Public education in New Hampshire

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K-12 Education in New Hampshire
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Virginia Barry
Number of students: 191,900[1]
Number of teachers: 15,049
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:12.8
Number of school districts: 281
Number of schools: 477
Graduation rate: 86%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $13,224[3]
See also
New Hampshire Department of EducationList of school districts in New HampshireNew HampshireSchool boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in New Hampshire
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The New Hampshire public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 New Hampshire had 191,900 students enrolled in a total of 477 schools in 281 school districts. While the national ratio of teachers to students was 1:16, in New Hampshire there were 15,049 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 13 students. There was roughly one administrator for every 350 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average New Hampshire spent $13,224 per pupil in 2011, which ranked it 12th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 86 percent in 2012. This was the Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate reported to the United States Department of Education for all students in 2011-2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
New Hampshire Commissioner of Education
List of school districts in New Hampshire
Public education in New Hampshire
School board elections portal
The New Hampshire Department of Education is divided into four divisions: the Division of Career Technology and Adult Learning, the Division of Higher Education, the Division of Educational Improvement and the Division of Program Support. Through these divisions, the Department of Education offers a number of programs and services to students, families, teachers and community members.[6]

The New Hampshire Commissioner of Education is Virginia M. Barry.

The mission statement of the New Hampshire Department of Education reads:[6]

To provide educational leadership and services which promote equal educational opportunities and quality practices and programs that enable New Hampshire residents to become fully productive members of society.[7]

The New Hampshire State Board of Education has seven members who are appointed by the governor and executive council. Five members are chosen from each of the five executive councilor districts, and two are selected from the state at large.[8]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The New Hampshire State Board of Education adopted these standards on July 13, 2010.[9] According to the New Hampshire Department of Education, the state will begin rolling out new assessments aligned with the Common Core State Standards during the 2014-2015 school year.[10]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states and Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how New Hampshire compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional Comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
New Hampshire 477 281 191,900 15,049 1:12.8 1:349.6 $13,224
Maine 621 260 188,969 14,888 1:12.7 1:114.2 $11,438
Massachusetts 1,835 401 953,369 69,342 1:13.7 1:210.1 $13,941
Vermont 320 369 89,908 8,364 1:10.7 1:188.3 $15,925
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in New Hampshire as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[11]

Demographic information for New Hampshire's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 612 0.32% 1.10%
Asian 5,443 2.84% 4.68%
African American 3,696 1.93% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 115 0.06% 0.42%
Hispanic 7,429 3.87% 24.37%
White 171,011 89.11% 51.21%
Two or More 3,594 1.87% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

Students in New Hampshire are most likely to attend rural or suburban schools. This is similar to students in neighboring states. In Vermont and Maine, students are most likely to attend rural schools, and in Massachusetts, students are most likely to attend suburban schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural Schools
New Hampshire 14.4% 31.8% 16.3% 37.5%
Maine 12.6% 11.2% 17.6% 58.6%
Massachusetts 20.8% 66.1% 2.2% 11.0%
Vermont 7.2% 11.2% 24.8% 56.9%
U.S. average 28.9% 34.0% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD) (timed out)

Academic performance

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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceAdaptive softwareBlended learningCarnegie unitCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateDual enrollmentEnglish Language LearnersFree or reduced-price lunchGlobal competence learningHomeschoolingImmersion learningKhan AcademyLocal education agencyMagnet schoolsNAEPOnline learningParent trigger lawsProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool choiceSchool vouchersTeacher merit payVirtual charter schools
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Maine, Massachusetts, and Vermont), New Hampshire had a higher or equal percentage of students score at or above proficient in math in fourth and eighth grades.[12]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
New Hampshire 59 47 45 44
Maine 47 40 37 38
Massachusetts 58 55 47 48
Vermont 52 47 42 45
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state and ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for New Hampshire and surrounding states.[12][13][14]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
New Hampshire 86% First 23.8 19% 1567 70%
Maine 85% Second 23.4 9% 1380 95%
Massachusetts 85% Second 24.1 23% 1553 83%
Vermont 88% First 23.0 28% 1540 61%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for New Hampshire was lower than the national average at 1.3 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 1.3 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[15]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in New Hampshire

