Pennsylvania General Assembly
|Pennsylvania General Assembly|
|2015 session start:||January 6, 2015|
|Website:||Official Legislature Page|
|Senate President:||Jim Cawley (R)|
|House Speaker:||Mike Turzai (R)|
|Majority Leader:|| Jake Corman (R) (Senate),|
Dave Reed (R) (House)
|Minority Leader:|| Jay Costa (D) (Senate),|
Frank Dermody (D) (House)
|Members:||50 (Senate), 203 (House)|
|Length of term:||4 years (Senate), 2 years (House)|
|Authority:||Art II, Sec 3, Pennsylvania Constitution|
|Salary:||$82,026/year + per diem|
|Last Election:||November 4, 2014 |
25 seats (Senate)
203 seats (House)
|Next election:||November 8, 2016 |
25 seats (Senate)
203 seats (House)
|Redistricting:||Pennsylvania Legislative Reapportionment Commission has control|
- 1 Overview
- 2 Sessions
- 3 Ethics and transparency
- 4 Senate
- 5 House of Representatives
- 6 History
- 7 Redistricting
- 8 Legislators
- 9 Joint legislative committees
- 10 See also
- 11 External links
- 12 References
As of March 2015, Pennsylvania is one of 19 states that is under divided government and is therefore not one of the state government trifectas.
The General Assembly has 253 members, making it the second-largest state legislature in the nation (behind New Hampshire) and the largest full-time legislature. It consists of the Pennsylvania State Senate with 50 members and the Pennsylvania House of Representatives with 203 members.
The Pennsylvania general elections are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in every even-numbered year. A vacancy for a seat must be filled by special election. The presiding officer of the respective house sets the date for such elections.
Senators must be at least 25 years old and Representatives at least 21 years old. They must also be citizens and inhabitants of the state for a minimum of four years, living in their respective districts for at least one year. Individuals who have been convicted of various felonies including embezzlement bribery and perjury are ineligible for election. The Pennsylvania Constitution also adds the category of "other infamous crimes" which can be broadly interpreted by state courts. No one who has been previously expelled from the General Assembly may be elected in the future.
Legislative districts are drawn every 10 years following the U.S. Census. Districts are drawn by a five-member commission, of which four members are the majority and minority leaders of both houses (or their delegates). The fifth member (and chairperson of the committee) is appointed by the other four and may not be an elected or appointed official. If the leadership cannot decide upon a fifth member, the State Supreme Court may appoint the chairperson.
While in office, legislators cannot hold civil office. Even if a member resigns, the Pennsylvania Constitution states that the individual may not be appointed to civil office for the duration of the original term for which they were originally elected.
The Assembly meets in the Pennsylvania State Capitol which was completed in 1906. Under the Pennsylvania Constitution, the Assembly must meet in the City of Harrisburg and can only move if given the consent of both chambers.
Article II of the Pennsylvania Constitution establishes when the General Assembly is to meet. Section 4 of Article II states that the General Assembly is to convene its regular session on the first Tuesday of January each year.
Section 4 gives the Governor of Pennsylvania the authority to convene special sessions of the General Assembly either when he judges a special session to be in the public interest, or when a majority of each legislative House requests a special session.
- See also: Dates of 2015 state legislative sessions
In 2015, the General Assembly will be in session from January 6 through December 31 (Projected).
Major issues during the 2015 legislative session include a severance tax on shale gas, pension reforms, liquor privatization and judicial reforms.
- See also: Dates of 2014 state legislative sessions
In 2014, the General Assembly was in session from January 7 through November 12.
Major issues during the 2014 legislative session included public pension reform and liquor privatization.
- See also: Dates of 2013 state legislative sessions
In 2013, the General Assembly was in session from January 2 to December 31.
Like many other states, Pennsylvania lawmakers had to work on the budget deficit. Other issues included economic development, public pension reform, liquor privatization, and child abuse.
