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Public education in Michigan

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K-12 Education in Michigan
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Michael Flanagan
Number of students: 1,573,537[1]
Number of teachers: 86,997
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:18.1
Number of school districts: 869
Number of schools: 3,550
Graduation rate: 76%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $10,823[3]
See also
Michigan Department of EducationList of school districts in MichiganMichiganSchool boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Michigan
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Michigan public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Michigan had 1,573,537 students enrolled in a total of 3,550 schools in 869 school districts. There were 86,997 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 18 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There was roughly one administrator for every 336 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Michigan spent $10,823 per pupil in 2011, which ranked it 21st highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 76 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Michigan Superintendent of Public Instruction
List of school districts in Michigan
Public education in Michigan
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the Michigan Department of Education reads:[6]
Through leadership, policy implementation, and light-of-day reporting, the Michigan Department of Education will increase full-time, full-access systems of education that support success for every student.[7]

The Michigan Department of Education is led by the State Superintendent. The State Superintendent is appointed by the Michigan State Board of Education. The current State Superintendent is Mike Flanagan.[8]

The State Board of Education is composed of eight members elected at-large in partisan elections to eight-year terms of office.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Michigan State Board of Education adopted the standards on June 15, 2010. Full implementation took place during the 2012-2013 academic year.[10][11]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Michigan compares to three neighboring states with respect to the total numbers of schools, districts and students in the state, along with the number of teachers per pupil, the number of administrators per pupil and the amount of spending per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Michigan 3,550 869 1,573,537 86,997 1:18.1 1:336.2 $10,823
Illinois 4,336 1,075 2,083,097 131,777 1:15.8 1:283 $10,774
Indiana 1,933 394 1,040,765 62,339 1:16.7 1:332.9 $9,370
Wisconsin 2,243 462 871,105 56,245 1:15.5 1:363.9 $11,774
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey," 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011, Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Michigan as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[12]

Demographic information for Michigan's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 12,183 0.77% 1.10%
Asian 42,827 2.72% 4.68%
African American 296,124 18.82% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 1,347 0.09% 0.42%
Hispanic 97,494 6.20% 24.37%
White 1,088,587 69.18% 51.21%
Two or more 34,975 2.22% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States who are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Michigan attend suburban schools. Approximately 64 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 36 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Michigan 23.8% 40.2% 11.4% 24.6%
Illinois 31.3% 43.3% 10.3% 15.1%
Indiana 27.9% 23.2% 14.7% 34.1%
Wisconsin 27.5% 24% 19.2% 29.3%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD) (timed out)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceAdaptive softwareBlended learningCarnegie unitCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateDual enrollmentEnglish Language LearnersFree or reduced-price lunchGlobal competence learningHomeschoolingImmersion learningKhan AcademyLocal education agencyMagnet schoolsNAEPOnline learningParent trigger lawsProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool choiceSchool vouchersTeacher merit payVirtual charter schools
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin), Michigan had the smallest share of students (both fourth- and eighth-graders) who scored at or above proficient in math and reading.[13]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Michigan 37 30 31 33
Illinois 39 36 34 36
Indiana 52 38 38 35
Wisconsin 47 40 35 36
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

pChart

Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Michigan and surrounding states.[13][14][15]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Michigan 76% Fourth 20.1 100% 1,782 4%
Illinois 82% Third 20.9 100% 1,807 5%
Indiana 86% First 22.3 32% 1,470 70%
Wisconsin 88% First 22.1 71% 1,771 4%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky and Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Michigan was higher than the national average at 7.2 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 6.9 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[16]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Michigan

