Public education in California

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K-12 Education in California
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Tom Torlakson
Number of students: 6,287,834[1]
Number of teachers: 268,689
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:23.4
Number of school districts: 1,187
Number of schools: 10,170
Graduation rate: 78%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $9,139[3]
See also
California Department of Education
California school districts
List of school districts in California
California
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in California
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The California public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 California had 6,287,834 students enrolled in a total of 10,170 schools in 1,187 school districts. There were 268,689 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 23 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 389 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average California spent $9,139.00 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 36th highest in the nation. The state's high school graduation rate was 78 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
California Superintendent of Public Instruction
California school districts
List of school districts in California
Public education in California
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the California Department of Education reads:[6]
California will provide a world-class education for all students, from early childhood to adulthood. The Department of Education serves our state by innovating and collaborating with educators, schools, parents, and community partners. Together, as a team, we prepare students to live, work, and thrive in a highly connected world.[7]

The Superintendent of Public Instruction is elected to four-year terms in nonpartisan elections.[8] The office is currently held by Tom Torlakson.[6]

The State Board of Education determines K-12 policy for the state. The Superintendent of Public Instruction serves as the board's executive officer and secretary. The board is comprised of 10 members who serve four-year terms and one student member who serves a one-year term. All members are appointed by the Governor.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The California State Board of Education adopted the standards on August 2, 2010. Full implementation is set to be achieved in the 2014-2015 academic year.[10][11]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how California compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
California 10,170 1,187 6,287,834 268,689 1:23.4 1:389.4 $9,139
Arizona 2,252 662 1,080,319 50,800 1:21.3 1:419.5 $7,666
Nevada 649 18 439,634 21,132 1:20.8 1:449.7 $8,527
Oregon 1,261 221 568,208 26,791 1:21.2 1:364.8 $9,682
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in California as reported in the Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[12]

Demographic information for California's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 42,486 0.68% 1.10%
Asian 693,313 11.16% 4.68%
African American 404,412 6.51% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 35,232 0.57% 0.42%
Hispanic 3,239,296 52.13% 24.37%
White 1,617,931 26.04% 51.21%
Two or more 181,534 2.92% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in California attend city schools. More than 82 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 18 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
California 43.4% 39.3% 6.1% 11.3%
Arizona 48.5% 16.3% 10% 25.2%
Nevada 38.5% 32% 6.6% 22.9%
Oregon 32.6% 23.3% 26.3% 17.8%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Arizona, Nevada, and Oregon), California's fourth grade students fared the worst in mathematics, with only 33 percent scoring at or above proficient.[13]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
California 33 28 27 29
Arizona 40 31 28 28
Nevada 34 28 27 30
Oregon 40 34 33 37
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

pChart

Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for California and surrounding states.[13][14][15]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
California 78% Fourth 22.1 25% 1,505 57%
Arizona 76% Fourth 19.7 35% 1,551 35%
Nevada 63% Fifth 21.3 34% 1,454 48%
Oregon 68% Fifth 21.4 38% 1,539 49%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for California was higher than the national average at 4.2 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 4 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[16]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in California

School choice options in California include: charter schools, online learning programs and open enrollment policies. In addition, about 9.00 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: California state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 19.9 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 4.30 percentage points, or 17.8 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 24.2 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[17][18][19][20][21]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
California 19.9% $9,139 14.56% 55.06% 30.37%
Arizona 19% $7,666 14.69% 41.22% 44.09%
Nevada 23.6% $8,527 10.68% 33.09% 56.24%
Oregon 14% $9,682 14% 46.07% 39.93%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in California totaled approximately $68.6 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for California and surrounding states.[22]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
California $9,995,705 $37,793,351 $20,848,699 $68,637,755
Arizona $1,367,644 $3,839,130 $4,105,899 $9,312,673
Nevada $447,888 $1,388,154 $2,359,519 $4,195,561
Oregon $848,637 $2,792,762 $2,420,619 $6,062,018
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in California totaled approximately $66.9 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for California and surrounding states.[22]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
California $56,784,812 $6,535,512 $3,579,908 $66,900,232
Arizona $8,157,006 $796,052 $634,413 $9,587,471
Nevada $3,712,313 $324,287 $270,077 $4,306,677
Oregon $5,418,357 $461,979 $325,080 $6,205,416
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in California, the average salary increased by 6.4 percent.[23]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
California $65,159 $72,803 $69,672 $69,324 6.4%
Arizona $50,430 $50,119 $49,501 $49,885 -1.1%
Nevada $53,830 $54,999 $55,467 $55,957 4%
Oregon $57,856 $58,948 $58,302 $58,758 1.6%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. California ranked sixth overall, or "strongest," which was in the first of five tiers.[24]