In November 2013, the Pennsylvania state House and state Senate voted unanimously on a bill, which was signed by Gov. Tom Corbett, to change the state’s unemployment compensation law. The bill closed a loophole that allowed a state employee to retire from his job and begin collecting benefits, only to be hired back as a part-time employee while also collecting unemployment compensation after leaving a previous job. While the law closed a triple-dipping loophole, the changes do not prevent double-dipping, in which a state employee retires, begins collecting pension benefits, and returns to work a part-time position.
In November 2013, the state House approved a gambling expansion bill by a vote of 102-96. The bill would allow Pennsylvania bars and taverns to conduct “small scale gambling” such as raffles and drawings for cash prizes. A similar bill was approved by the Senate in October 2013, but the House-passed bill must be agreed to before the measure becomes law. Proponents of the bill say the state could raise almost $156 million annually in tax revenue if as many as 2,000 bars and taverns accept it. Opponents of the legislation say the bill would not produce the promised revenue and would hurt families.
- See also: Dates of 2012 state legislative sessions
In 2012, the General Assembly began its legislative session on January 3.
- See also: Dates of 2011 state legislative sessions
In 2011, the General Assembly was in session from January 4 through November 30.
- See also: Dates of 2010 state legislative sessions
Role in state budget
- See also: Pennsylvania state budget and finances
- Budget instruction guidelines are sent to state agencies in August of the year preceding the start of the new fiscal year.
- State agencies submit their requests to the governor in October.
- Agency hearings are held in December and January. Public hearings are held in February and March.
- The governor submits his or her proposed budget to the state legislature in February.
- The legislature typically adopts a budget in May or June. A simple majority is required to pass a budget. The fiscal year begins July 1.
The governor is legally required to submit a balanced budget proposal. While the legislature is not legally required to pass a balanced budget, the Governor is legally required to sign a balanced budget.
The Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative released a report in July 2013 indicating that cost-benefit analysis in policymaking led to more effective uses of public funds. Looking at data from 2008 through 2011, the study's authors found that some states were more likely to use cost-benefit analysis, while others were facing challenges and lagging behind the rest of the nation. The challenges states faced included a lack of time, money and technical skills needed to conduct comprehensive cost-benefit analyses. Pennsylvania was one of 29 states with mixed results regarding the frequency and effectiveness in its use of cost-benefit analysis.
Ethics and transparency
Following the Money report
- See also: "Following the Money" report, 2014
The U.S. Public Interest Research Group, a consumer-focused nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., released its annual report on state transparency websites in April 2014. The report, entitled "Following the Money," measured how transparent and accountable state websites are with regard to state government spending. According to the report, Pennsylvania received a grade of B- and a numerical score of 82.5, indicating that Pennsylvania was "advancing" in terms of transparency regarding state spending.
Open States Transparency
The Sunlight Foundation released an "Open Legislative Data Report Card" in March 2013. Pennsylvania was given a grade of C in the report. The report card evaluated how adequate, complete and accessible legislative data was to the general public. A total of 10 states received an A: Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Kansas, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia and Washington.
The Pennsylvania State Senate is the upper house of the Pennsylvania General Assembly. Senators are elected for four years. Senators' terms are staggered with only half of the Senate contested at each election.
It is made up of 50 members that are elected by district from around the Commonwealth. The President of the Senate is the Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania, who has no vote except in case of a tie.
|Party||As of March 2015|
House of Representatives
The Pennsylvania House of Representatives is the lower house Pennsylvania General Assembly. There are 203 members, elected for two year terms from single member districts. Elections are held in November of even numbered years.
Following the 2006 elections the state house consisted of 101 Republicans and 102 Democrats, giving the Democrats control of the House for the first time since 1994. In a compromise vote, a Republican was elected to preside over the Democratic controlled chamber.
|Party||As of March 2015|
Partisan balance 1992-2013
Pennsylvania State Senate: From 1992-2013, the Democratic Party was the majority in the Pennsylvania State Senate for one year while the Republicans were the majority for 21 years. The Pennsylvania State Senate is one of 13 state senates that was Republican for more than 80 percent of the years between 1992-2013. Pennsylvania was under Republican trifectas for the final three years of the study.
Across the country, there were 541 Democratic and 517 Republican state senates from 1992 to 2013.
