John Dewey, a professor of philosophy and psychology, propagated his reform ideas through many books, such as Democracy and Education in 1916, lectures and articles and even founded the Laboratory School at the University of Chicago along with other reformers to put his ideas into practice. In contrast to education "administrative progressives," who were reforming public schools using new scientific techniques such as intelligence testing and cost-benefit management, progressive educators emphasized the emotional, artistic, and creative aspects of human development, "the most living and essential parts of our natures," as Margaret Naumburg put it in The Child and the World." Progressive education proposed "child-centered" and "social reconstructionist" approaches to education, in order educate the whole child to be an active participant in the community, and contribute to the common good. The Progressive Education Association was founded in 1919, aiming at "reforming the entire school system of America." Although progressive education ideas were seen as too radical at the time, they survived mainly in education schools and still inspire educational alternatives to a "regime of standardization and mechanization" in secondary schooling.