Public education in California
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- 1 State agencies
- 2 Regional comparison
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Academic performance
- 5 Educational choice options
- 6 Education funding and expenditures
- 7 Organizations
- 8 Taxpayer-funded lobbying
- 9 Transparency
- 10 Studies and reports
- 11 Issues
- 12 School districts
- 13 Education ballot measures
- 14 See also
- 15 External links
- 16 Additional reading
- 17 References
List of school districts in California
Public education in California
School board elections portal
|“||California will provide a world-class education for all students, from early childhood to adulthood. The Department of Education serves our state by innovating and collaborating with educators, schools, parents, and community partners. Together, as a team, we prepare students to live, work, and thrive in a highly connected world.||”|
The State Board of Education determines K-12 policy for the state. The Superintendent of Public Instruction serves as the board's executive officer and secretary. The board is composed of 10 members who serve four-year terms and one student member who serves a one-year term. All members are appointed by the Governor.
Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The California State Board of Education adopted the standards on August 2, 2010. Full implementation is set to be achieved in the 2014-2015 academic year.
- See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
- See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states
The following chart shows how California compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.
|State||Schools||Districts||Students||Teachers||Teacher/pupil ratio||Administrator/pupil ratio||Per pupil spending|
| Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.|
National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in California as reported in the Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.
|Demographic information for California's K-12 public school system|
|Ethnicity||Students||State Percentage||United States Percentage**|
|Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students||35,232||0.57%||0.42%|
|Two or more||181,534||2.92%||2.54%|
|**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.|
Enrollments by region type
A plurality of students in California attend city schools. More than 82 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 18 percent who attend rural or town schools.
|Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)|
|State||City schools||Suburban schools||Town schools||Rural schools|
|Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD) (timed out)|
- See also: NAEP scores by state
The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Arizona, Nevada, and Oregon), California's fourth grade students fared the worst in mathematics, with only 33 percent scoring at or above proficient.
|Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013|
|Math - Grade 4||Math - Grade 8||Reading - Grade 4||Reading - Grade 8|
|Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014|
|NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013|
Graduation, ACT and SAT scores
|Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*|
|State||Graduation rate, 2012||Average ACT Composite, 2012||Average SAT Composite, 2013|
|Percent||Quintile ranking**||Score||Participation rate||Score||Participation rate|
| *Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).|
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express
- See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states
The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for California was higher than the national average at 4.2 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 4 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.
Educational choice options
- See also: School choice in California
School choice options in California include: charter schools, online learning programs and open enrollment policies. In addition, about 9.00 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.
Education funding and expenditures
- See also: California state budget and finances
According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 19.9 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 4.30 percentage points, or 17.8 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 24.2 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.
|Comparison of financial figures for school systems|
|State||Percent of budget (2012)||Per pupil spending (2011)||Revenue sources (2011)|
|Percent federal funds||Percent state funds||Percent local funds|
| Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures |
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in California totaled approximately $68.6 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for California and surrounding states.
|Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)|
|Federal revenue||State revenue||Local revenue||Total revenue|
|Source: National Center for Education Statistics|
|Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)|
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in California totaled approximately $66.9 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for California and surrounding states.
|Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)|
|Current expenditures**||Capital outlay||Other***||Total expenditures|
| **Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.|
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
|Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)|
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in California, the average salary increased by 6.4 percent.
|Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)|
|**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."|
In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. California ranked sixth overall, or "strongest," which was in the first of five tiers.
In July 2009, United States Education Secretary Arne Duncan challenged members of the National Education Association to stop resisting linking teacher pay with student performance. "It's not enough to focus only on issues like job security, tenure, compensation, and evaluation," he said. "You must become full partners and leaders in education reform. You must be willing to change."
In June 2009, the California Teachers Association announced that they could not support Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's plan for digital textbooks in 2010. "It's a nice idea, but it's not going to work," said David Sanchez, president of the California Teachers Association. "Where are you going to get a computer for everybody? How many of these kids actually have computers at home?" Instead, Sanchez said that he would like to see the governor's proposal for increasing funds for education. The union suggested increasing tax revenues to directly support schools.
