Public education in New York

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K-12 Education in New York
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Education facts
State Superintendent: John King (New York)
Number of students: 2,704,718[1]
Number of teachers: 209,527
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:12.9
Number of school districts: 923
Number of schools: 4,752
Graduation rate: 77%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $19,076[3]
See also
New York Department of Education
New York school districts
List of school districts in New York
New York
School boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in New York
Glossary of education terms
The New York public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 New York had 2,704,718 students enrolled in a total of 4,752 schools in 923 school districts. While the national ratio of teachers to students was 1:16, in New York there were 209,527 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 13 students. There was roughly one administrator for every 293 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average New York spent $19,076 per pupil in 2011, which ranked it highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 77 percent in 2012. This was the Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate reported to the United States Department of Education for all students in 2011-2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
New York Commissioner of Education
New York school districts
List of school districts in New York
Public education in New York
School board elections portal
The New York State Education Department is led by the New York Commissioner of Education. John King currently serves in that role. The State Education Department has eight main offices: the Office of P-12 Education, the Office of Higher Education, the Office of Cultural Education, the Office of Performance Improvement and Management Services, the Chief Financial Office, the Office of Counsel, the Office of the Professions and the Office of Adult Career and Continuing Educational Services.[6]

The mission statement of the New York State Education Department reads:[6]

Our mission is to raise the knowledge, skill, and opportunity of all the people in New York. Our vision is to provide leadership for a system that yields the best educated people in the world.[7]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The New York State Education Department adopted these standards on July 19, 2010.[8] Implementation of the Common Core State Standards began in 2011. The standards will be fully implemented for the 2014-2015 school year.[9]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states and Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how New York compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional Comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
New York 4,752 923 2,704,718 209,527 1:12.9 1:293.2 $19,076
Massachusetts 1,835 401 953,369 69,342 1:13.7 1:210.1 $13,941
New Jersey 2,596 700 1,356,431 109,719 1:12.4 1:288.0 $15,968
Pennsylvania 3,181 784 1,771,395 124,646 1:14.2 1:334.6 $13,467
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in New York as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[10]

Demographic Information for New York's K-12 Public School System
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 14,675 0.54% 1.10%
Asian 226,656 8.38% 4.68%
African American 500,175 18.49% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 5,214 0.19% 0.42%
Hispanic 630,920 23.33% 24.37%
White 1,304,500 48.23% 51.21%
Two or More 22,578 0.83% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A majority of New York students attend city or suburban schools. This is the same in Massachusetts. However, in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, students are more likely to attend rural schools than city schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural Schools
New York 44.1% 35.3% 7.3% 13.2%
Massachusetts 20.8% 66.1% 2.2% 11.0%
New Jersey 7.2% 80.8% 2.0% 10.0%
Pennsylvania 19.2% 45.7% 12.1% 23.0%
U.S. average 28.9% 34.0% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

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Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania), New York had the lowest percentage of students score at or above proficient in math and reading in fourth grade and eighth grade.[11]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
New York 40 32 37 35
Massachusetts 58 55 47 48
New Jersey 49 49 42 46
Pennsylvania 44 42 40 42
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state and ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for New York and surrounding states.[11][12][13]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
New York 77% Fourth 23.3 29% 1463 76%
Massachusetts 85% Second 24.1 23% 1553 83%
New Jersey 86% First 23.4 20% 1521 78%
Pennsylvania 84% Second 22.4 18% 1480 71%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for New York was higher than the national average at 3.6 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 3.8 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[14]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in New York

New York has the sixth highest private school attendance rate in the United States. Other school choice options in the state include charter schools, homeschooling, online learning and voluntary inter-district public school open enrollment.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: New York state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 19.8 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. This is down 1.1 percentage points, a 5.3 percent decrease in the share of the budget from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 20.9 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[15][16][17][18][19] Just over half of New York's education revenue comes from local funding. State funding accounts for just over 40 percent, and federal funding accounts for approximately nine percent.

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
New York 19.8% $19,076 8.9% 40.27% 50.82%
Massachusetts 10.7% $13,941 7.85% 37.91% 54.24%
New Jersey 24.7% $15,968 5.14% 37.06% 57.8%
Pennsylvania 18.4% $13,467 12.74% 34.2% 53.06%
Sources:NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in New York totaled approximately $57.6 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for New York and surrounding states.[20]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
New York $5,127,425 $23,189,453 $29,266,236 $57,583,114
Massachusetts $1,197,383 $5,783,240 $8,275,257 $15,255,880
New Jersey $1,320,021 $9,521,328 $14,847,190 $25,688,539
Pennsylvania $3,469,273 $9,309,365 $14,444,802 $27,223,440
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in New York totaled approximately $58.5 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for New York and surrounding states.[20]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
New York $51,203,701 $4,655,961 $2,680,715 $58,540,377
Massachusetts $12,894,969 $817,228 $767,052 $14,479,249
New Jersey $22,686,943 $930,701 $1,393,507 $25,011,151
Pennsylvania $23,541,287 $2,269,812 $1,477,788 $27,288,887
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in New York, the average salary increased by eight percent.[21]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
New York $69,723 $76,464 $74,620 $75,279 8.0%
Massachusetts $63,656 $73,945 $72,915 $73,129 14.9%
New Jersey $71,083 $69,523 $68,194 $68,797 -3.2%
Pennsylvania $66,035 $63,146 $62,965 $63,521 -3.8%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012, the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. New York ranked ninth overall, or strongest, which was in the first tier of five.[22]

The main union related to the New York school system is the New York State United Teachers (NYSUT), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA).

List of local New York school unions:[23]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: New York government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the New York State School Boards Association.

Transparency

The state of New York has two transparency resources that monitor government spending: Open Book New York, created by State Comptroller Thomas DiNapoli, and Project Sunlight, created by State Attorney General Andrew Cuomo.

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of New York ballot measures


Ballotpedia staff have tracked 3 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. New York Bonds for School Technology Act, Proposal 3 (2014)
  2. New York Proposal 2, Small City School Districts Excluded from Debt Limits (2003)
  3. New York School Bonds, Proposal 3 (1997)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "New York + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

York+education&um=1&ie=UTF-8&output=rss New York Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 New York State Education Department, "About the New York State Education Department," accessed June 2, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed July 12, 2014
  9. Engage NY, "Common Core Implementation Timeline," accessed June 17, 2014
  10. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  11. 11.0 11.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  12. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  14. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. 20.0 20.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  21. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  22. Thomas E Fordham Institute, "How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  23. Center for Union Facts, "New York teachers unions," accessed September 4, 2009