Public education in Mississippi

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K-12 Education in Mississippi
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Carey Wright
Number of students: 490,619[1]
Number of teachers: 32,007
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:15.3
Number of school districts: 163
Number of schools: 1,069
Graduation rate: 75%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $7,928[3]
See also
Mississippi Department of Education
Mississippi school districts
List of school districts in Mississippi
Mississippi
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Mississippi
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Mississippi public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Mississippi had 490,619 students enrolled in a total of 1,069 schools in 163 school districts. There were 32,007 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 15 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 251 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Mississippi spent $7,928 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 47th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 75 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Mississippi Superintendent of Education
Mississippi school districts
List of school districts in Mississippi
Public education in Mississippi
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the Mississippi State Board of Education reads:[6]
To provide leadership through the development of policy and accountability systems so that all students are prepared to compete in the global community.[7]

The Mississippi Department of Education is responsible for "implementing state and federal education laws, disbursing state and federal funds, holding schools and districts accountable for performance and licensing all educators."[8]

The Department of Education is led by the Superintendent of Education. The Superintendent of Education is appointed by the State Board of Education. The current officeholder is Carey Wright.[8][9]

The State Board of Education is comprised of nine members. The Governor appoints the following members:[10]

  • One member from the state's Northern Supreme Court District
  • One member from the state's Central Supreme Court District
  • One member from the state's Southern Supreme Court District
  • One member who is a school administrator
  • One member is a public school teacher

The Lieutenant Governor appoints two at-large members and the Speaker of the House appoints two at-large members.[10]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Mississippi State Board of Education adopted the standards on June 28, 2010. Full implementation was scheduled to be achieved in the 2013-2014 academic year.[11][12]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Mississippi compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Mississippi 1,069 163 490,619 32,007 1:15.3 1:251 $7,928
Alabama 1,618 170 744,621 47,723 1:15.6 1:293.5 $8,813
Arkansas 1,108 289 483,114 33,983 1:14.2 1:271.3 $9,353
Louisiana 1,437 132 703,390 48,657 1:14.5 1:244.3 $10,723
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Mississippi as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[13]

Demographic information for Mississippi's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 958 0.20% 1.10%
Asian 4,666 0.95% 4.68%
African American 243,438 49.62% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 162 0.03% 0.42%
Hispanic 12,609 2.57% 24.37%
White 225,743 46.01% 51.21%
Two or more 3,043 0.62% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A majority of students in Mississippi attend rural schools. Approximately 81 percent of the state's students attend rural or town schools, compared to approximately 19 percent who attend city or suburban schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Mississippi 10% 8.9% 28.9% 52.2%
Alabama 20.6% 16.9% 14.4% 48%
Arkansas 25.8% 9.6% 20.3% 44.3%
Louisiana 20.7% 24.5% 19.6% 35.2%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Alabama, Arkansas, and Louisiana), Mississippi has the smallest share of fourth and eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in reading and math.[14]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Mississippi 26 21 21 20
Alabama 38 20 31 25
Arkansas 39 28 32 30
Louisiana 26 21 23 24
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Mississippi and surrounding states.[14][15][16]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Mississippi 75% Fourth 18.7 100% 1,673 3%
Alabama 75% Fourth 20.3 86% 1,608 7%
Arkansas 84% Second 20.3 88% 1,697 4%
Louisiana 72% Fourth 20.3 100% 1,655 5%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Mississippi was lower than the national average at 3.2 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 3.2 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[17]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Mississippi

School choice options in Mississippi include: charter schools, school vouchers, an inter-district open enrollment policy and online learning programs. In addition, about 9.26 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Mississippi state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 16.9 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 3.40 percentage points, or 16.7 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 20.3 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[18][19][20][21][22]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Mississippi 16.9% $7,928 22.33% 45.95% 31.72%
Alabama 20.9% $8,813 14.6% 53.77% 31.63%
Arkansas 16.3% $9,353 16.02% 51.2% 32.77%
Louisiana 18.4% $10,723 19.11% 41.43% 39.46%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Mississippi totaled approximately $4.5 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Mississippi and surrounding states.[23]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Mississippi $1,006,465 $2,071,467 $1,429,770 $4,507,702
Alabama $1,077,070 $3,965,614 $2,332,472 $7,375,156
Arkansas $834,685 $2,667,090 $1,707,234 $5,209,009
Louisiana $1,570,393 $3,404,656 $3,242,171 $8,217,220
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Mississippi totaled approximately $4.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Mississippi and surrounding states.[23]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Mississippi $3,888,831 $368,906 $88,046 $4,345,783
Alabama $6,582,496 $564,183 $255,905 $7,402,584
Arkansas $4,495,309 $607,962 $578,992 $5,682,263
Louisiana $7,440,499 $812,768 $149,430 $8,402,697
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Mississippi, the average salary decreased by 3.5 percent.[24]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Mississippi $43,535 $48,722 $42,339 $41,994 -3.5%
Alabama $50,139 $50,779 $48,802 $47,949 -4.4%
Arkansas $45,625 $49,850 $47,085 $46,632 2.2%
Louisiana $45,246 $52,201 $51,014 $51,381 13.6%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Mississippi ranked 46th overall, or "weakest," which was in the fifth of five tiers.[25]

The main union related to the Mississippi school system is the Mississippi Association of Educators (MAE).[26] According to reports, MAE had a total revenue of $1,639,194 during the 2003 tax period. Another statewide union is AFT Mississippi. A local school union in Mississippi is AFT Biloxi, which had in 2003 total revenues of $343,958.[27]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Mississippi government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Mississippi School Boards Association.

Transparency

The Mississippi Accountability and Transparency Act (2008) mandated the creation of a spending transparency website, which can be accessed here.[28] The state has also launched the Management and Reporting System. This site provides information pertaining to the state budget, state property, revenues, vendors, and state employees.

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Mississippi ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked 2 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Mississippi Board of Trustees of State Institutions of Higher Learning, Amendment 1 (2003)
  2. Mississippi Public School Support Amendment (2015)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Mississippi + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Mississippi Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Mississippi Department of Education, "State Board of Education: Vision, Mission, Goals," accessed May 21, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Mississippi Department of Education, "About MDE," accessed May 21, 2014
  9. Mississippi Department of Education, "State Superintendent of Education," accessed May 21, 2014
  10. 10.0 10.1 Mississippi Department of Education, "Mississippi Board of Education," accessed May 21, 2014
  11. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State,” accessed June 12, 2014
  12. Mississippi Department of Education, "Common Core State Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
  13. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  14. 14.0 14.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  17. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  23. 23.0 23.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  25. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  26. Mississippi Association of Educators, "Main Page," accessed May 5, 2010
  27. Center for Union Facts, "Mississippi teachers unions," accessed May 5, 2010
  28. National Taxpayers Union, "Nation's Largest Taxpayer Group Applauds Mississippi for Passing Spending Transparency Legislation," April 17, 2008