School choice options in Michigan include charter schools, inter-district and intra-district open enrollment policies, and online learning programs. In addition, about 8.05 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Michigan state budget and finances
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 27.2 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 2.30 percentage points, or 7.8 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 29.5 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[17][18][19][20][21]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Michigan 27.2% $10,823 13.75% 55.03% 31.22%
Illinois 15.8% $10,774 10.09% 32.42% 57.49%
Indiana 32.9% $9,370 8.8% 62.12% 29.08%
Wisconsin 16.7% $11,774 8.79% 45.83% 45.38%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011, Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Michigan totaled approximately $19.5 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Michigan and surrounding states.[22]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Michigan $2,677,078 $10,710,646 $6,075,517 $19,463,241
Illinois $2,895,524 $9,304,948 $16,499,969 $28,700,441
Indiana $1,059,777 $7,483,801 $3,503,856 $12,047,434
Wisconsin $1,002,909 $5,226,954 $5,175,978 $11,405,841
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Michigan totaled approximately $19.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Michigan and surrounding states.[22]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Michigan $16,728,164 $1,334,386 $1,269,168 $19,331,718
Illinois $24,525,567 $1,884,976 $1,138,206 $27,548,749
Indiana $9,769,064 $881,151 $423,657 $11,073,872
Wisconsin $10,175,521 $541,918 $469,214 $11,186,653
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.
Note: Salaries given are averages for the state. Within states there can be great variation in salaries between urban, suburban and rural districts. When comparing nominal teachers' salaries, it is important to remember that for a true comparison, salaries must be adjusted for the cost of living in each area. For example, when adjusted for cost of living, Los Angeles drops from second highest to 17th highest; New York City drops even further, from third highest to 59th out of 60.[23]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Michigan, the average salary decreased by 8.2 percent.[24]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Michigan $67,023 $61,867 $62,585 $61,560 -8.2%
Illinois $63,527 $66,264 $58,595 $59,113 -6.9%
Indiana $57,192 $53,357 $51,357 $51,456 -10%
Wisconsin $56,239 $54,721 $54,687 $55,171 -1.9%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Michigan ranked 16th overall, or "strong," which was in the second of five tiers.[25]

The main unions related to the Michigan school system are the Michigan Education Association (MEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and AFT Michigan, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT). MEA is the largest education association in the state. For the 2003 tax period MEA had $73.26 million in total revenue, $67.07 million in total expenses and $52.27 million in total assets.[26] For the same period, AFT Michigan had $3.67 million in total revenue, $3.69 million in total expenses and $2.29 million in total assets.[27]

List of local Michigan school unions:[28]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Michigan government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organizations are the Michigan Association of School Boards and the Michigan Association of School Personnel Administrators.

Transparency

The Mackinac Center for Public Policy is a nonpartisan research and educational institute. MichiganTransparency.org, a project of the Mackinac Center, features revenue and spending data for Michigan public school districts as reported by the Michigan Department of Education, as well as categorical grant data and school checkbook registers.[29]

Studies and reports

Quality Counts 2014

See also: Quality Counts 2014 Report

Education Week, a publication that reports on many education issues throughout the country, began using an evaluation system in 1997 to grade each state on various elements of education performance. This system, called Quality Counts, uses official data on performance from each state to generate a report card for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report card in 2014 uses six different categories:

  1. Chance for success
  2. K-12 achievement
  3. Standards, assessments and accountability
  4. The teaching profession
  5. School finance
  6. Transitions and Alignment

Each of these six categories had a number of other elements that received individual scores. Those scores were then averaged and used to determine the final score in each category. Every state received two types of scores for each of the six major categories: a numerical score out of 100 and a letter grade based on that score. Education Week used the score for the first category, "chance for success," as the value for ranking each state and the District of Columbia. The average grade received in the entire country was 77.3, or a C+ average. The country's highest average score was in the category of "standards, assessments and accountability" at 85.3, or a B average. The lowest average score was in "K-12 achievement", at 70.2, or a C- average.

Michigan received a score of 75.3, or a C average, in the "chance for success" category. This was below the national average. The state's highest score was in "standards, assessments and accountability" at 91.6, or an A- average. The lowest score was in "K-12 achievement" at 63.8, or a D average. Michigan had the 10th lowest score for K-12 achievement in the country. The chart below displays the scores of Michigan and its surrounding states.[30]

Note: Click on a column heading to sort the data.

Public education report cards, 2014
State Chance for success K-12 achievement Standards, assessments and accountability The teaching profession School finance Transitions and Alignment
Michigan 75.3 (C) 63.8 (D) 91.6 (A-) 74.8 (C) 74.9 (C) 82.1 (B-)
Illinois 80.2 (B-) 69.6 (C-) 91.0 (A-) 67.9 (D+) 76.8 (C+) 75.0 (C)
Indiana 77.3 (C+) 72.8 (C) 97.8 (A) 63.1 (D) 71.6 (C-) 89.3 (B+)
Wisconsin 82.4 (B-) 72.1 (C-) 75.2 (C) 79.1 (C+) 85.6 (B) 85.7 (B)
United States Average 77.3 (C+) 70.2 (C-) 85.3 (B) 72.5 (C) 75.5 (C) 81.1 (B-)
Source: Education Week, "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 18, 2015

A full discussion of how these numbers were generated can be found here.