School choice options in New Hampshire include: charter schools, education tax credits, homeschooling, online learning, private schools and voluntary public school open enrollment policies.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: New Hampshire state budget and finances
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 23.5 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. This is up 1.3 percentage points, a 5.9 percent increase in the share of the budget from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 22.2 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[16][17][18][19][20] Over half of New Hampshire's education revenue comes from local funding. State funding accounts for about 37 percent, and federal funding accounts for about 6.5 percent.

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
New Hampshire 23.5% $13,224 6.49% 37.29% 56.21%
Maine 13.1% $11,438 11.13% 40.22% 48.65%
Massachusetts 10.7% $13,941 7.85% 37.91% 54.24%
Vermont 31.1% $15,925 7.07% 88.26% 4.68%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in New Hampshire totaled approximately $2.8 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for New Hampshire and surrounding states.[21]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
New Hampshire $184,768 $1,061,011 $1,599,416 $2,845,195
Maine $289,346 $1,045,786 $1,265,180 $2,600,312
Massachusetts $1,197,383 $5,783,240 $8,275,257 $15,255,880
Vermont $107,275 $1,339,844 $70,990 $1,518,109
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in New Hampshire totaled approximately $2.8 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for New Hampshire and surrounding states.[21]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
New Hampshire $2,502,899 $206,241 $129,038 $2,838,178
Maine $2,369,256 $164,949 $142,686 $2,676,891
Massachusetts $12,894,969 $817,228 $767,052 $14,479,249
Vermont $1,404,710 $63,812 $78,497 $1,547,019
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.
Note: Salaries given are averages for the state. Within states there can be great variation in salaries between urban, suburban and rural districts. When comparing nominal teachers' salaries, it is important to remember that for a true comparison, salaries must be adjusted for the cost of living in each area. For example, when adjusted for cost of living, Los Angeles drops from second highest to 17th highest; New York City drops even further, from third highest to 59th out of 60.[22]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in New Hampshire, the average salary increased by 7.8 percent.[23]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
New Hampshire $51,567 $54,912 $55,079 $55,599 7.8%
Maine $48,597 $49,216 $48,126 $48,119 -1%
Massachusetts $63,656 $73,945 $72,915 $73,129 14.9%
Vermont $51,600 $52,394 $52,160 $52,526 1.8%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012, the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. New Hampshire ranked 30th overall, or average, which was in the middle tier of five.[24]

The main unions related to the New Hampshire school system are the NEA New Hampshire (NEA-NH), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and New Hampshire Federation of Teachers (AFT-NH), an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers.

List of local New Hampshire school unions:[25]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: New Hampshire government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the New Hampshire School Boards Association.

Studies and reports

Quality Counts 2014

See also: Quality Counts 2014 Report

Education Week, a publication that reports on many education issues throughout the country, began using an evaluation system in 1997 to grade each state on various elements of education performance. This system, called Quality Counts, uses official data on performance from each state to generate a report card for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report card in 2014 uses six different categories:

  1. Chance for success
  2. K-12 achievement
  3. Standards, assessments and accountability
  4. The teaching profession
  5. School finance
  6. Transitions and Alignment

Each of these six categories had a number of other elements that received individual scores. Those scores were then averaged and used to determine the final score in each category. Every state received two types of scores for each of the six major categories: A numerical score out of 100 and a letter grade based on that score. Education Week used the score for the first category, "chance for success," as the value for ranking each state and the District of Columbia. The average grade received in the entire country was 77.3, or a C+ average. The country's highest average score was in the category of "standards, assessments and accountability" at 85.3, or a B average. The lowest average score was in "K-12 achievement", at 70.2, or a C- average.

