April 29, 2015
The only court created by Article III of the United States Constitution was the Supreme Court of the United States. "Inferior courts," per Article III, were created by the United States Congress, starting with the Judiciary Act of 1789. For an overview of how the structure and jurisdiction of the federal courts have changed since inception, see United States court reorganization legislation.
See also: Federal judicial nominations by president
For a comparison of vacancies and nominations by year, see one of the following Federal Vacancy Warning System articles: 2014 • 2013 • 2012 • 2011 • 2010 • 2009
For a comparison of vacancies and nominations by Congress, see: 113th Congress • 112th Congress • 111th Congress
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