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states that spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Issues

Detroit emergency manager

On March 2, 2009, then-Governor Jennifer Granholm appointed Robert Bobb to the position of Detroit Public Schools' emergency manager under Public Act 72 of 1990. He was initially appointed to serve a one-year term in order to address the district's legacy budget deficit, which was projected to reach $305.8 million in June 2009. As the emergency manager, Bobb created an internal audit department, led an enrollment drive and advocated for a successful $500.5 million bond issue to build and modernize 18 schools in the district.[31] However, the projected deficit in 2011 was still $327 million.[32]

In May 2011, Governor Rick Snyder appointed Roy Roberts to the position of emergency manager after Bobb's contract expired.[33] During his time as the emergency manager, Roberts enforced two consecutive balanced budgets and reduced the size of the legacy deficit from $327 million to $72 million, partially through selling more than $200 million in bonds.[34] Enrollment fell sharply from approximately 74,000 students in 2011 to 51,979 students in 2013, although a significant portion of this decline could be attributed to the removal of 15 district schools and nearly 10,000 students to a new state reform district in 2012.[35]

Governor Snyder appointed Jack Martin to the position of emergency manager on July 15, 2013, after Roy Roberts chose to leave the position once his contract expired. Prior to serving in this position, Martin spent more than 40 years as a Certified Public Accountant and served as the emergency manager for Highland Park City Schools in 2012 and as the chief financial officer of the city of Detroit. Roy Roberts expressed support for Martin's appointment, and Martin stated that he would pursue a similar deficit reduction path to the one laid out by Roberts.[36][37] In November 2013, the Michigan Department of Education removed the federal High Risk status from Detroit Public Schools, thereby granting the district "an incremental level of independence in its financial and administrative functions."[38]

School districts

See also: School board elections portal

District types

Michigan contains two types of school districts. Local districts are traditional districts limited to a single community, such as a township or city. Intermediate districts operate at the county or multi-county level, and they primarily exist to provide specialized support services to local school districts.[39]

District statistics

See also: List of school districts in Michigan

The following table displays the state's top 10 school districts by total student enrollment and per-pupil spending:[40][41]

Student enrollment Per-pupil spending
1.) Detroit 1.) Bois Blanc Pines
2.) Utica 2.) Elm River Township
3.) Plymouth-Canton 3.) Grant Township
4.) Dearborn 4.) Arvon Township
5.) Grand Rapids 5.) Beaver Island
6.) Ann Arbor 6.) Northport
7.) Chippewa Valley 7.) Whitefish Township
8.) San Bernardino City Unified 8.) Blanche Kelso Bruce Academy
9.) Walled Lake 9.) Powell Township
10.) Livonia 10.) Wells Township

School board composition

Michigan school board members for local school districts are elected by residents of the school district. Only four school boards for intermediate school districts are elected. All other intermediate school district boards are made up of representatives selected by local board members within the intermediate district. Michigan school board elections typically follow one of these two methods, or a mixture thereof:

  • At-large: All voters residing in the school district may vote for any candidates running, regardless of geographic location.
  • District: Only voters residing in a specific geographic area within the school district may vote on certain candidates, who must also reside in that specific geographic area.

School boards typically consist of seven members, although there are exceptions. School board members serve four-year or six-year terms, depending on the district.[42]

Term limits

Michigan does not impose statewide term limits on school board members.[43]

Elections

See also: Michigan school board elections, 2014 and Michigan school board elections, 2015

No Michigan school districts among America's largest school districts by enrollment are holding elections in 2015.

