Public education in Connecticut

From Ballotpedia
Jump to: navigation, search

K-12 Education in Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut.png
Education facts
State Superintendent: Stefan Pryor
Number of students: 554,437[1]
Number of teachers: 43,805
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:12.7
Number of school districts: 200
Number of schools: 1,150
Graduation rate: 85%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $15,600[3]
See also
Connecticut Department of Education
Connecticut school districts
List of school districts in Connecticut
Connecticut
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Connecticut
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Connecticut public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Connecticut had 554,437 students enrolled in a total of 1,150 schools in 200 school districts. There were 43,805 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 13 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 252 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Connecticut spent $15,600 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it seventh highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 85 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

School Board badge.png
State Education Departments

AlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyoming

See also
Connecticut Commissioner of Education
Connecticut school districts
List of school districts in Connecticut
Public education in Connecticut
School board elections portal
The Connecticut State Department of Education serves as the "administrative arm of the Connecticut State Board of Education." The Department of Education distributes funds to the state's school districts.[6]

The Connecticut Commissioner of Education is the executive officer of the Department of Education. The Commissioner is recommended by the State Board of Education and appointed by the governor to four-year terms. The current Commissioner of Education is Stefan Pryor.[7]

The State Board of Education is comprised of 13 members.

  • At least two members must have experience in manufacturing or a trade offered through the Technical High School System.
  • One must have a background in vocational agriculture.
  • Two must be nonvoting Grade 12 student members.

Voting members of the board serve four-year terms, while the nonvoting student members serve one-year terms. The Commissioner of Education serves as an ex officio member of the board. All members are appointed by the governor.[8]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Connecticut State Board of Education adopted the standards on July 7, 2010. Full implementation was set to be achieved in the 2013-2014 academic year.[9][10]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Connecticut compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Connecticut 1,150 200 554,437 43,805 1:12.7 1:252.1 $15,600
Massachusetts 1,835 401 953,369 69,342 1:13.7 1:210.1 $13,941
New Hampshire 477 281 191,900 15,049 1:12.8 1:349.6 $13,224
Rhode Island 308 54 142,854 11,414 1:12.5 1:316.8 $13,815
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Connecticut as reported in the Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[11]

Demographic information for Connecticut's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 1,923 0.35% 1.10%
Asian 24,546 4.43% 4.68%
African American 72,122 13.01% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 373 0.07% 0.42%
Hispanic 108,165 19.51% 24.37%
White 337,489 60.87% 51.21%
Two or more 9,819 1.77% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A majority of students in Connecticut attend suburban schools. Nearly 82 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 18 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Connecticut 28.1% 53.7% 4% 14.2%
Massachusetts 20.8% 66.1% 2.2% 11%
New Hampshire 14.4% 31.8% 16.3% 37.5%
Rhode Island 31.4% 54.4% 2.4% 11.9%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island), Connecticut had the second smallest share of fourth and eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in both math and reading.[12]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Connecticut 45 37 43 45
Massachusetts 58 55 47 48
New Hampshire 59 47 45 44
Rhode Island 42 36 38 36
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

pChart

Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Connecticut and surrounding states.[12][13][14]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Connecticut 85% Second 23.8 27% 1,532 85%
Massachusetts 85% Second 24.1 23% 1,553 83%
New Hampshire 86% First 23.8 19% 1,567 70%
Rhode Island 77% Fourth 22.9 13% 1,468 72%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Connecticut was lower than the national average at 1.9 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 2.1 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[15]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Connecticut

School choice options in Connecticut include: charter schools, inter-district and intra-district open enrollment policies and some online learning programs. In addition, about 10.89 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Connecticut state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 13.9 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 1.3 percentage points, or 8.6 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 15.2 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[16][17][18][19][20]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Connecticut 13.9% $15,600 8.27% 33.65% 58.09%
Massachusetts 10.7% $13,941 7.85% 37.91% 54.24%
New Hampshire 19.7% $13,224 6.49% 37.29% 56.21%
Rhode Island 14.2% $13,815 10.76% 36.53% 52.72%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S. to compare all states.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Connecticut totaled approximately $9.7 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Connecticut and surrounding states.[21]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Connecticut $799,526 $3,254,757 $5,618,933 $9,673,216
Massachusetts $1,197,383 $5,783,240 $8,275,257 $15,255,880
New Hampshire $184,768 $1,061,011 $1,599,416 $2,845,195
Rhode Island $244,530 $830,220 $1,198,254 $2,273,004
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Connecticut totaled approximately $9.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Connecticut and surrounding states.[21]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Connecticut $8,367,518 $533,188 $404,820 $9,305,526
Massachusetts $12,894,969 $817,228 $767,052 $14,479,249
New Hampshire $2,502,899 $206,241 $129,038 $2,838,178
Rhode Island $2,059,636 $47,973 $198,338 $2,305,947
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Connecticut, the average salary decreased by 1.4 percent.[22]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Connecticut $70,762 $68,690 $70,621 $69,766 -1.4%
Massachusetts $63,656 $73,945 $72,915 $73,129 14.9%
New Hampshire $51,567 $54,912 $55,079 $55,599 7.8%
Rhode Island $64,286 $63,711 $63,221 $63,474 -1.3%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Connecticut ranked 17th overall, or "strong," which was in the second of five tiers.[23]

The main unions related to the Connecticut school system are the Connecticut Education Association (CEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and AFT Connecticut, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers. For the 2003 tax period, CEA had: $16.56 million in total revenue, $12.45 million in total expenses and $32.22 million in total assets.[24] For the same period, AFT Connecticut had: $4.36 million in total revenue, $4.53 million in total expenses and $3.75 million in total assets.[25]

The teacher unions have repeatedly brought the "Project Opening Doors" program to court for offering financial incentives for passing AP tests to students and teachers.[26]

List of local Connecticut school unions:[27]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Connecticut government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Connecticut Association of Boards of Education and the Connecticut Association of School Personnel Administrators.

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Connecticut ballot measures


Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Connecticut State Department of Education, "About Us," accessed May 15, 2014
  7. Connecticut State Department of Education, "Stefan Pryor - Commissioner of Education," accessed May 15, 2014
  8. Connecticut State Department of Education, "State Board of Education Home," accessed May 15, 2014
  9. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State,” accessed June 12, 2014
  10. Connecticut State Department of Education, "Common Core State Standards in Connecticut," accessed June 13, 2014
  11. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  15. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  22. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  24. Center for Union Facts, "Connecticut Education Association," accessed January 3, 2010
  25. Center for Union Facts, "AFT Connecticut," accessed January 3, 2010
  26. Watchdog, "Union challenges teacher bonuses for AP scores," November 10, 2010
  27. Center for Union Facts, "Connecticut teachers unions," accessed January 3, 2010