]

Gubernatorial resignations in Oregon history
Governor Party End of last term Resignation year Reason
Lafayette Grover Electiondot.png Democratic 1879 1877 Appointment to U.S. Senate
George Earle Chamberlain Electiondot.png Democratic 1911 1909 Appointment to U.S. Senate
Frank Benson Ends.png Republican 1911 1910 Illness
James Douglas McKay Ends.png Republican 1953 1952 Federal appointment
John Kitzhaber Electiondot.png Democratic 2019 2015 Ethics and criminal investigation

History

Partisan balance 1992-2013

Who Runs the States Project
See also: Ballotpedia:Who Runs the States and Ballotpedia:Who Runs the States, Oregon
Partisan breakdown of the Oregon governorship from 1992-2013

During every year from 1992-2013 there were Democratic governors in office for Oregon. Oregon is one of seven states that were run by a Democratic governor for more than 80 percent of the years between 1992-2013. Oregon was under a Democratic trifecta for the final year of the study.

Across the country, there were 493 years of Democratic governors (44.82%) and 586 years of Republican governors (53.27%) from 1992-2013.

Over the course of the 22-year study, state governments became increasingly more partisan. At the outset of the study period (1992), 18 of the 49 states with partisan legislatures had single-party trifectas and 31 states had divided governments. In 2013, only 13 states had divided governments, while single-party trifectas held sway in 36 states, the most in the 22 years studied.

The chart below shows the partisan composition of the Office of the Governor of Oregon, the Oregon State Senate and the Oregon House of Representatives from 1992-2013.

Partisan composition of Oregon state government(1992-2013).PNG

SQLI and partisanship

The chart below depicts the partisanship of the Oregon state government and the state's SQLI ranking for the years studied. For the SQLI, the states were ranked from 1-50, with 1 being the best and 50 the worst. Oregon had Democratic trifectas from 2007-2010 and again in 2013. The state's lowest SQLI ranking, finishing 39th, occurred in 2005. Its highest ranking, finishing 18th, occurred in 2011. Both occurred when the government was divided.

Chart displaying the partisanship of the Oregon government from 1992-2013 and the State Quality of Life Index (SQLI).

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a google news search for the term Oregon + Governor

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Governor of Oregon News Feed

  • Loading...

Contact information

Office of the Governor
160 State Capitol
900 Court Street
Salem, Oregon 97301-4047
Phone:503.378.4582
Fax:503.378.6827

See also

External links

BP-Initials-UPDATED.png
Suggest a link

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Oregon State Legislature, "Oregon Constitution 2014 Edition," accessed February 13, 2015
  2. The Oregonian, "Live updates: Kate Brown becomes Oregon governor," February 18, 2015
  3. Oregon Public Broadcasting, "NEWS RELEASE: Governor Kitzhaber Announces Resignation," February 13, 2015
  4. Governing, "Oregon Governor Says His Fiancee Will Have No Policy Role, But It Might Be Too Late," February 5, 2015
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Willamette Week, "First Lady Inc.," October 8, 2014
  6. KGW, "Kitzhaber requests ethics review of Cylvia Hayes," October 15, 2014
  7. The Oregonian, "Republican Vicki Berger filed first ethics complaint naming John Kitzhaber, Cylvia Hayes," October 16, 2014
  8. GoLocalPDX, "Democrat Joins with Richardson, Demands Kitzhaber Release Records," October 30, 2014
  9. The Oregonian, "Cylvia Hayes discloses another $118,000 for consulting fees," January 28, 2015
  10. The Oregonian, "John Kitzhaber must resign: Editorial," February 5, 2015
  11. 11.0 11.1 The Oregonian, "John Kitzhaber controversy: Cylvia Hayes directed state officials on policy she was being paid to promote, emails show," February 6, 2015
  12. New York Times, "Oregon Bedfellows Make for Strange Politics," February 11, 2015
  13. Governing, "Oregon AG Launches Criminal Investigation of Gov. Kitzhaber and His Fiancee," February 10, 2015
  14. The Oregonian, "Kitzhaber's defense lawyer wants to block ex-governor's emails from feds," February 20, 2015
  15. The Oregonian, "John Kitzhaber cancels plans to attend weekend event in Tigard," February 11, 2015
  16. Oregon Public Broadcasting, "Lawyer: Gov. John Kitzhaber Isn't Resigning," February 11, 2015
  17. The Statesman Journal, "Gov. Kitzhaber says he is not resigning," February 11, 2015
  18. ABC News, "Oregon Gov. John Kitzhaber Says He's Not Resigning," February 11, 2015
  19. Governing, "Oregon Governor Planned to Resign Then Changed His Mind, Sources Say," February 12, 2015
  20. Herald and News, "Kitzhaber reconsiders resignation," February 12, 2015
  21. 21.0 21.1 Politico, "Oregon secretary of state describes ‘bizarre’ John Kitzhaber meeting," February 12, 2015
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  23. ABC News, "Top Democrats Call on Kitzhaber to Resign Governorship," February 12, 2015
  24. The Statesman Journal, "Courtney, Wheeler calling for Kitzhaber to resign," February 12, 2015
  25. The Oregonian, "Treasurer Ted Wheeler calls for John Kitzhaber to resign," February 12, 2015
  26. Willamette Week, "Gov. John Kitzhaber's Office Sought To Destroy Thousands of His Emails," February 12, 2015
  27. The Oregonian, "Oregon attorney general orders Cylvia Hayes to disclose emails to The Oregonian/OregonLive," February 12, 2015
  28. Oregon Public Broadcasting, "NEWS RELEASE: Governor Kitzhaber Announces Resignation," February 13, 2015
  29. The Oregonian, "Federal authorities subpoena Oregon Governor John Kitzhaber records," February 13, 2015
  30. National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 National Association of State Budget Officers, "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
  32. Oregon Legislative Fiscal Office, "Analysis in the 2011-13 Legislatively Adopted Budget," accessed April 10, 2013
  33. OregonLaws.org, "Oregon Statutes : Title 28 - Public financial administration : Chapter 292 — Salaries and Expenses of State Officers and Employees," accessed February 20, 2015
  34. Council of State Governments, "SELECTED STATE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICIALS: ANNUAL SALARIES," accessed December 8, 2014
  35. Council of State Governments, "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries," June 25, 2013
  36. National Governors Association, " Former governors of Oregon," accessed June 20, 2013
  37. National Governors Association, "Oregon: Past Governors Bios," accessed February 11, 2015