Path to the ballot

To qualify for the ballot as a school board candidate in Michigan, a person must be:

  • A citizen of the United States
  • A registered voter in the school district at the time of the filing deadline

The process of running for office as a school board candidate begins with filing a nominating petition and affidavit with the school district filing official before the close of business on the 15th Tuesday preceding the election. The number of signatures required for the nominating petition is dependent on the population in the school district at the time of the most recent federal census. If the population is less than 10,000, the minimum number of signatures is six and the maximum is 20. If the population is 10,000 or greater, the minimum number of signatures is 40 and the maximum is 100. A candidate can also pay a nonrefundable $100 filing fee to the school district filing official to get on the ballot instead of filing nominating petitions. Candidates may withdraw from the ballot only if they sign and submit a written withdrawal notice to the school district filing official before the close of business on the third day after the candidacy filing deadline.[44]

Local school board elections are held biennially on the first Tuesday that follows the first Monday in November on even-numbered years.[42]

Campaign finance

Michigan requires all school board candidates running in districts with 2,401 or more students to file campaign finance reports. If a district contains 2,400 or fewer students, school board candidates are not required to file campaign finance reports unless they receive or spend more than $1,000 during the election cycle.

Candidates are prohibited from receiving contributions from corporations or labor organizations. Within 10 days of becoming a candidate, candidates must form a candidate committee. Following the creation of the committee, candidates have an additional 10 days to register the committee with the school district filing official by filing a statement of organization. A candidate committee that does not expect to receive or spend more than $1,000 during the election cycle is eligible to receive a reporting waiver, which allows that committee not to file pre-election, post-election and annual campaign statements without legal penalty.[45]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Michigan ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked the following statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Michigan Education Funds Amendment, Proposal H (1978)
  2. Michigan Mandatory School Funding Initiative, Proposal 5 (2006)
  3. Michigan Nonpublic School Aid Amendment, Proposal C (1970)
  4. Michigan Public School Amendment,Proposal A (1980)
  5. Michigan Sales Tax, Proposal B (1989)
  6. Michigan Sales Tax Amendment, Proposal A (1989)
  7. Michigan School Operating Property Tax Amendment, Proposal C (1992)
  8. Michigan Vouchers and Teacher Testing Amendment, Proposal 1 (2000)

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Michigan + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Michigan Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Michigan Department of Education, "Statistics for Michigan Schools," accessed May 21, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. Michigan Department of Education, "About the Superintendent's Office," accessed May 21, 2014
  9. Constitution of Michigan of 1963, "Article VIII, Section 3," accessed May 21, 2014
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
  11. Michigan Department of Education, "Common Core State Academic Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
  12. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  16. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014 (timed out)
  23. Maciver Institute, "REPORT: How much are teachers really paid?," accessed October 29, 2014
  24. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  25. Thomas E Fordham Institute, "How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  26. Center for Union Facts, "Michigan Education Association," accessed September 14, 2009
  27. Center for Union Facts, "AFT Michigan," accessed September 14, 2009
  28. Center for Union Facts, "Michigan teachers unions," accessed September 14, 2009
  29. MichiganTransparency.org, "Home page," accessed May 21, 2014
  30. Education Week, "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 19, 2015
  31. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Bobb
  32. The Wall Street Journal, "Detroit Plan Makes Big Charter School Bet," March 14, 2011
  33. Crain's Detroit Business, "Former GM exec Roy Roberts to succeed Robert Bobb as Detroit schools' financial manager," May 5, 2011
  34. Detroit Public Schools, "Roy Roberts Biography," accessed February 3, 2014
  35. Detroit Free Press, "Detroit schools' progress cited as emergency manager Roy Roberts announces his exit," May 2, 2013
  36. Detroit Free Press, "Gov. Snyder names Jack Martin to replace Roy Roberts as DPS emergency manager," July 15, 2013
  37. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Martin
  38. Detroit Public Schools, "Michigan Department of Education Removes High Risk Designation from Detroit Schools," November 18, 2013
  39. Michigan Association of School Boards, "Your Local School Board," accessed July 9, 2014
  40. Michigan Department of Education, "2011-12 BULLETIN 1014," accessed August 5, 2013
  41. Center for Educational Performance and Information, "2012-13 Pupil Headcount Data (MSDS)," accessed August 6, 2013
  42. 42.0 42.1 Michigan Association of School Boards, "Elections and Local Control," accessed July 9, 2014
  43. National School Boards Association, "Survey of the State School Boards Associations on Term Limits for Local Board Members," accessed July 8, 2014
  44. Michigan Legislative Council, "Michigan Election Law (Excerpt), Act 116 of 1954 - Chapter XIV, School and Community College Elections," accessed July 9, 2014
  45. Genesee County, "Filing Requirements under Michigan's Campaign Finance Act," February 7, 2014