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Public education in Idaho

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K-12 Education in Idaho
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Tom Luna
Number of students: 279,873[1]
Number of teachers: 15,990
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:17.5
Number of school districts: 149
Number of schools: 762
Graduation rate: 92%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $6,824[3]
See also
Idaho State Department of Education
Idaho school districts
List of school districts in Idaho
Idaho
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Idaho
Glossary of education terms
The Idaho public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Idaho had 279,873 students enrolled in a total of 762 schools in 149 school districts. While the national ratio of teachers to students was 1:16, in Idaho there were 15,990 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 18 students. There was roughly one administrator for every 423 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Idaho spent $6,824 per pupil in 2011, which ranked it 50th in the nation. According to the Idaho State Department of Education, the state's graduation rate was 92 percent for the 2009-2010 school year.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Idaho Superintendent of Public Instruction
Idaho school districts
List of school districts in Idaho
Public education in Idaho
School board elections portal
The Idaho State Department of Education oversees and manages public schools for students from kindergarten to 12th grade in Idaho.[6] The department has nine education divisions: Assessment and Accountability Division, Child Nutrition, Content, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, School Choice, Statewide System of Support, Student Engagement and Postsecondary Readiness, Special Education and Teacher Certification.[7]

The mission statement of the Idaho State Department of Education reads:[8]

The Idaho State Department of Education is accountable for the success of all Idaho students. As leaders in education, we provide the expertise and technical assistance to promote educational excellence and highly effective instruction.[9]

The Idaho State Board of Education oversees and manages higher education in Idaho.[6]

Common Core

Common Core or Common Core State Standards Initiative is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. Idaho Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Luna and Governor Butch Otter adopted these standards on January 24, 2011. The standards were fully implemented during the 2013-2014 school year.[10]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states and Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Idaho compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional Comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Idaho 762 149 279,873 15,990 1:17.5 1:422.5 $6,824
Montana 826 500 142,349 10,153 1:14 1:274 $10,639
Oregon 1,261 221 568,208 26,791 1:21.2 1:364.8 $9,682
Washington 2,365 316 1,045,453 53,119 1:19.7 1:373.1 $9,483
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Idaho as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[11]

Demographic Information for Idaho's K-12 Public School System
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 3,767 1.35% 1.10%
Asian 3,695 1.32% 4.68%
African American 2,845 1.02% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 963 0.34% 0.42%
Hispanic 45,486 16.25% 24.37%
White 218,400 78.04% 51.21%
Two or More 4,717 1.69% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Idaho attend rural schools. This is the same case for students in Montana. However, students in Oregon and Washington are more likely to attend city schools or suburban schools than rural schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural Schools
Idaho 27.5% 15.9% 20.8% 35.8%
Montana 23.8% 1.9% 35.0% 39.4%
Oregon 32.6% 23.3% 26.3% 17.8%
Washington 29.1% 41.1% 12.3% 17.5%
U.S. average 28.9% 34.0% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Montana, Oregon, and Washington), a smaller percentage of Idaho's students were considered at or above proficient in math and reading in fourth grade.[12]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Idaho 40 36 33 38
Montana 45 40 35 40
Oregon 40 34 33 37
Washington 48 42 40 42
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state and ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Idaho and surrounding states.[12][13][14]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Idaho 92% First 21.6 67% 1364 99%
Montana 84% Second 22 61% 1595 25%
Oregon 68% Fifth 21.4 38% 1539 49%
Washington 77% Fourth 22.9 21% 1537 60%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Idaho was lower than the national average at 1.6 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 1.9 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[15]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Idaho

School choice options in Idaho include: charter schools, homeschooling, online learning, private schools and inter-district and intra-district public school open enrollment policies.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Idaho state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 25.7 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. This is down 2.9 percentage points, a 10.1 percent decrease in the share of the budget from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 28.6 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[16][17][18][19][20] Nearly 64 percent of Idaho's education revenue comes from state funding. Local funding accounts for just over 22 percent, and federal funding accounts for just under 14 percent.