New Hampshire received a score of 88.0, or a B+ average in the "chance for success" category. This was above the national average. Except for the "chance for success" category, the state's highest score was in "school finance" at 81.4, or a B- average. The lowest score was in "the teaching profession" at 63.9, or a D average. New Hampshire had the third highest score in the "chance for success" category in the country. The chart below displays the scores of New Hampshire and its surrounding states.[26]

Note: Click on a column heading to sort the data.

Public education report cards, 2014
State Chance for success K-12 achievement Standards, assessments and accountability The teaching profession School finance Transitions and Alignment
New Hampshire 88.0 (B+) 78.8 (C+) 76.0 (C) 63.9 (D) 81.4 (B-) 78.6 (C+)
Maine 78.8 (C+) 72.6 (C) 69.6 (C-) 67.8 (D+) 83.9 (B) 82.1 (B-)
Massachusetts 91.4 (A-) 83.7 (B) 88.4 (B+) 78.7 (C+) 83.5 (B) 75.0 (C)
Vermont 86.4 (B) 77.3 (C+) 82.7 (B) 70.6 (C-) 86.0 (B) 71.4 (C-)
United States Average 77.3 (C+) 70.2 (C-) 85.3 (B) 72.5 (C) 75.5 (C) 81.1 (B-)
Source: Education Week, "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 18, 2015

A full discussion of how these numbers were generated can be found here.

ABCs of School Choice

The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice publishes a comprehensive guide to private school choice programs across the U.S. In its 2014 edition, the Foundation reviewed the New Hampshire Education Tax Credit Program. The program offers tax credits to businesses that donate to nonprofits that provide scholarships to private schools. The Foundation found that the tax credit program is limited in how many students can receive funding, as both the tax credit and scholarships are capped at a certain amount each year. In addition, only students whose household income is less than 300 percent of the federal poverty line can receive funding. Combined, these restrictions make scholarships available to less than one percent of students in the state.[27] The full Friedman Foundation report can be found here.

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states that spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Issues

Manchester School District audit

The state's largest school district, Manchester, underwent a significant operations audit in 2013. Curriculum Management Systems published the audit on June 26, 2013. The district spent $40,000 to commission the report, which criticized the size of the 15-member school board and its two-year terms as causes of instability in the district.[28] The audit stated that, "Declining student enrollment, funding reductions, board disharmony, aging school facilities, and disparities in student performance have been long-standing issues facing the district."[29] The auditors added that, "the educational program a student experiences at one school may differ widely from the education a student receives at another school," and recommended that the school board create "written policies, plans, and procedures to provide a foundation for a consistent educational program" across the district.[29] Board member Arthur J. Beaudry disagreed with several of the findings and recommendations in the audit, arguing that, "The board is reluctant to pursue big changes too much because that's seen as micromanaging. So they back up, or at least some board members do."[28]

New Hampshire Union Leader reporter Ted Siefer praised the school district in June 2014 for improving its academic performance and financial health following the report. In particular, he highlighted that the district had slashed its student dropout rate by approximately half over the 2013-2014 school year.[30]

School districts

See also: School board elections portal

District types

New Hampshire contains five types of school districts:[31]

  • Regular districts serve a single community and are governed by elected boards.
  • Cooperative districts serve multiple communities with board composition and selection methods that vary according to the bylaws of each district.
  • Interstate districts have territory and students in multiple states and are formed as part of the Maine-New Hampshire Interstate School Compact and the New Hampshire-Vermont Interstate School Compact.
  • Dependent county districts serve unincorporated areas of a county and are governed by the board of county commissioners. The only dependent county district in existence is Coos County School District.
  • Dependent city districts serve specific cities and operate under the fiscal control of those cities. The governing bodies in these districts are either elected or appointed by the city council. The mayor of each city serves as the chair of the board. The dependent city districts include Berlin, Dover, Franklin, Laconia, Manchester, Nashua, Portsmouth, Rochester and Somersworth.