Other California unions include the California Federation of Teachers.
- See also: California government sector lobbying
Taxpayer-funded lobbyists for state public schools include:
- Association of California School Administrators
- Association of Low Wealth Schools
- California School Boards Association
- Cities, Counties and Schools Partnership
In 2008, the governor launched "School Finder," a website that provides access to data reported by California’s schools to the California Department of Education. Data available on the website covers state elementary through high schools and includes traditional, alternative, adult education and charter schools. “This vital information, compiled in one easy-to-navigate site, will increase school accountability and transparency, and put power back into the hands of California parents. The facts of achievement for every school in California are now easily accessible – not buried in bureaucracy,” said Schwarzenegger about the launch.
Studies and reports
State Budget Solutions education study
State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states that spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.
Quality Counts 2014
- See also: Quality Counts 2014 Report
Education Week, a publication that reports on many education issues throughout the country, began using an evaluation system in 1997 to grade each state on various elements of education performance. This system, called Quality Counts, uses official data on performance from each state to generate a report card for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report card in 2014 used six different categories:
- Chance for success
- K-12 achievement
- Standards, assessments and accountability
- The teaching profession
- School finance
- Transitions and Alignment
Each of these six categories had a number of other elements that received individual scores. Those scores were then averaged and used to determine the final score in each category. Every state received two types of scores for each of the six major categories: A numerical score out of 100 and a letter grade based on that score. Education Week used the score for the first category, "chance for success," as the value for ranking each state and the District of Columbia. The average grade received in the entire country was 77.3, or a C+ average. The country's highest average score was in the category of "standards, assessments and accountability" at 85.3, or a B average. The lowest average score was in "K-12 achievement", at 70.2, or a C- average.
California received a score of 74.1, or a C- average in the "chance for success" category. This was below the national average. The state's highest score was in standards, assessments and accountability at 92.8, or an A average. The lowest score was in K-12 achievement at 67.8, or a D+ average. The chart below displays the scores of California and its surrounding states.
Note: Click on a column heading to sort the data.
|Public education report cards, 2014|
|State||Chance for success||K-12 achievement||Standards, assessments and accountability||The teaching profession||School finance||Transitions and Alignment|
|California||72.4 (C-)||67.8 (D+)||92.8 (A)||71.6 (C-)||69.2 (D+)||82.1 (B-)|
|Arizona||70.2 (C-)||66.6 (D+)||87.6 (B+)||62.4 (D-)||66.8 (D+)||78.6 (C+)|
|Nevada||65.7 (D)||66.7 (D+)||75.4 (C)||71.0 (C-)||64.5 (D)||75.0 (C)|
|Oregon||74.6 (C)||64.8 (D)||80.1 (B-)||63.5 (D)||71.0 (C-)||85.7 (B)|
|United States Average||77.3 (C+)||70.2 (C-)||85.3 (B)||72.5 (C)||75.5 (C)||81.1 (B-)|
| Source: Education Week, "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 18, 2015|
A full discussion of how these numbers were generated can be found here.
Parent trigger law
On January 7, 2010, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the nation's first "parent trigger" education reform bill into law. A parent trigger allows parents to intervene in the administration of an academically failing school in order to make substantive changes. These changes include the ability to replace school personnel related to the poor academic performance of the school, the ability to convert the school into a charter school and the ability to close the school.
In order to enact a parent trigger, a majority of parents with children enrolled in or about to matriculate into the academically failing school must sign a petition. Up to 75 schools can be the subject of a single parent trigger petition. Parents involved in the petition process must disclose any financial or organizational support received for their effort, and charter school conversion advocates are forbidden from donating. In California, a school must fail to meet Adequate Yearly Progress benchmarks for three consecutive years and also be in "corrective action" status for one year under the No Child Left Behind Act to be at risk of action under a parent trigger.
