Public education in New Hampshire

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K-12 Education in New Hampshire
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Virginia Barry
Number of students: 191,900[1]
Number of teachers: 15,049
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:12.8
Number of school districts: 281
Number of schools: 477
Graduation rate: 86%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $13,224[3]
See also
New Hampshire Department of Education
New Hampshire school districts
List of school districts in New Hampshire
New Hampshire
School boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in New Hampshire
Glossary of education terms
The New Hampshire public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 New Hampshire had 191,900 students enrolled in a total of 477 schools in 281 school districts. While the national ratio of teachers to students was 1:16, in New Hampshire there were 15,049 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 13 students. There was roughly one administrator for every 350 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average New Hampshire spent $13,224 per pupil in 2011, which ranked it 12th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 86 percent in 2012. This was the Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate reported to the United States Department of Education for all students in 2011-2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
New Hampshire Commissioner of Education
New Hampshire school districts
List of school districts in New Hampshire
Public education in New Hampshire
School board elections portal
The New Hampshire Department of Education is divided into four divisions: the Division of Career Technology and Adult Learning, the Division of Higher Education, the Division of Educational Improvement and the Division of Program Support. Through these divisions, the Department of Education offers a number of programs and services to students, families, teachers and community members.[6]

The New Hampshire Commissioner of Education is Virginia M. Barry.

The mission statement of the New Hampshire Department of Education reads:[6]

To provide educational leadership and services which promote equal educational opportunities and quality practices and programs that enable New Hampshire residents to become fully productive members of society.[7]

The New Hampshire State Board of Education has seven members who are appointed by the governor and executive council. Five members are chosen from each of the five executive councilor districts, and two are selected from the state at large.[8]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The New Hampshire State Board of Education adopted these standards on July 13, 2010.[9] According to the New Hampshire Department of Education, the state will begin rolling out new assessments aligned with the Common Core State Standards during the 2014-2015 school year.[10]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states and Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how New Hampshire compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional Comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
New Hampshire 477 281 191,900 15,049 1:12.8 1:349.6 $13,224
Maine 621 260 188,969 14,888 1:12.7 1:114.2 $11,438
Massachusetts 1,835 401 953,369 69,342 1:13.7 1:210.1 $13,941
Vermont 320 369 89,908 8,364 1:10.7 1:188.3 $15,925
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in New Hampshire as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[11]

Demographic information for New Hampshire's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 612 0.32% 1.10%
Asian 5,443 2.84% 4.68%
African American 3,696 1.93% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 115 0.06% 0.42%
Hispanic 7,429 3.87% 24.37%
White 171,011 89.11% 51.21%
Two or More 3,594 1.87% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

Students in New Hampshire are most likely to attend rural or suburban schools. This is similar to students in neighboring states. In Vermont and Maine, students are most likely to attend rural schools, and in Massachusetts, students are most likely to attend suburban schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural Schools
New Hampshire 14.4% 31.8% 16.3% 37.5%
Maine 12.6% 11.2% 17.6% 58.6%
Massachusetts 20.8% 66.1% 2.2% 11.0%
Vermont 7.2% 11.2% 24.8% 56.9%
U.S. average 28.9% 34.0% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

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Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Maine, Massachusetts, and Vermont), New Hampshire had a higher or equal percentage of students score at or above proficient in math in fourth and eighth grades.[12]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
New Hampshire 59 47 45 44
Maine 47 40 37 38
Massachusetts 58 55 47 48
Vermont 52 47 42 45
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state and ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for New Hampshire and surrounding states.[12][13][14]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
New Hampshire 86% First 23.8 19% 1567 70%
Maine 85% Second 23.4 9% 1380 95%
Massachusetts 85% Second 24.1 23% 1553 83%
Vermont 88% First 23.0 28% 1540 61%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for New Hampshire was lower than the national average at 1.3 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 1.3 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[15]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in New Hampshire

School choice options in New Hampshire include: charter schools, education tax credits, homeschooling, online learning, private schools and voluntary public school open enrollment policies.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: New Hampshire state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 23.5 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. This is up 1.3 percentage points, a 5.9 percent increase in the share of the budget from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 22.2 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[16][17][18][19][20] Over half of New Hampshire's education revenue comes from local funding. State funding accounts for about 37 percent, and federal funding accounts for about 6.5 percent.

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
New Hampshire 23.5% $13,224 6.49% 37.29% 56.21%
Maine 13.1% $11,438 11.13% 40.22% 48.65%
Massachusetts 10.7% $13,941 7.85% 37.91% 54.24%
Vermont 31.1% $15,925 7.07% 88.26% 4.68%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in New Hampshire totaled approximately $2.8 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for New Hampshire and surrounding states.[21]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
New Hampshire $184,768 $1,061,011 $1,599,416 $2,845,195
Maine $289,346 $1,045,786 $1,265,180 $2,600,312
Massachusetts $1,197,383 $5,783,240 $8,275,257 $15,255,880
Vermont $107,275 $1,339,844 $70,990 $1,518,109
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in New Hampshire totaled approximately $2.8 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for New Hampshire and surrounding states.[21]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
New Hampshire $2,502,899 $206,241 $129,038 $2,838,178
Maine $2,369,256 $164,949 $142,686 $2,676,891
Massachusetts $12,894,969 $817,228 $767,052 $14,479,249
Vermont $1,404,710 $63,812 $78,497 $1,547,019
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in New Hampshire, the average salary increased by 7.8 percent.[22]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
New Hampshire $51,567 $54,912 $55,079 $55,599 7.8%
Maine $48,597 $49,216 $48,126 $48,119 -1%
Massachusetts $63,656 $73,945 $72,915 $73,129 14.9%
Vermont $51,600 $52,394 $52,160 $52,526 1.8%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012, the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. New Hampshire ranked 30th overall, or average, which was in the middle tier of five.[23]

The main unions related to the New Hampshire school system are the NEA New Hampshire (NEA-NH), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and New Hampshire Federation of Teachers (AFT-NH), an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers.

List of local New Hampshire school unions:[24]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: New Hampshire government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the New Hampshire School Boards Association.

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of New Hampshire ballot measures


Ballotpedia staff have tracked one statewide ballot measure relating to education.

  1. New Hampshire Education Amendment (2012)

Studies and reports

ABCs of School Choice

The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice publishes a comprehensive guide to private school choice programs across the U.S. In its 2014 edition, the Foundation reviewed the New Hampshire Education Tax Credit Program. The program offers tax credits to businesses that donate to nonprofits that provide scholarships to private schools. The Foundation found that the tax credit program is limited in how many students can receive funding, as both the tax credit and scholarships are capped at a certain amount each year. In addition, only students whose household income is less than 300 percent of the federal poverty line can receive funding. Combined, these restrictions make scholarships available to less than one percent of students in the state.[25] The full Friedman Foundation report can be found here.

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

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All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

New Hampshire Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 New Hampshire Department of Education, "About Us," accessed June 2, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. New Hampshire State Board of Education, "State Board of Education," accessed June 2, 2014
  9. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed July 12, 2014
  10. New Hampshire Department of Education, "About the Common Core State Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
  11. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  15. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  22. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. Thomas E Fordham Institute, "How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  24. Center for Union Facts, "New Hampshire teachers unions," accessed May 8, 2010
  25. The Friedman Foundation for Education Choice, "The ABCs of School Choice," 2014 Edition