Pennsylvania State House of Representatives: From 1992-2013, the Democratic Party was the majority in the Pennsylvania State House of Representatives for seven years while the Republicans were the majority for 15 years. Pennsylvania was under Republican trifectas for the final three years of the study.
Across the country, there were 577 Democratic and 483 Republican State Houses of Representatives from 1992 to 2013.
Over the course of the 22-year study, state governments became increasingly more partisan. At the outset of the study period (1992), 18 of the 49 states with partisan legislatures had single-party trifectas and 31 states had divided governments. In 2013, only 13 states had divided governments, while single-party trifectas held sway in 36 states, the most in the 22 years studied.
SQLI and partisanship
The chart below depicts the partisanship of Pennsylvania state government and the state's SQLI ranking for the years studied. For the SQLI, the states were ranked from 1-50, with 1 being the best and 50 the worst. Pennsylvania had a Democratic trifecta in 1993, but switched two years later to a Republican trifecta that lasted from 1995-2002. The state had a divided government for many years until a Republican trifecta returned in 2011. Pennsylvania's worst SQLI ranking, finishing 30th, occurred in 1994 during a divided government and in 2012 during a Republican trifecta. The state's best ranking, finishing 19th, occurred from 1999-2000 during a Republican trifecta and again in 2004 during a divided government.
- SQLI average with Democratic trifecta: 25.00
- SQLI average with Republican trifecta: 23.70
- SQLI average with divided government: 25.20
- See also: Redistricting in Pennsylvania
As far as legislative redistricting, the Pennsylvania Legislative Reapportionment Commission is responsible. This commission is normally made up of the majority and minority leaders of each legislative chamber, plus a fifth member selected by the other four to serve as chair. If the four cannot agree on a fifth, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court decides. The commission has until the October of the redistricting year to submit a plan.
Pennsylvania received its local census data on March 9, 2011. The state had a low 3.4 percent growth rate from 2000-2010. The five most populous cities showed mostly stagnation: Philadelphia grew by 0.6 percent, Pittsburgh decreased by 8.6 percent, Allentown grew by 10.7 percent, Erie decreased by 1.9 percent, and Reading grew by 8.5 percent. By county, the major standout was Forest County with a 56 percent rate of growth.
On August 17, 2011, the Commission approved the census data and went to work on a preliminary map, which it passed on October 31, 2011 by a vote of 3-2. Democrats were not happy with the plan or the negotiation process. Final maps were approved on December 12, 2011 by a 4-1 vote, moving a Senate district and five House districts from west to east. There was a 30-day window to file appeals, of which 11 were filed. The state Supreme Court threw out the maps on January 25, 2012 after appeals were heard.
The commission met on April 12, 2012 to vote in favor of a compromise map, which contained two Senate district splits and 68 House splits. On June 8, the commission approved the final plan, which went to the state Supreme Court for final approval.
- See also: Comparison of state legislative salaries
As of 2013, members of the Pennsylvania Legislature are paid $82,026/year during legislative sessions. Legislators receive $159/day (vouchered) tied to the federal rate, which they can receive actual expenses or per diem.
Legislators in Pennsylvania are able to retire at age 50, while other state workers cannot retire until they turn 60. In 2011, the average legislative pension was $35,221 annually, while the average state employee pension was $23,491. According to former legislator David Mayernik, who began collecting a pension of $29,583 a year when he retired at age 50, the lowered retirement age was intended as compensation for small legislative salaries as well as the uncertainty of serving in office.
When sworn in
Pennsylvania legislators assume office in January.
2005 pay raise controversy
In the early morning hours of July 7, 2005, the Pennsylvania General Assembly passed pay increases for state lawmakers, judges, and top executive-branch officials.
The vote took place at 2 a.m. without public review or commentary and Governor Ed Rendell signed the bill into law. The raise increased legislators' base pay from 16% to 34% depending on position.
The pay raise included a provision allowing legislators to take their raises immediately in the form of "unvouchered expenses." This provision was included due to the Pennsylvania Constitution's clause prohibiting legislators from taking salary increases in the same term as which they are passed. State courts have ruled similar legislation to be constitutional on three separate occasions.