Parents have invoked the law several times in the Los Angeles Unified School District, once in the Adelanto School District and once in the Compton Unified School District. Efforts to invoke parent trigger laws proved controversial in all three school districts, and both the Adelanto and Compton petitions faced legal challenges from parent trigger law opponents. In Compton, the parent trigger petitions were ruled invalid on technical grounds by the court. In Adelanto, the petitioners won the court battle in 2012 and turned Desert Trails Elementary School into a charter school, the Desert Trails Preparatory Academy, which opened in 2013. In the Los Angeles Unified School District, several schools have confronted parent trigger petition efforts, including 24th Street Elementary School and Weigand Avenue Elementary School.
- See also: School board elections portal
California contains multiple types of school districts. The most prevalent are Unified districts (K-12), which contain both elementary and high schools, Elementary districts (K-6 or K-8), which contain only elementary schools and High School districts (9-12), which contain only high schools.
- See also: List of school districts in California
The following table displays the state's top 10 school districts by total student enrollment, Academic Performance Index (API) scores and per-pupil spending per Average Daily Attendance (ADA).
|Enrollment, 2011-2012||API scores, 2011-2012||Per-pupil spending per ADA, 2012-2013|
|1.) Los Angeles Unified||1.) Hillsborough City||1.) New Jerusalem|
|2.) San Diego Unified||2.) Woodside Elementary||2.) Spencer Valley Elementary|
|3.) Long Beach Unified||3.) Los Altos||3.) Sausalito Marin City|
|4.) Fresno Unified||4.) Saratoga Union Elementary||4.) Death Valley Unified|
|5.) Elk Grove Unified||5.) Orinda Union Elementary||5.) Big Sur Unified|
|6.) Santa Ana Unified||6.) Santa Clara Elementary||6.) Desert Center Unified|
|7.) San Francisco Unified||7.) Lakeside Joint||7.) Mineral|
|8.) San Bernardino City Unified||8.) Las Lomitas Elementary||8.) Ravendale-Termo Elementary|
|9.) Corona-Norco Unified||9.) Moraga||9.) Belridge|
|10.) Capistrano Unified||10.) Reed Union Elementary||10.) Silver Fork Elementary|
School board composition
California school board members are generally elected by residents of the school district, although some school board members are appointed to county boards of education and to fill vacancies until the next election for the seat is held. California school board elections typically follow one of these three methods, or a mixture thereof:
- At-large: All voters residing in the school district may vote for any candidates running, regardless of geographic location.
- Trustee area: Only voters residing in a specific geographic area within the school district may vote on certain candidates, who must also reside in that specific geographic area.
- Trustee area at-large: All voters residing in the school district may vote for any candidates running, but candidates must reside in specific geographic areas within the school district.
School boards can consist of three, five or seven members. School board members serve four-year terms, which are often staggered every two years.
California does not impose statewide term limits on school board members. However, terms limits on school board members can still be imposed on the local level.
A total of 47 California school districts among America's largest school districts by enrollment will hold elections in 2015 for 124 seats. Five of the elections were scheduled for April, one for May and the remaining 41 districts will hold elections on November 3, 2015.
Here are several quick facts about California's school board elections in 2015:
- The largest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 is Los Angeles Unified School District with 655,455 K-12 students.
- The smallest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 is Redwood City Elementary School District with 9,210 students.
- Seven districts tied for the most seats on the ballot in 2015 with four seats up for election.
- Twenty-five districts tied for the fewest seats on the ballot in 2015 with two seats up for election in each.
The districts listed below served 1,470,761 K-12 students during the 2012-2013 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Click on the district names for more information on the district and its school board elections.
Path to the ballot
To qualify for the ballot as a school board candidate in California, a person must be:
- 18 years of age or older
- A citizen of California
- A resident of the school district
- A registered voter in California
- Not a current employee of the school district
- Not disqualified by the California state constitution or laws from holding civil office
The process of running for office as a school board candidate begins with filing a "declaration of candidacy" form at the local county elections office. This form must be filed between 113 and 88 days before the election is held. Candidates may also be required to submit a filing fee to the county elections office or a petition with nominating signatures in order to be put on the ballot, but these rules vary from school district to school district and are not uniform across California. On the ballot, candidates are listed using a randomized alphabetical order, due to state courts ruling that standard alphabetical or incumbent-first ordering are unconstitutional.