In July 2009, United States Education Secretary Arne Duncan challenged members of the National Education Association to stop resisting linking teacher pay with student performance. "It's not enough to focus only on issues like job security, tenure, compensation, and evaluation," he said. "You must become full partners and leaders in education reform. You must be willing to change."[25]

In June 2009, the California Teachers Association announced that they could not support Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's plan for digital textbooks in 2010. "It's a nice idea, but it's not going to work," said David Sanchez, president of the California Teachers Association. "Where are you going to get a computer for everybody? How many of these kids actually have computers at home?" Instead, Sanchez said that he would like to see the governor's proposal for increasing funds for education. The union suggested increasing tax revenues to directly support schools.

Other California unions include the California Federation of Teachers.

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: California government sector lobbying

Taxpayer-funded lobbyists for state public schools include:

Transparency

In 2008, the governor launched "School Finder," a website that provides access to data reported by California’s schools to the California Department of Education. Data available on the website covers state elementary through high schools and includes traditional, alternative, adult education and charter schools. “This vital information, compiled in one easy-to-navigate site, will increase school accountability and transparency, and put power back into the hands of California parents. The facts of achievement for every school in California are now easily accessible – not buried in bureaucracy,” said Schwarzenegger about the launch.[26]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of California ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked 124 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. California College and University Funding Initiative (2012)
  2. California Multilingual Education Act (2016)
  3. California Proposition 1, Bonds for Community Colleges (1972)
  4. California Proposition 1, Bonds for Public Education (1974)
  5. California Proposition 1, Bonds for Public Schools (June 1962)
  6. California Proposition 1, Bonds for Public Schools (June 1966)
  7. California Proposition 1, Bonds for Public Schools (June 1976)
  8. California Proposition 1, Bonds for Schools (1949)
  9. California Proposition 1, Bonds for University of California Health Sciences Facilities (June 1970)
  10. California Proposition 1, School Assignment and Transportation of Students (1979)
  11. California Proposition 1, School Construction Bonds (1982)
  12. California Proposition 1, State School Aid Bond Law (June 1980)
  13. California Proposition 1, Superintendent of Public Instruction (1968)
  14. California Proposition 10, Eminent Domain for Airports and Schools (1958)
  15. California Proposition 11, Abolish Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (1934)
  16. California Proposition 11, Bonds for the University of California-Berkeley (1914)
  17. California Proposition 11, State Tenure Board (1936)
  18. California Proposition 11, Tax Exemption for Non-Profit Educational Institutions (1926)
  19. California Proposition 12, Tax Increase to Support State Universities (1920)
  20. California Proposition 121, Bonds for Higher Education Facilities (1990)
  21. California Proposition 123, Public School Construction Bonds (1990)
  22. California Proposition 13, Allocation of Public School Funds (1946)
  23. California Proposition 13, Appointment of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (1958)
  24. California Proposition 13, Nonprofit College Tax Exemptions (1962)
  25. California Proposition 14, Board of State College System (1974)
  26. California Proposition 14, Bonds for Libraries (2000)
  27. California Proposition 14, Tax Exemption for Higher Education Non-Profits (1954)
  28. California Proposition 143, Higher Education Facilities Bond Act (1990)
  29. California Proposition 146, School Facilities Bond Act (1990)
