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Public education in Colorado

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K-12 Education in Colorado
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Robert Hammond
Number of students: 854,265[1]
Number of teachers: 48,078
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:17.8
Number of school districts: 259
Number of schools: 1,813
Graduation rate: 75%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $8,724[3]
See also
Colorado Department of EducationList of school districts in ColoradoColoradoSchool boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Colorado
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Colorado public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Colorado had 854,265 students enrolled in a total of 1,813 schools in 259 school districts. There were 48,078 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 18 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 302 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Colorado spent $8,724 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 42nd highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 75 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Colorado Commissioner of Education
List of school districts in Colorado
Public education in Colorado
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the Colorado Department of Education reads:[6]
The mission of the Colorado Department of Education is to ensure that all students are prepared for success in society, work, and life by providing excellent leadership, service, and support to schools, districts, and communities across the state.[7]

The Commissioner of Education the Department of Education's executive officer. The Commissioner of Education is appointed by the Colorado State Board of Education. Robert Hammond currently serves in this role.[8]

The Colorado Board of Education is "charged by the Colorado Constitution with the general supervision of the public schools." The board's seven members are elected from each of the state's congressional districts. The Commissioner of Education serves as a non-voting member of the board.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Colorado State Board of Education adopted the standards on August 2, 2010. Full implementation was set to be achieved in the 2013-2014 academic year.[10][11]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Colorado compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Colorado 1,813 259 854,265 48,078 1:17.8 1:301.9 $8,724
New Mexico 866 135 337,225 21,957 1:15.4 1:253.4 $9,070
Utah 1,020 126 598,832 25,970 1:23.1 1:450.2 $6,212
Wyoming 354 61 90,099 7,847 1:11.5 1:248.3 $15,849
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Colorado as reported in the Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[12]

Demographic information for Colorado's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 7,143 0.84% 1.10%
Asian 26,522 3.10% 4.68%
African American 40,932 4.79% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 1,817 0.21% 0.42%
Hispanic 272,490 31.90% 24.37%
White 479,288 56.11% 51.21%
Two or more 26,073 3.05% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Colorado attend city schools. More than 65 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 35 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Colorado 33.3% 32.6% 10.3% 23.8%
New Mexico 32.6% 11.9% 27.4% 28.1%
Utah 16.5% 50.9% 12.9% 19.7%
Wyoming 22.8% 1.7% 42.3% 33.2%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD) (timed out)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceAdaptive softwareBlended learningCarnegie unitCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateDual enrollmentEnglish Language LearnersFree or reduced-price lunchGlobal competence learningHomeschoolingImmersion learningKhan AcademyLocal education agencyMagnet schoolsNAEPOnline learningParent trigger lawsProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool choiceSchool vouchersTeacher merit payVirtual charter schools
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming), Colorado's fourth and eighth grade students fared the best in both mathematics and reading.[13]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Colorado 50 42 41 40
New Mexico 31 23 21 22
Utah 44 36 37 39
Wyoming 48 38 37 38
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Colorado and surrounding states.[13][14][15]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Colorado 75% Fourth 20.6 100% 1,721 14%
New Mexico 70% Fifth 19.9 75% 1,626 12%
Utah 80% Third 20.7 97% 1,684 6%
Wyoming 79% Third 20.3 100% 1,757 4%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Colorado was higher than the national average at 5.1 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 4.9 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[16]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Colorado

School choice options in Colorado include: charter schools, a limited, location-specific voucher program, open enrollment policies and online learning programs. In addition, about 6.50 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Colorado state budget and finances
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 25.3 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 5.7 percentage points, or 18.4 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 31.0 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[17][18][19][20][21]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Colorado 25.3% $8,724 11.18% 40.41% 48.41%
New Mexico 24.7% $9,070 17.66% 65.78% 16.55%
Utah 24.7% $6,212 12.02% 51.19% 36.79%
Wyoming 3.9% $15,849 9.41% 53.37% 37.22%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Colorado totaled approximately $8.8 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Colorado and surrounding states.[22]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Colorado $979,904 $3,543,208 $4,245,132 $8,768,244
New Mexico $641,925 $2,390,635 $601,508 $3,634,068
Utah $519,547 $2,211,870 $1,589,706 $4,321,123
Wyoming $154,955 $878,979 $612,931 $1,646,865
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Colorado totaled approximately $8.7 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Colorado and surrounding states.[22]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Colorado $7,338,499 $836,045 $521,460 $8,696,004
New Mexico $3,045,075 $621,504 $66,091 $3,732,670
Utah $3,600,074 $693,458 $234,361 $4,527,893
Wyoming $1,397,339 $234,408 $10,504 $1,642,251
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.
Note: Salaries given are averages for the state. Within states there can be great variation in salaries between urban, suburban and rural districts. When comparing nominal teachers' salaries, it is important to remember that for a true comparison, salaries must be adjusted for the cost of living in each area. For example, when adjusted for cost of living, Los Angeles drops from second highest to 17th highest; New York City drops even further, from third highest to 59th out of 60.[23]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Colorado, the average salary decreased by 4.4 percent.[24]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Colorado $52,153 $52,520 $49,865 $49,844 -4.4%
New Mexico $44,488 $49,378 $46,381 $46,573 4.7%
Utah $47,757 $48,980 $48,961 $49,393 3.4%
Wyoming $46,638 $59,628 $58,174 $57,920 24.2%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Colorado ranked 35th overall, or "weak," which was in the fourth of five tiers.[25]