Anger over the raise spawned several grass-roots movements. Anger was geared toward voting out incumbents, supporting a Constitutional Convention, and reducing the size of the legislature.
The first victim of the public uproar was Supreme Court Justice Russell M. Nigro, who became the first Pennsylvania Supreme Court Justice to be denied retention. Nigro asserted that he had not taken part in the pay raise. However, critics noted that Chief Justice Ralph Cappy helped draft the bill and that prior Court opinions upheld such practices.
On November 16, 2005, Governor Rendell signed a repeal of the pay raise after a near unanimous vote for repeal; only House Minority Whip Mike Veon voted against the repeal.
Despite the repeal, a total of 17 legislators were defeated in the 2006 primary elections including Senate President Pro Tempore Robert Jubelirer and Senate Majority Leader David J. Brightbill. They were the first top-ranking Pennsylvania legislative leaders to lose a primary election since 1964.
The November 2006 General Election claimed several more members who supported the pay raise including Reps. Gene McGill, Mike Veon, Matt Wright, Tom Gannon and Matthew Good. The defeats were attributed to anger over the pay raise.
Joint legislative committees
- See also: Public policy in Pennsylvania
The Pennsylvania General Assembly has ten joint legislative service agencies, the following eight of which have joint committee functions:
- Capitol Preservation Committee, Pennsylvania General Assembly
- Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania General Assembly
- Commission on Sentencing, Pennsylvania General Assembly
- Joint Conservation Committee, Pennsylvania General Assembly
- Joint State Government Commission, Pennsylvania General Assembly
- Legislative Budget and Finance Committee, Pennsylvania General Assembly
- Local Government Commission, Pennsylvania General Assembly
- Legislative Data Processing Center, Pennsylvania General Assembly
- Pennsylvania House of Representatives
- Pennsylvania State Senate
- Pennsylvania state legislative districts
- State legislative scorecards in Pennsylvania
- Governor of Pennsylvania
- Pennsylvania Constitution
- Law 360, "Pennsylvania Legislation And Regulation To Watch In 2015," accessed January 22, 2015
- Penn Live, "Pa. Senate Prez: Do away with 'obsolete, unsustainable' pensions or face budget crash: Friday Morning Coffee," January 10, 2014
- Post-Gazette, "Pennsylvania lawmakers start settling in," January 2, 2013
- The Reporter Online, "Triple-dipping loophole in Pa. unemployment law finally closed," accessed December 6, 2013
- WatchDog.org, "Gambling expansion bill heads to Pennsylvania Senate," accessed December 9, 2013
- National Conference of State Legislatures, "2011 Legislative Sessions Calendar," accessed June 6, 2014(Archived)
- National Conference of State Legislatures, "2010 session dates for Pennsylvania legislature," accessed June 6, 2014(Archived)
- National Conference of State Legislatures, "State Experiences with Annual and Biennial Budgeting," updated April 2011
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "Budget Processes in the States, Summer 2008," accessed February 21, 2014
- Pew Charitable Trusts, "States’ Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis," July 29, 2013
- U.S. Public Interest Research Group, "Following the Money 2014 Report," accessed April 15, 2014
- Sunlight Foundation, "Ten Principles for Opening Up Government Information," accessed June 16, 2013
- census.gov, "Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010," accessed May 15, 2014
- U.S. Census Bureau, "States Ranked by Population: 2000," April 2, 2001
- Census.gov, "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Pennsylvania's 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting," March 9, 2011
- NCSL.org, "2012 State Legislator Compensation and Per Diem Table," accessed March 18, 2013
- USA Today, "State lawmakers pump up pensions in ways you can't," September 23, 2011
- Pennsylvania General Assembly, "Bill Information: House Bill 1521," accessed June 6, 2014
- Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, "Senate OK's pay hike repeal bill; Rendell signs it," November 16, 2005
- WHP 580 Talk Radio, "Sign the petition of rejection," accessed June 6, 2014(Archived)
- Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, "Veon's focal point of the pay raise race," May 5, 2006(Archived)
- Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, "In defeat, Veon pays the price for pay raise," November 9, 2006
State of Pennsylvania
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