California distributes a voter's guide to all registered voters in the school district prior to the election, and candidates may include a candidate statement in this voter's guide. This usually requires candidates to pay another fee to the county elections office, but some school districts will assume the cost of this candidate statement filing fee for all school board candidates in the district.
California requires school board candidates who spend or receive more than $1,000 for their campaign to file a campaign finance report detailing their expenditures, loan repayments, contributions and loans received to their local county elections office.
Education ballot measures
Ballotpedia has tracked the following statewide ballot measures relating to education.
- California College and University Funding Initiative (2012)
- California Legislative Control over University of California Amendment (2016)
- California Multilingual Education Act (2016)
- California Proposition 1, Bonds for Community Colleges (1972)
- California Proposition 1, Bonds for Public Education (1974)
- California Proposition 1, Bonds for Public Schools (June 1962)
- California Proposition 1, Bonds for Public Schools (June 1966)
- California Proposition 1, Bonds for Public Schools (June 1976)
- California Proposition 1, Bonds for Schools (1949)
- California Proposition 1, Bonds for University of California Health Sciences Facilities (June 1970)
- California Proposition 1, School Assignment and Transportation of Students (1979)
- California Proposition 1, School Construction Bonds (1982)
- California Proposition 1, State School Aid Bond Law (June 1980)
- California Proposition 1, Superintendent of Public Instruction (1968)
- California Proposition 10, Eminent Domain for Airports and Schools (1958)
- California Proposition 11, Abolish Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (1934)
- California Proposition 11, Bonds for the University of California-Berkeley (1914)
- California Proposition 11, State Tenure Board (1936)
- California Proposition 11, Tax Exemption for Non-Profit Educational Institutions (1926)
- California Proposition 12, Tax Increase to Support State Universities (1920)
- California Proposition 121, Bonds for Higher Education Facilities (1990)
- California Proposition 123, Public School Construction Bonds (1990)
- California Proposition 13, Allocation of Public School Funds (1946)
- California Proposition 13, Appointment of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (1958)
- California Proposition 13, Nonprofit College Tax Exemptions (1962)
- California Proposition 14, Board of State College System (1974)
- California Proposition 14, Bonds for Libraries (2000)
- California Proposition 14, Tax Exemption for Higher Education Non-Profits (1954)
- California Proposition 143, Higher Education Facilities Bond Act (1990)
- California Proposition 146, School Facilities Bond Act (1990)
- California Proposition 15, Incorporation and Organization of Public School Districts (1926)
- California Proposition 15, Tax Exemption for Charitable and Educational Non-Profits (1954)
- California Proposition 151, Childcare Facilities Bond Act (1990)
- California Proposition 152, Bonds for Public Schools (1992)
- California Proposition 153, Construction Bonds for Higher Education (1992)
- California Proposition 155, Bonds for Elementary Schools (1992)
- California Proposition 16, Kindergarten Added to the Public School System (1920)
- California Proposition 16, Repeal of the Educational Poll Tax (1946)
- California Proposition 16, Tuition at State Colleges Determined by State Legislature (1974)
- California Proposition 17, Bibles in Schools (1926)
- California Proposition 170, Simple Majority Vote Needed to Approve School Bonds (1993)
- California Proposition 174, School Vouchers (1993)
- California Proposition 1A, Bonds for Education (1998)
- California Proposition 1A, Bonds for Higher Education (1962)
- California Proposition 1B, School Facilities Bond Act (1994)
- California Proposition 1C, Higher Education Facilities Bond Act (1994)
- California Proposition 1D, Bonds for Education Facilities (2006)
- California Proposition 2, Bonds for Health Science Facilities (1972)
- California Proposition 2, Bonds for Higher Education (1966)
- California Proposition 2, Bonds for Junior Colleges (June 1968)
- California Proposition 2, Bonds for Public Education (June 1972)
- California Proposition 2, Bonds for Public School Construction (1954)