The main unions related to the Colorado school system are the Colorado Education Association (CEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and the Colorado Federation of Teachers. CEA is the largest education association in the state. For the 2003 tax period CEA had: $10.5 million in total revenue, $10.1 million in total expenses and $7.9 million in total assets.[26] For the same period, the Colorado Federation of Teachers had: $213,403 in total revenue, $221,663 in total expenses and $157,369 in total assets.[27]

List of local Colorado school unions:[28]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Colorado government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Colorado Association of School Boards. Below is a list of major Colorado education government sector lobbying organizations:

Transparency

On June 4, 2009, Governor Ritter signed Colorado House Bill 1288, the "Colorado Taxpayer Transparency Act," into law. HB 1288 mandated the creation of an online spending database by no later than January 2010.[29]

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states that spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Quality Counts 2014

See also: Quality Counts 2014 Report

Education Week, a publication that reports on many education issues throughout the country, began using an evaluation system in 1997 to grade each state on various elements of education performance. This system, called Quality Counts, uses official data on performance from each state to generate a report card for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report card in 2014 used six different categories:

  1. Chance for success
  2. K-12 achievement
  3. Standards, assessments and accountability
  4. The teaching profession
  5. School finance
  6. Transitions and Alignment

Each of these six categories had a number of other elements that received individual scores. Those scores were then averaged and used to determine the final score in each category. Every state received two types of scores for each of the six major categories: A numerical score out of 100 and a letter grade based on that score. Education Week used the score for the first category, "chance for success," as the value for ranking each state and the District of Columbia. The average grade received in the entire country was 77.3, or a C+ average. The country's highest average score was in the category of "standards, assessments and accountability" at 85.3, or a B average. The lowest average score was in "K-12 achievement", at 70.2, or a C- average.

Colorado received a score of 82.9, or a B average in the "chance for success" category. This was above the national average. Excluding the chance for success category, the state's highest score was in transitions and alignment at 82.1, or a B- average. The lowest score was in the teaching profession at 68.6, or a D+ average. Colorado had the highest scores in both chance for success and K-12 achievement in comparison to its neighboring states. The chart below displays all of the scores of Colorado and its surrounding states.[30]

Note: Click on a column heading to sort the data.

Public education report cards, 2014
State Chance for success K-12 achievement Standards, assessments and accountability The teaching profession School finance Transitions and Alignment
Colorado 82.9 (B) 74.2 (C) 81.8 (B-) 66.4 (D) 68.6 (D+) 82.1 (B-)
New Mexico 66.6 (D+) 60.3 (D-) 92.0 (A-) 74.3 (C) 70.5 (C-) 89.3 (B+)
Utah 79.1 (C+) 69.1 (D+) 81.7 (B-) 64.5 (D) 65.2 (D) 89.3 (B+)
Wyoming 79.9 (B-) 70.0 (C-) 79.3 (C+) 66.7 (D+) 90.3 (A-) 78.6 (C+)
United States Average 77.3 (C+) 70.2 (C-) 85.3 (B) 72.5 (C) 75.5 (C) 81.1 (B-)
Source: Education Week, "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 18, 2015

A full discussion of how these numbers were generated can be found here.