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Idaho 25.7% $6,824 13.91% 63.73% 22.36%
Montana 15.5% $10,639 16.35% 44.1% 39.55%
Oregon 14% $9,682 14% 46.07% 39.93%
Washington 22.9% $9,483 11.57% 57.2% 31.23%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Idaho totaled approximately $2.2 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Idaho and surrounding states.[21]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Idaho $299,354 $1,371,789 $481,296 $2,152,439
Montana $264,594 $713,886 $640,138 $1,618,618
Oregon $848,637 $2,792,762 $2,420,619 $6,062,018
Washington $1,367,629 $6,758,505 $3,690,190 $11,816,324
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Idaho totaled approximately $2 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Idaho and surrounding states.[21]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Idaho $1,867,679 $85,001 $65,674 $2,018,354
Montana $1,506,467 $103,728 $25,691 $1,635,886
Oregon $5,418,357 $461,979 $325,080 $6,205,416
Washington $9,890,471 $1,467,334 $530,786 $11,888,591
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Idaho, the average salary increased by 2.4 percent.[22]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Idaho $48,578 $49,404 $49,359 $49,734 2.4%
Montana $43,896 $48,845 $49,354 $49,999 13.9%
Oregon $57,856 $58,948 $58,302 $58,758 1.6%
Washington $56,089 $56,578 $53,101 $53,571 -4.5%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012, the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Idaho ranked 36th overall, or weak, which was in the fourth tier of five.[23]

The main union related to the Idaho school system is the Idaho Education Association (IEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA). IEA is the largest education association in the state.

List of local Idaho school unions:[24]

Collective bargaining and tenure

The Idaho State Legislature passed Senate Bill 1108, which limited teachers' collective bargaining rights to salary and benefits.[25] It removed issues such as class sizes, teacher workload and promotions from collective bargaining, and it permitted collective bargaining only if the union could prove it represented more than 50 percent of employees.[25][26] It eliminated tenure for new teachers, with new educators instead being offered one- or two-year contracts following a three-year probationary period.[27]

The entire overhaul plan eliminated 770 teaching positions but used $250 million to raise pay for teachers. Governor Butch Otter supported the measures.[28]

The Idaho Education Association warned the plan would drastically cut the ability of unions to bargain.[28][29] Hundreds of teachers protested the bills on February 21, 2011.[26]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Idaho government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Idaho School Boards Association.

Transparency

In March 2010, the Idaho State Senate and Idaho House of Representatives approved a bill that required school districts with more than 300 students to publish their school spending data.[30] The Idaho State Department of Education does list information regarding the state's academic performance at the state, district and school levels.

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Idaho ballot measures


Ballotpedia staff have tracked 11 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Idaho Compulsory School Attendance, SJR 124 (1972)
  2. Idaho Fund for School Districts, SJR 106 (1998)
  3. Idaho General Supervision of Educational Institutions, HJR 30 (1912)
  4. Idaho Increase Annual Sale of School Land, HJR 10 (1920)
  5. Idaho Increase Funding for Education Initiative, Initiative 1 (2006)
  6. Idaho Online Learning Veto Referendum, Proposition 3 (2012)
  7. Idaho Public School Fund, HJR 1 (2000)
  8. Idaho Public School Permanent Endowment Fund, HJR 6 (1998)
  9. Idaho Public School Permanent Endowment Fund, HJR 8 (1998)
  10. Idaho Teachers' Collective Bargaining Veto Referendums, Props. 1 and 2 (2) (2012)
  11. Idaho University of Idaho Tuition and Fees, SJR 101 (2010)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Idaho + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Idaho Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. Idaho State Department of Education, "State of Idaho 2009-2010," accessed May 21, 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 Idaho State Department of Education, "Communication," accessed May 20, 2014
  7. Idaho State Department of Education, "Divisions," accessed May 20, 2014
  8. Idaho State Department of Education, "Vision, Mission and Goals," accessed May 20, 2014
  9. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  10. Common Core: State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State,” accessed July 12, 2014
  11. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  15. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  22. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. Thomas E Fordham Institute, "How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  24. Center for Union Facts, "Idaho teachers unions," accessed October 15, 2009
  25. 25.0 25.1 FoxNews.com, "Idaho Votes to Phase Out Teacher Tenure, Restrict Collective Bargaining," March 9, 2011
  26. 26.0 26.1 Reuters, "Idaho teachers unions protest against proposed cuts," February 22, 2011
  27. FoxNews.com, "Idaho Cripples Union Power," March 9, 2011
  28. 28.0 28.1 All Headline News, "Idaho teachers protest proposed overhaul," February 22, 2011
  29. Idaho Education Association, "Despite public opposition, Luna bills go to full Senate," February 18, 2011
  30. Idaho Reporter, "School financial transparency bill passes House," March 24, 2010