- California Proposition 2, Bonds for School Districts (June 1960)
- California Proposition 2, Bonds for School Facilities for Handicapped Students (1958)
- California Proposition 2, Bonds for Schools for Handicapped Students (1956)
- California Proposition 2, Bonds for State Colleges (1964)
- California Proposition 2, Free Textbooks for Students at Public Elementary Schools (1912)
- California Proposition 2, Per Pupil Subsidies to Public School Districts (1952)
- California Proposition 20, Lottery Funds for Textbooks (2000)
- California Proposition 203, Bonds for Educational Facilities (1996)
- California Proposition 21, Prohibition on Mandatory School Busing (1972)
- California Proposition 223, Performance Budgeting Requirements for School Districts (1998)
- California Proposition 227, the "English in Public Schools" Initiative (1998)
- California Proposition 24, Bonds for Public Schools (1952)
- California Proposition 26, Bonds for Public School Construction (1984)
- California Proposition 26, Formation of Public School Districts (1922)
- California Proposition 3, Bonds for Correctional and Educational Facilities (1958)
- California Proposition 3, Bonds for Educational, Mental and Correctional Institutions (1956)
- California Proposition 3, Bonds for Public School Construction (1964)
- California Proposition 3, Bonds for State Colleges (1968)
- California Proposition 3, Civil Service Exemption for Postsecondary Education Commission (1974)
- California Proposition 3, Minimum Salary for Teachers (1946)
- California Proposition 3, Property Tax Exemptions for Private Non-Profit Schools (1952)
- California Proposition 3, the "Basic Science" Initiative (1942)
- California Proposition 38, School Vouchers (2000)
- California Proposition 38, State Income Tax Increase to Support Education (2012)
- California Proposition 39, Supermajority of 55% for School Bond Votes (2000)
- California Proposition 4, 60% Supermajority to Approve School and Library Bonds (1966)
- California Proposition 4, Bonds for Community College Facilities (June 1976)
- California Proposition 4, Length of Term for Overseers of State College System (1960)
- California Proposition 4, Public School Appropriations in Event of Delayed Budget (1970)
- California Proposition 4, Tax Exemption for Educational Non-Profits (1933)
- California Proposition 4, University of California Regents (1974)
- California Proposition 43, Tax Exemptions for Non-Profit Educational Institutions (1914)
- California Proposition 47, Bonds for School Construction (2002)
- California Proposition 49, Funding for Before and After School Programs (2002)
- California Proposition 4 (1976)
- California Proposition 5, Appointments to the University of California Board of Regents (June 1972)
- California Proposition 5, Programs Offered by Public Schools (1972)
- California Proposition 5, Public Meetings of the Board of Regents (1970)
- California Proposition 53, Green-Hughes School Building Lease-Purchase Bond Law (1986)
- California Proposition 53, State and Local Infrastructure Investment Act (October 2003)
- California Proposition 55, Bonds for Schools (March 2004)
- California Proposition 56, Bonds for Higher Education (1986)
- California Proposition 6, Investment Rules for the Teachers' Retirement Fund (1970)
- California Proposition 6, Schools Prohibited from Requiring Vaccinations (1920)
- California Proposition 6, Selection of State and County Boards of Education (June 1970)
- California Proposition 6, State Board of Education (1928)
- California Proposition 7, Civil Services Exemptions for Postsecondary Education Commission (June 1974)
- California Proposition 7, County Boards of Education (1946)
- California Proposition 7, Roles of Speaker of the Assembly (1970)
- California Proposition 74, Waiting Period for Permanent Employment as a Teacher (2005)
- California Proposition 75, Bonds for Public Schools (June 1988)
- California Proposition 76, Cap on Growth of State Budget (2005)
- California Proposition 78, Bonds for Higher Education (1988)
- California Proposition 79, Construction Bonds for Public Schools (1988)
- California Proposition 8, Class Size Reduction Funding (1998)
- California Proposition 8, County Superintendents of Schools (1946)
- California Proposition 8, County Superintendents of Schools (1976)
- California Proposition 8, Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction (1970)
- California Proposition 8, Regents of the University of California (1918)