Issues

State sued over Amendment 23

On June 27, 2014, a group of parents, educators and school districts filed a lawsuit against the state of Colorado. The lawsuit seeks to enforce Amendment 23, an initiative approved by voters in 2000 to gradually raise school funding levels. Under the amendment, the state had to raise funding levels for schools to 1988 levels and then hold steady. Though the state did this for a decade, in 2010, school funding was cut. In order to work around the amendment, lawmakers invoked a tactic called the "negative factor" and cut almost $1 billion from schools.[31] To make those cuts, the "negative factor" provided the mandated increases from Amendment 23 off the base funding that schools receive, rather than on the total funding that includes additional financial resources for specific programs. The lawsuit alleges that the "negative factor" violates Amendment 23.[32]

The lawsuit comes after voters rejected a school finance overhaul initiative and after a legal battle challenging the constitutionality of the state's system of financing schools failed in 2013. This new lawsuit, however, is much more narrowly focused in that it only looks at whether or not the state violated Amendment 23.[31][32]

School districts

See also: School board elections portal

District types

Colorado school districts vary by region type. Some school districts correspond to specific cities or counties, and because of that, have stricter regulations when it comes to school board elections.[33] All school districts in Colorado, however, are governed by an elected board of education, and they all have the power to levy ad valorem taxes for school purposes and to issue general obligation bonds after voter approval.[34]

District statistics

See also: List of school districts in Colorado

The following table displays the state's top 10 school districts by total student enrollment and per-pupil spending.[35]

Student enrollment, 2011-2012 Per-pupil spending, 2012-2013
1.) Jeffco Public Schools 1.) Pawnee School District RE-12
2.) Denver Public Schools 2.) De Beque School District 49JT
3.) Douglas County School District 3.) Silverton School District 1
4.) Cherry Creek School District 4.) Agate School District 300
5.) Adams 12 Five Star Schools 5.) Liberty School District J-4
6.) Aurora Joint School District No. 28 6.) Hinsdale County School District RE-1
7.) Boulder Valley School District 7.) Campo School District RE-6
8.) Colorado Springs School District 11 8.) Pritchett School District RE-3
9.) St. Vrain Valley School District 9.) Creede Consolidated School District 1
10.) Poudre School District 10.) Woodlin School District R-104

School board composition

School board members are elected by residents of the school district. School boards in Colorado may have five, six or seven members, those members may serve four-year or six-year terms and they may be elected by geographic district or at-large. School districts that are coterminous with a city and a county have stricter regulations. Those school boards must have a seven-member school board, and those members must serve four-year terms with five of them getting elected from geographic districts and two elected at-large.[33]

If a vacancy occurs in a school board, the remaining members of the school board must adopt a resolution declaring such vacancy. The school board must then appoint a person to fill the vacancy within 60 days of the vacancy occurring. The newly appointed member will then serve the remainder of the unexpired term.[36]

Term limits

The Colorado Term Limits Act, which was added to Article XVIII of the Colorado Constitution, limits any nonjudicial elected official of any county, city, town, school district or other political subdivision to serving no more than two consecutive terms in office. The power to change those limitations, by lengthening, shortening or eliminating them, was given to the voters of political subdivisions. Because of this, term limits for school board members vary by district.[37]

Elections

See also: Colorado school board elections, 2014 and Colorado school board elections, 2015

A total of 21 Colorado school districts among America's largest school districts by enrollment will hold elections for 64 seats on November 3, 2015.

Here are several quick facts about Colorado's school board elections in 2015:

  • The largest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 is Jeffco Public Schools with 85,542 K-12 students.
  • The smallest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 is Widefield School District 3 with 9,297 K-12 students.
  • Poudre School District has the most seats on the ballot in 2015 with five seats up for election.
  • Seven districts are tied for the fewest seats on the ballot in 2015 with two seats up for election in each district.

The districts listed below served 663,315 K-12 students during the 2012-2013 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Click on the district names for more information on the district and its school board elections.

2015 Colorado School Board Elections
District Date Seats up for election Total board seats Student enrollment
Academy School District 20 11/3/2015 2 5 23,973
Adams 12 Five Star Schools 11/3/2015 4 5 43,268
Adams County School District 50 11/3/2015 3 5 10,069
Aurora Public Schools 11/3/2015 3 7 39,835
Boulder Valley School District 11/3/2015 4 7 30,041
Brighton School District 11/3/2015 4 7 16,184
Cherry Creek School District 11/3/2015 3 5 53,422
Colorado Springs School District 11 11/3/2015 4 7 29,032
Denver Public Schools 11/3/2015 3 7 83,377
Douglas County School District 11/3/2015 3 7 64,657
Falcon School District 49 11/3/2015 2 5 15,478
Greeley-Evans School District 6 11/3/2015 3 7 19,821
Harrison School District Two 11/3/2015 2 5 10,775
Jeffco Public Schools 11/3/2015 2 5 85,542
Littleton Public Schools 11/3/2015 2 5 15,754
Mesa County Valley School District 51 11/3/2015 2 5 21,746
Poudre School District 11/3/2015 5 7 27,909
Pueblo City Schools 11/3/2015 3 5 17,711
St. Vrain Valley School District 11/3/2015 4 7 29,382
Thompson School District 11/3/2015 4 7 16,042
Widefield School District 3 11/3/2015 2 5 9,297