  30. California Proposition 15, Incorporation and Organization of Public School Districts (1926)
  31. California Proposition 15, Tax Exemption for Charitable and Educational Non-Profits (1954)
  32. California Proposition 151, Childcare Facilities Bond Act (1990)
  33. California Proposition 152, Bonds for Public Schools (1992)
  34. California Proposition 153, Construction Bonds for Higher Education (1992)
  35. California Proposition 155, Bonds for Elementary Schools (1992)
  36. California Proposition 16, Kindergarten Added to the Public School System (1920)
  37. California Proposition 16, Repeal of the Educational Poll Tax (1946)
  38. California Proposition 16, Tuition at State Colleges Determined by State Legislature (1974)
  39. California Proposition 17, Bibles in Schools (1926)
  40. California Proposition 170, Simple Majority Vote Needed to Approve School Bonds (1993)
  41. California Proposition 174, School Vouchers (1993)
  42. California Proposition 1A, Bonds for Education (1998)
  43. California Proposition 1A, Bonds for Higher Education (1962)
  44. California Proposition 1B, School Facilities Bond Act (1994)
  45. California Proposition 1C, Higher Education Facilities Bond Act (1994)
  46. California Proposition 1D, Bonds for Education Facilities (2006)
  47. California Proposition 2, Bonds for Health Science Facilities (1972)
  48. California Proposition 2, Bonds for Higher Education (1966)
  49. California Proposition 2, Bonds for Junior Colleges (June 1968)
  50. California Proposition 2, Bonds for Public Education (June 1972)
  51. California Proposition 2, Bonds for Public School Construction (1954)
  52. California Proposition 2, Bonds for School Districts (June 1960)
  53. California Proposition 2, Bonds for School Facilities for Handicapped Students (1958)
  54. California Proposition 2, Bonds for Schools for Handicapped Students (1956)
  55. California Proposition 2, Bonds for State Colleges (1964)
  56. California Proposition 2, Free Textbooks for Students at Public Elementary Schools (1912)
  57. California Proposition 2, Per Pupil Subsidies to Public School Districts (1952)
  58. California Proposition 20, Lottery Funds for Textbooks (2000)
  59. California Proposition 203, Bonds for Educational Facilities (1996)
  60. California Proposition 21, Prohibition on Mandatory School Busing (1972)
  61. California Proposition 223, Performance Budgeting Requirements for School Districts (1998)
  62. California Proposition 227, the "English in Public Schools" Initiative (1998)
  63. California Proposition 24, Bonds for Public Schools (1952)
  64. California Proposition 26, Bonds for Public School Construction (1984)
  65. California Proposition 26, Formation of Public School Districts (1922)
  66. California Proposition 3, Bonds for Correctional and Educational Facilities (1958)
  67. California Proposition 3, Bonds for Educational, Mental and Correctional Institutions (1956)
  68. California Proposition 3, Bonds for Public School Construction (1964)
  69. California Proposition 3, Bonds for State Colleges (1968)
  70. California Proposition 3, Civil Service Exemption for Postsecondary Education Commission (1974)
  71. California Proposition 3, Minimum Salary for Teachers (1946)
  72. California Proposition 3, Property Tax Exemptions for Private Non-Profit Schools (1952)
  73. California Proposition 3, the "Basic Science" Initiative (1942)
  74. California Proposition 38, School Vouchers (2000)
  75. California Proposition 38, State Income Tax Increase to Support Education (2012)
  76. California Proposition 39, Supermajority of 55% for School Bond Votes (2000)
  77. California Proposition 4, 60% Supermajority to Approve School and Library Bonds (1966)
  78. California Proposition 4, Bonds for Community College Facilities (June 1976)
  79. California Proposition 4, Length of Term for Overseers of State College System (1960)
  80. California Proposition 4, Public School Appropriations in Event of Delayed Budget (1970)
  81. California Proposition 4, Tax Exemption for Educational Non-Profits (1933)
  82. California Proposition 4, University of California Regents (1974)
