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Public education in Michigan

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K-12 Education in Michigan
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Michael Flanagan
Number of students: 1,573,537[1]
Number of teachers: 86,997
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:18.1
Number of school districts: 869
Number of schools: 3,550
Graduation rate: 76%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $10,823[3]
See also
Michigan Department of Education
Michigan school districts
List of school districts in Michigan
Michigan
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Michigan
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Michigan public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Michigan had 1,573,537 students enrolled in a total of 3,550 schools in 869 school districts. There were 86,997 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 18 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 336 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Michigan spent $10,823 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 21st highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 76 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Michigan Superintendent of Public Instruction
Michigan school districts
List of school districts in Michigan
Public education in Michigan
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the Michigan Department of Education reads:[6]
Through leadership, policy implementation, and light-of-day reporting, the Michigan Department of Education will increase full-time, full-access systems of education that support success for every student.[7]

The Michigan Department of Education is led by the State Superintendent. The State Superintendent is appointed by the Michigan State Board of Education. The current State Superintendent is Mike Flanagan.[8]

The State Board of Education is comprised of eight members elected at-large in partisan elections to eight-year terms of office.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Michigan State Board of Education adopted the standards on June 15, 2010. Full implementation took place during the 2012-2013 academic year.[10][11]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Michigan compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Michigan 3,550 869 1,573,537 86,997 1:18.1 1:336.2 $10,823
Illinois 4,336 1,075 2,083,097 131,777 1:15.8 1:283 $10,774
Indiana 1,933 394 1,040,765 62,339 1:16.7 1:332.9 $9,370
Wisconsin 2,243 462 871,105 56,245 1:15.5 1:363.9 $11,774
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Michigan as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[12]

Demographic information for Michigan's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 12,183 0.77% 1.10%
Asian 42,827 2.72% 4.68%
African American 296,124 18.82% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 1,347 0.09% 0.42%
Hispanic 97,494 6.20% 24.37%
White 1,088,587 69.18% 51.21%
Two or more 34,975 2.22% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Michigan attend suburban schools. Approximately 64 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 36 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Michigan 23.8% 40.2% 11.4% 24.6%
Illinois 31.3% 43.3% 10.3% 15.1%
Indiana 27.9% 23.2% 14.7% 34.1%
Wisconsin 27.5% 24% 19.2% 29.3%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin), Michigan's had the smallest share of students (both fourth and eighth graders) who scored at or above proficient in math and reading.[13]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Michigan 37 30 31 33
Illinois 39 36 34 36
Indiana 52 38 38 35
Wisconsin 47 40 35 36
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Michigan and surrounding states.[13][14][15]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Michigan 76% Fourth 20.1 100% 1,782 4%
Illinois 82% Third 20.9 100% 1,807 5%
Indiana 86% First 22.3 32% 1,470 70%
Wisconsin 88% First 22.1 71% 1,771 4%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Michigan was higher than the national average at 7.2 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 6.9 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[16]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Michigan

School choice options in Michigan include: charter schools, inter-district and intra-district open enrollment policies and online learning programs. In addition, about 8.05 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Michigan state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 27.2 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 2.30 percentage points, or 7.8 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 29.5 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[17][18][19][20][21]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Michigan 27.2% $10,823 13.75% 55.03% 31.22%
Illinois 15.8% $10,774 10.09% 32.42% 57.49%
Indiana 32.9% $9,370 8.8% 62.12% 29.08%
Wisconsin 16.7% $11,774 8.79% 45.83% 45.38%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Michigan totaled approximately $19.5 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Michigan and surrounding states.[22]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Michigan $2,677,078 $10,710,646 $6,075,517 $19,463,241
Illinois $2,895,524 $9,304,948 $16,499,969 $28,700,441
Indiana $1,059,777 $7,483,801 $3,503,856 $12,047,434
Wisconsin $1,002,909 $5,226,954 $5,175,978 $11,405,841
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Michigan totaled approximately $19.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Michigan and surrounding states.[22]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Michigan $16,728,164 $1,334,386 $1,269,168 $19,331,718
Illinois $24,525,567 $1,884,976 $1,138,206 $27,548,749
Indiana $9,769,064 $881,151 $423,657 $11,073,872
Wisconsin $10,175,521 $541,918 $469,214 $11,186,653
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Michigan, the average salary decreased by 8.2 percent.[23]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Michigan $67,023 $61,867 $62,585 $61,560 -8.2%
Illinois $63,527 $66,264 $58,595 $59,113 -6.9%
Indiana $57,192 $53,357 $51,357 $51,456 -10%
Wisconsin $56,239 $54,721 $54,687 $55,171 -1.9%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Michigan ranked 16th overall, or "strong," which was in the second of five tiers.[24]

The main unions related to the Michigan school system are the Michigan Education Association (MEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and AFT Michigan. MEA is the largest education association in the state. For the 2003 tax period MEA had: $73.26 million in total revenue, $67.07 million in total expenses and $52.27 million in total assets.[25] For the same period, AFT Michigan had: $3.67 million in total revenue, $3.69 million in total expenses and $2.29 in total assets.[26]

List of local Michigan school unions:[27]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Michigan government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organizations are the Michigan Association of School Boards and the Michigan Association of School Personnel Administrators.

Transparency

The Mackinac Center for Public Policy is a nonpartisan research and educational institute. MichiganTransparency.org, a project of the Mackinac Center, features revenue and spending data for Michigan public school districts as reported by the Michigan Department of Education, as well as categorical grant data and school checkbook registers.[28]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Michigan ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked 8 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Michigan Education Funds Amendment, Proposal H (1978)
  2. Michigan Mandatory School Funding Initiative, Proposal 5 (2006)
  3. Michigan Nonpublic School Aid Amendment, Proposal C (1970)
  4. Michigan Public School Amendment,Proposal A (1980)
  5. Michigan Sales Tax, Proposal B (1989)
  6. Michigan Sales Tax Amendment, Proposal A (1989)
  7. Michigan School Operating Property Tax Amendment, Proposal C (1992)
  8. Michigan Vouchers and Teacher Testing Amendment, Proposal 1 (2000)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Michigan + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Michigan Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Michigan Department of Education, "Statistics for Michigan Schools," accessed May 21, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. Michigan Department of Education, "About the Superintendent's Office," accessed May 21, 2014
  9. Constitution of Michigan of 1963, "Article VIII, Section 3," accessed May 21, 2014
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
  11. Michigan Department of Education, "Common Core State Academic Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
  12. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  16. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  25. Center for Union Facts, "Michigan Education Association," accessed September 14, 2009
  26. Center for Union Facts, "AFT Michigan," accessed September 14, 2009
  27. Center for Union Facts, "Michigan teachers unions," accessed September 14, 2009
  28. MichiganTransparency.org, "Home page," accessed May 21, 2014