Path to the ballot

To qualify as a school board candidate in Colorado, an individual must:[38]

  • Be a registered voter in the corresponding school district for 12 consecutive months prior to the election.
  • Be a resident of the corresponding geographic district, if the school district elects school board members by district.
  • Not have been convicted of a sexual offense against a child.
  • File a written notice of intention to run and a nominating petition with the secretary of the board of education in the corresponding school district no later than 67 days prior to the election.

Campaign finance

School board candidates are required to register a candidate committee if they plan to accept contributions. Candidate committees are not required if candidates only use their own money for campaigning. School board candidates are required to file disclosure reports for all expenditures made related to their campaign, whether they use their own money or contributions from other sources. All campaign finance documents and reports must be filed with the Colorado Secretary of State.[39]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Colorado ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked the following statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Colorado Control of Public Schools, Measure 15 (1912)
  2. Colorado Department of Education Reorganization, Measure 1 (1948)
  3. Colorado Education Funding and TABOR Rebates, Initiative 59 (2008)
  4. Colorado Education Standards and Funding Reform, Initiative 6 (1992)
  5. Colorado Elected State Board of Education, Measure 2 (1930)
  6. Colorado Elected State Board of Education, Measure 6 (1928)
  7. Colorado English Language Education, Initiative 31 (2002)
  8. Colorado Examination of Teachers, Measure 21 (1912)
  9. Colorado Excess State Revenues for Math and Science Grants, Referendum F (2000)
  10. Colorado Foreign Tax Haven Enforcement for Education Measure (2015)
  11. Colorado Funding for Public Schools, Initiative 23 (2000)
  12. Colorado Horse Racetrack Limited Gaming Proceeds for K-12 Education, Amendment 68 (2014)
  13. Colorado Income Tax Credit for Education, Initiative 17 (1998)
  14. Colorado Institutions of Higher Education, Referendum 5 (1910)
  15. Colorado Investing Public School Funds, Measure 7 (1916)
  16. Colorado Location and Control of Higher Education Institutions, Measure 7 (1922)
  17. Colorado Oil and Natural Gas Severance Taxes, Initiative 58 (2008)
  18. Colorado One-Mill Levy for State Education Institutions, Measure 7 (1920)
  19. Colorado Parental Rights, Initiative 17 (1996)
  20. Colorado Prohibit Bussing to Schools Based on Race, Measure 8 (1974)
  21. Colorado Public School Funding Initiative (2014)
  22. Colorado Required Distances from Schools in Certain Casino Gambling Jurisdictions Amendment (2014)
  23. Colorado School Board Open Meetings, Proposition 104 (2014)
  24. Colorado School District Spending Requirements, Initiative 39 (2006)
  25. Colorado School District Spending Requirements, Referendum J (2006)
  26. Colorado State Trust Lands, Initiative 16 (1996)
  27. Colorado Student Loan Program, Measure 2 (1972)
  28. Colorado Tax Increase for Education, Amendment 66 (2013)
  29. Colorado Tax Limits, Measure 12 (1972)
  30. Colorado Teachers' Summer Normal School, Measure 26 (1912)
  31. Colorado University of Colorado Board of Regents, Measure 4 (1972)
  32. Colorado Voting on County Superintendent of Schools, Measure 2 (1964)
  33. Colorado Vouchers for Education, Initiative 7 (1992)

See also

External links

Additional reading

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Colorado Department of Education, "About the Colorado Department of Education," accessed May 14, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. Colorado Department of Education, "Commissioner of Education," accessed May 14, 2014
  9. Colorado Department of Education, "Board Member Profiles," accessed May 14, 2014
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State,” accessed June 12, 2014
  11. Colorado Department of Education, "Standards and Instruction," accessed June 13, 2014
  12. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  16. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014 (timed out)
  23. Maciver Institute, "REPORT: How much are teachers really paid?," accessed October 29, 2014
  24. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
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