Public education in New Jersey

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K-12 Education in New Jersey
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Education facts
State Superintendent: David Hespe
Number of students: 1,356,431[1]
Number of teachers: 109,719
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:12.4
Number of school districts: 700
Number of schools: 2,596
Graduation rate: 86%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $15,968[3]
See also
New Jersey Department of Education
New Jersey school districts
List of school districts in New Jersey
New Jersey
School boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in New Jersey
Glossary of education terms
The New Jersey public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 New Jersey had 1,356,431 students enrolled in a total of 2,596 schools in 700 school districts. While the national ratio of teachers to students was 1:16, in New Jersey there were 109,719 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 12 students. There was roughly one administrator for every 288 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average New Jersey spent $15,968 per pupil in 2011, which ranked it fourth highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 86 percent in 2012. This was the Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate reported to the United States Department of Education for all students in 2011-2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
New Jersey Commissioner of Education
New Jersey school districts
List of school districts in New Jersey
Public education in New Jersey
School board elections portal
The New Jersey Department of Education is led by the New Jersey Commissioner of Education. There are seven divisions or officers that fall directly under the Commissioner of Education, including: Student Services and Career Readiness, the Chief Innovation Officer, the Chief Performance Officer, the Chief Talent Officer, the Chief Academic Officer, Field Services and Administration and Finance.[6]

The New Jersey State Board of Education has 13 members who are appointed by the governor with the consent of the New Jersey State Senate. Members serve six-year terms without compensation. The State Board of Education also includes a nonvoting student representative who is selected annually by the New Jersey Association of Student Councils. The New Jersey Commissioner of Education serves as the State Board of Education's secretary and official agent.[7] As chief executive school officer, the Commissioner of Education is part of the governor's cabinet. The current Commissioner of Education is David Hespe.[8]

The mission statement of the New Jersey State Board of Education reads:[9]

Provide leadership to achieve excellence in New Jersey public education. Engage legislators, school administrators, teachers, students, parents, and other stakeholders in formulating policies that enhance education, empower families, and broaden opportunities for students.[10]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The New Jersey State Board of Education adopted these standards on June 23, 2010, and fully implemented them during the 2013-2014 school year.[11]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states and Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how New Jersey compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional Comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
New Jersey 2,596 700 1,356,431 109,719 1:12.4 1:288.0 $15,968
Delaware 221 44 128,946 8,587 1:15 1:289.8 $12,685
New York 4,752 923 2,704,718 209,527 1:12.9 1:293.2 $19,076
Pennsylvania 3,181 784 1,771,395 124,646 1:14.2 1:334.6 $13,467
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in New Jersey as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[12]

Demographic Information for New Jersey's K-12 Public School System
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 1,735 0.13% 1.10%
Asian 121,434 8.95% 4.68%
African American 220,238 16.24% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 3,153 0.23% 0.42%
Hispanic 305,026 22.49% 24.37%
White 693,416 51.12% 51.21%
Two or More 11,429 0.84% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

Over 80 percent of New Jersey students attend suburban schools. Though students in both Delaware and Pennsylvania are also most likely to attend suburban schools, the percentage of their students attending them is just over 45 percent. In New York, students are more likely to attend city schools than suburban schools. For more comparisons, look to the table below.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural Schools
New Jersey 7.2% 80.8% 2.0% 10.0%
Delaware 13.4% 45.2% 17.2% 24.2%
New York 44.1% 35.3% 7.3% 13.2%
Pennsylvania 19.2% 45.7% 12.1% 23.0%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Delaware, New York, and Pennsylvania), New Jersey had the highest percentage of students performing at or above proficient in math and reading in both fourth grade and eighth grade.[13]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
New Jersey 49 49 42 46
Delaware 42 33 38 33
New York 40 32 37 35
Pennsylvania 44 42 40 42
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state and ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for New Jersey and surrounding states.[13][14][15]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
New Jersey 86% First 23.4 20% 1521 78%
Delaware 80% Third 22.6 14% 1351 100%
New York 77% Fourth 23.3 29% 1463 76%
Pennsylvania 84% Second 22.4 18% 1480 71%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for New Jersey was lower than the national average at 1.4 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 1.4 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[16]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in New Jersey

School choice options in New Jersey include: charter schools, homeschooling, online learning, private schools and a voluntary inter-district public school open enrollment policy.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: New Jersey state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 24.7 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. This is up 0.5 percentage points, a 0.2 percent increase in the share of the budget from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 24.2 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[17][18][19][20][21] Over half of New Jersey's education revenue comes from local funding. State funding accounts for approximately 37 percent, and federal funding accounts for just over five percent.

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
New Jersey 24.7% $15,968 5.14% 37.06% 57.8%
Delaware 24.6% $12,685 11.24% 59.59% 29.17%
New York 19.8% $19,076 8.9% 40.27% 50.82%
Pennsylvania 18.4% $13,467 12.74% 34.2% 53.06%
Sources:NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in New Jersey totaled approximately $25.7 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for New Jersey and surrounding states.[22]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
New Jersey $1,320,021 $9,521,328 $14,847,190 $25,688,539
Delaware $202,501 $1,073,154 $525,263 $1,800,918
New York $5,127,425 $23,189,453 $29,266,236 $57,583,114
Pennsylvania $3,469,273 $9,309,365 $14,444,802 $27,223,440
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in New Jersey totaled approximately $25 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for New Jersey and surrounding states.[22]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
New Jersey $22,686,943 $930,701 $1,393,507 $25,011,151
Delaware $1,615,778 $184,094 $54,090 $1,853,962
New York $51,203,701 $4,655,961 $2,680,715 $58,540,377
Pennsylvania $23,541,287 $2,269,812 $1,477,788 $27,288,887
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in New Jersey, the average salary decreased by 3.2 percent.[23]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
New Jersey $71,083 $69,523 $68,194 $68,797 -3.2%
Delaware $60,724 $60,930 $59,779 $59,679 -1.7%
New York $69,723 $76,464 $74,620 $75,279 8.0%
Pennsylvania $66,035 $63,146 $62,965 $63,521 -3.8%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012, the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. New Jersey ranked 7th overall, or strongest, which was in the first tier of five.[24]

The main union related to the New Jersey school system is the New Jersey Education Association (NJEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA). NJEA is the largest education association in the state.

List of local New Jersey school unions:[25]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: New Jersey government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the New Jersey School Boards Association.

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of New Jersey ballot measures

As of June 2014, there were no education ballot measures in New Jersey.

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "New Jersey + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Jersey+education&um=1&ie=UTF-8&output=rss New Jersey Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. New Jersey Department of Education, "NJ Department of Education Organization Chart," accessed June 2, 2014
  7. New Jersey Department of Education, "New Jersey State Board of Education," accessed June 2, 2014
  8. New Jersey Department of Education, "Office of the Commissioner," accessed June 2, 2014
  9. New Jersey Department of Education, "New Jersey State Board of Education Vision and Mission," accessed June 2, 2014
  10. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  11. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed July 12, 2014
  12. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  16. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. Thomas E Fordham Institute, "How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  25. Center for Union Facts, "New Jersey unions," accessed October 14, 2009