District statistics

See also: List of school districts in New Hampshire

The following table displays the state's top 10 school districts by total student enrollment, Academic Performance Index (API) scores and per-pupil spending per Average Daily Membership in Attendance (ADM-A):[32][33]

Student enrollment Per-pupil spending per ADM-A
1.) Manchester 1.) Errol
2.) Nashua 2.) Newington
3.) Concord 3.) Nelson
4.) Londonderry 4.) Harrisville
5.) Rochester 5.) New Castle
6.) Bedford 6.) Pittsburg
7.) Salem 7.) Monroe
8.) Timberlane Regional 8.) Jackson
9.) Merrimack 9.) Freedom
10.) Hudson 10.) Moultonborough

School board composition

New Hampshire school board members are generally elected by residents of the school district, although some school board members are appointed. New Hampshire school board elections typically follow one of these three methods, or a mixture thereof:

  • At-large: All voters residing in the school district may vote for any candidates running, regardless of geographic location.
  • Trustee area: Only voters residing in a specific geographic area within the school district may vote on certain candidates, who must also reside in that specific geographic area.
  • Trustee area at-large: All voters residing in the school district may vote for any candidates running, but candidates must reside in specific geographic areas within the school district.

School boards can consist of three or more members, although there must be an odd-numbered total of members. School board members serve three-year terms.[31]

Term limits

New Hampshire does not impose statewide term limits on school board members. The New Hampshire Supreme Court ruled in 2010 that municipalities could not impose term limits on elected officials such as school board members because, "in doing so, municipalities impermissibly intrude into the legislative authority of the general court."[34]

Elections

See also: New Hampshire school board elections, 2014 and New Hampshire school board elections, 2015

A total of two New Hampshire school districts among America's largest school districts by enrollment will hold elections for 19 seats on November 3, 2015.

Here are several quick facts about New Hampshire's school board elections in 2015:

The districts listed below served 26,243 K-12 students during the 2012-2013 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Click on the district names for more information on the district and its school board elections.

2015 New Hampshire School Board Elections
District Date Seats up for election Total board seats Student enrollment
Manchester School District 11/3/2015 14 15 14,452
Nashua School District 11/3/2015 5 9 11,791

Path to the ballot

To qualify for the ballot as a school board candidate in New Hampshire, a person must be a registered voter in the district. A person must not be a district moderator, treasurer, auditor or a salaried employee of the district.[31]

Campaign finance

New Hampshire school board candidates must form political committees to oversee their campaign finances. Campaign finance reports are filed with the local election authority.[35]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of New Hampshire ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked one statewide ballot measure relating to education.

  1. New Hampshire Education Amendment (2012)

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "New Hampshire + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

New Hampshire Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 New Hampshire Department of Education, "About Us," accessed June 2, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. New Hampshire State Board of Education, "State Board of Education," accessed June 2, 2014
  9. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed July 12, 2014
  10. New Hampshire Department of Education, "About the Common Core State Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
  11. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  15. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014 (timed out)
  22. Maciver Institute, "REPORT: How much are teachers really paid?," accessed October 29, 2014
  23. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. Thomas E Fordham Institute, "How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  25. Center for Union Facts, "New Hampshire teachers unions," accessed May 8, 2010
  26. Education Week "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 19, 2015
  27. The Friedman Foundation for Education Choice, "The ABCs of School Choice," 2014 Edition
  28. 28.0 28.1 New Hampshire Union Leader, "School district audit report lands with a thud," June 29, 2013
  29. 29.0 29.1 Manchester School District, "Curriculum Audit of the Manchester School District," June 27, 2013
  30. New Hampshire Union Leader, "Ted Siefer's City Hall: Manchester school board should be proud of its accomplishments," June 28, 2014
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 New Hampshire School Boards Association, "School Board Service," accessed July 11, 2014
  32. New Hampshire Department of Education, "Enrollments in New Hampshire Public Schools," accessed August 8, 2013
  33. New Hampshire Department of Education, "Cost Per Pupil by District, 2011-2012," accessed August 8, 2013
  34. "Charles P. Forsberg v. Kearsarge Regional School District," May 7, 2010
  35. New Hampshire Secretary of State, "Campaign Finance," accessed July 11, 2014