- California Proposition 8, Sources of Revenue for Public Schools (June 1970)
- California Proposition 81, Bonds for Libraries (June 2006)
- California Proposition 82, Free Half-Day Public Preschool Program (June 2006)
- California Proposition 85, Bonds for Libraries (1988)
- California Proposition 88, Statewide $50 Parcel Tax (2006)
- California Proposition 9, County Superintendents of Schools (1970)
- California Proposition 9, Funds for Elementary Schools (1944)
- California Proposition 9, State Income and Sales Taxes for Public Education (1932)
- California Proposition 9, State Superintendents of Public Instruction (1946)
- California Proposition 9, Tax Exemption for Higher Education Facilities Under Construction (1952)
- California Proposition 9, Textbook Loan Program (1982)
- California Proposition 92, Funding for Community Colleges (February 2008)
- California Proposition 94, Judges Allowed to be Part-Time Teachers (1988)
- California Proposition 98, Mandatory Education Spending (1988)
- California Public Education Facilities Bond Initiative (2016)
- California state budget and finances
- California Department of Education
- List of school districts in California
- School choice in California
- Charter schools in California
- Education Policy in the U.S.
- California Department of Education
- California Education Laws and Regulations
- California Education Testing and Accountability
- California Education Curriculum and Instruction
- California School Finder
- The Los Angeles Times, "State schools chief says budget proposal harmful to students," July 7, 2009
- San Jose Mercury News, "State education leaders decry governor's proposal to suspend Proposition 98," July 7, 2009
- The Los Angeles Times, "Education secretary treads where teachers unions don't want to go," July 3, 2009
- The Los Angeles Times, "School levy failure highlights challenges for big districts," July 2, 2009
- San Jose Mercury News, "Number of school districts on brink of financial trouble, bankruptcy rises," July 1, 2009
- National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
- ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
- United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
- United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
- California Department of Education, "Home page," accessed May 14, 2014
- Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
- California Department of Education, "Executive Office," accessed May 14, 2014
- California State Board of Education, "Home page," accessed May 14, 2014
- Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State,” accessed June 12, 2014
- California Department of Education, "Common Core State Standards," accessed June 13, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
- United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
- ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
- Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014 (timed out)
- Maciver Institute, "REPORT: How much are teachers really paid?," accessed October 29, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
- Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
- Associated Press, "Education Secretary Challenges NEA On Teacher Pay," July 2, 2009 (dead link)
- State of California, "Governor Schwarzenegger Launches “School Finder” Web Site for California Parents and Children," July 16, 2008
- Education Week "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 19, 2015
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State of California
|Ballot measures by year||
1910 | 1911 | 1912 | 1914 | 1915 | 1916 | 1919 | 1920 | 1922 | 1924 | 1926 | 1928 | 1930 | 1932 | 1933 | 1934 | 1935 | 1936 | 1938 | 1939 | 1940 | 1942 | 1944 | 1946 | 1948 | 1949 | 1950 | 1952 | 1954 | 1956 | 1958 | 1960 | 1962 | 1964 | 1966 | 1968 | 1970 | 1972 | 1973 | 1974 | 1976 | 1978 | 1980 | 1982 | 1984 | 1986 | 1988 | 1990 | 1992 | 1993 | 1994 | 1996 | 1998 | 2000 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2006 (local) | 2008 | 2008 (local) | 2009 | 2009 (local) | 2010 | 2010 (local) | 2011 (local) | 2012 | 2012 (local) | 2014 | 2016 |
|State executive offices||
Governor | Attorney General | Secretary of State | Controller | Treasurer | State Auditor | Superintendent of Public Instruction | Commissioner of Insurance | Secretary of Agriculture | Secretary for Natural Resources | Director of Industrial Relations | President of Public Utilities |