  83. California Proposition 43, Tax Exemptions for Non-Profit Educational Institutions (1914)
  84. California Proposition 47, Bonds for School Construction (2002)
  85. California Proposition 49, Funding for Before and After School Programs (2002)
  86. California Proposition 4 (1976)
  87. California Proposition 5, Appointments to the University of California Board of Regents (June 1972)
  88. California Proposition 5, Programs Offered by Public Schools (1972)
  89. California Proposition 5, Public Meetings of the Board of Regents (1970)
  90. California Proposition 53, Green-Hughes School Building Lease-Purchase Bond Law (1986)
  91. California Proposition 53, State and Local Infrastructure Investment Act (October 2003)
  92. California Proposition 55, Bonds for Schools (March 2004)
  93. California Proposition 56, Bonds for Higher Education (1986)
  94. California Proposition 6, Investment Rules for the Teachers' Retirement Fund (1970)
  95. California Proposition 6, Schools Prohibited from Requiring Vaccinations (1920)
  96. California Proposition 6, Selection of State and County Boards of Education (June 1970)
  97. California Proposition 6, State Board of Education (1928)
  98. California Proposition 7, Civil Services Exemptions for Postsecondary Education Commission (June 1974)
  99. California Proposition 7, County Boards of Education (1946)
  100. California Proposition 7, Roles of Speaker of the Assembly (1970)
  101. California Proposition 74, Waiting Period for Permanent Employment as a Teacher (2005)
  102. California Proposition 75, Bonds for Public Schools (June 1988)
  103. California Proposition 76, Cap on Growth of State Budget (2005)
  104. California Proposition 78, Bonds for Higher Education (1988)
  105. California Proposition 79, Construction Bonds for Public Schools (1988)
  106. California Proposition 8, Class Size Reduction Funding (1998)
  107. California Proposition 8, County Superintendents of Schools (1946)
  108. California Proposition 8, County Superintendents of Schools (1976)
  109. California Proposition 8, Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction (1970)
  110. California Proposition 8, Regents of the University of California (1918)
  111. California Proposition 8, Sources of Revenue for Public Schools (June 1970)
  112. California Proposition 81, Bonds for Libraries (June 2006)
  113. California Proposition 82, Free Half-Day Public Preschool Program (June 2006)
  114. California Proposition 85, Bonds for Libraries (1988)
  115. California Proposition 88, Statewide $50 Parcel Tax (2006)
  116. California Proposition 9, County Superintendents of Schools (1970)
  117. California Proposition 9, Funds for Elementary Schools (1944)
  118. California Proposition 9, State Income and Sales Taxes for Public Education (1932)
  119. California Proposition 9, State Superintendents of Public Instruction (1946)
  120. California Proposition 9, Tax Exemption for Higher Education Facilities Under Construction (1952)
  121. California Proposition 9, Textbook Loan Program (1982)
  122. California Proposition 92, Funding for Community Colleges (February 2008)
  123. California Proposition 94, Judges Allowed to be Part-Time Teachers (1988)
  124. California Proposition 98, Mandatory Education Spending (1988)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

See also

External links

Additional reading

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 California Department of Education, "Home page," accessed May 14, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. California Department of Education, "Executive Office," accessed May 14, 2014
  9. California State Board of Education, "Home page," accessed May 14, 2014
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State,” accessed June 12, 2014
  11. California Department of Education, "Common Core State Standards," accessed June 13, 2014
  12. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  16. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  25. Associated Press, "Education Secretary Challenges NEA On Teacher Pay," July 2, 2009
  26. State of California, "Governor Schwarzenegger Launches “School Finder” Web Site for California Parents and Children," July 16, 2008