Public education in Kentucky

From Ballotpedia
Jump to: navigation, search

K-12 Education in Kentucky
Flag of Kentucky.png
Education facts
State Superintendent: Terry Holliday
Number of students: 681,987[1]
Number of teachers: 41,860
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:16.3
Number of school districts: 194
Number of schools: 1,565
Graduation rate: 82%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $9,309[3]
See also
Kentucky Department of Education
Kentucky school districts
List of school districts in Kentucky
Kentucky
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Kentucky
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Kentucky public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Kentucky had 681,987 students enrolled in a total of 1,565 schools in 194 school districts. There were 41,860 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 16 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 216 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Kentucky spent $9,309 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 34th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 78 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

School Board badge.png
State Education Departments

AlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyoming

See also
Kentucky Commissioner of Education
Kentucky school districts
List of school districts in Kentucky
Public education in Kentucky
School board elections portal
The Kentucky Department of Education is responsible for the state's K-12 public schools. The Commissioner of Education is the chief administrator of the Department of Education. The Commissioner of Education is appointed by and serves at the pleasure of the Kentucky Board of Education. The current officeholder is Terry Holliday.[6][7][8]

The Kentucky Board of Education is comprised of 12 members, 11 of whom are voting members appointed by the Governor (seven from each of the state's Supreme Court districts and four selected at-large). An additional member, the president of the Council on Postsecondary Education, is a non-voting member. Members serve four-year terms.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Kentucky Department of Education adopted the standards on February 10, 2010. Full implementation took place during the 2011-2012 academic year.[10][11]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Kentucky compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Kentucky 1,565 194 681,987 41,860 1:16.3 1:215.9 $9,309
Tennessee 1,802 140 999,693 66,382 1:15.1 1:293.2 $8,242
Virginia 2,170 221 1,257,883 90,832 1:13.8 1:313.2 $10,364
West Virginia 759 57 282,870 20,247 1:14 1:250.5 $11,846
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Kentucky as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[12]

Demographic information for Kentucky's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 960 0.14% 1.10%
Asian 9,344 1.37% 4.68%
African American 73,380 10.76% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 531 0.08% 0.42%
Hispanic 29,457 4.32% 24.37%
White 553,406 81.15% 51.21%
Two or more 14,909 2.19% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Kentucky attend rural schools. Approximately 66 percent of the state's students attend rural or town schools, compared to approximately 34 percent who attend city or suburban schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Kentucky 19.6% 14.6% 22.8% 43.1%
Tennessee 29.8% 16.1% 14% 40.2%
Virginia 23% 38.8% 6.9% 31.3%
West Virginia 13% 15.5% 21% 50.4%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia), Kentucky has the highest share of eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in reading.[13]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Kentucky 41 30 36 38
Tennessee 40 28 34 33
Virginia 47 38 43 36
West Virginia 35 24 27 25
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

pChart

Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Kentucky and surrounding states.[13][14][15]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Kentucky*** 78% Fifth 19.8 100% 1,741 5%
Tennessee 87% First 19.7 100% 1,709 8%
Virginia 83% Second 22.4 25% 1,528 71%
West Virginia 79% Third 20.6 68% 1,513 15%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
***Kentucky calculated its graduation rate using a method other than the Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Kentucky was lower than the national average at 2.5 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 2.5 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[16]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Kentucky

School choice options in Kentucky include: open enrollment policies and some online learning programs. In addition, about 9.24 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Kentucky state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 19.8 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 0.80 percentage points, or 3.9 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 20.6 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[17][18][19][20][21]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Kentucky 19.8% $9,309 16.4% 52.15% 31.46%
Tennessee 17.7% $8,242 14.72% 45.75% 39.53%
Virginia 16% $10,364 9.9% 37.11% 52.99%
West Virginia 10.8% $11,846 14.73% 55.64% 29.63%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Kentucky totaled approximately $7.1 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Kentucky and surrounding states.[22]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Kentucky $1,164,688 $3,704,126 $2,234,478 $7,103,292
Tennessee $1,272,825 $3,955,476 $3,417,293 $8,645,594
Virginia $1,427,301 $5,351,177 $7,639,550 $14,418,028
West Virginia $510,256 $1,927,726 $1,026,593 $3,464,575
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Kentucky totaled approximately $7.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Kentucky and surrounding states.[22]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Kentucky $6,264,504 $733,357 $254,031 $7,251,892
Tennessee $7,977,696 $661,195 $295,742 $8,934,633
Virginia $12,964,134 $1,075,067 $425,378 $14,464,579
West Virginia $3,342,238 $269,242 $56,907 $3,668,387
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Kentucky, the average salary increased by 1.2 percent.[23]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Kentucky $49,717 $52,884 $50,558 $50,326 1.2%
Tennessee $49,645 $49,412 $47,866 $48,289 -2.7%
Virginia $52,947 $53,388 $49,514 $49,869 -5.8%
West Virginia $47,843 $49,059 $46,074 $46,405 -3%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Kentucky ranked 28th overall, or "average," which was in the third of five tiers.[24]

The main unions related to the Kentucky school system are the Kentucky Education Association (KEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and AFT Kentucky (KAPE), an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers.[25]

List of local Kentucky school unions:[25]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Kentucky government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Kentucky School Boards Association.

Transparency

Kentucky's Open Door provides state spending information, including expenditures on grants, contracts, and public employee salaries.The site can be accessed here.

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Kentucky ballot measures


Ballotpedia staff have tracked 7 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Kentucky 1986 ballot measures
  2. Kentucky Appropriated School Funds Referendum (1949)
  3. Kentucky Commissioner of Education Referendum (1957)
  4. Kentucky Distribution and Use of School Fund, Referendum (1953)
  5. Kentucky Equalization Fund Referendum (1941)
  6. Kentucky Establishes a State Board of Education, Amendment 1 (1986)
  7. Kentucky Poll Tax and Separate Schools, Amendment 1 (1996)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Kentucky Department of Education, "Public," accessed May 19, 2014
  7. Kentucky Department of Education, "Commissioner of Education," March 31, 2014
  8. Kentucky Revised Statutes, "156.148; Commissioner of education -- Selection -- Duties," accessed May 19, 2014
  9. Kentucky Department of Education, "Kentucky Board of Education Members," January 7, 2014
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
  11. Kentucky Department of Education, "Common Core Standards Resources," accessed June 17, 2014
  12. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  16. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  25. 25.0 25.1 Center for Union Facts, "Kentucky teachers unions," accessed March 13, 2010