Public education in North Dakota

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K-12 Education in North Dakota
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Kirsten Baesler
Number of students: 97,646[1]
Number of teachers: 8,525
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:11.5
Number of school districts: 223
Number of schools: 513
Graduation rate: 87%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $11,420[3]
See also
North Dakota Department of EducationNorth Dakota school districtsList of school districts in North DakotaNorth DakotaSchool boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in North Dakota
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The North Dakota public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 North Dakota had 97,646 students enrolled in a total of 513 schools in 223 school districts. There were 8,525 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 12 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 216 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average North Dakota spent $11,420 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 18th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 87 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
North Dakota Superintendent of Public Instruction
North Dakota school districts
List of school districts in North Dakota
Public education in North Dakota
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction reads:[6]
DPI will partner with schools and communities to provide a statewide system of excellent service and support to ensure a healthy school environment that fosters student success.[7]

The Superintendent of Public Instruction is the chief administrator of the Department of Public Instruction. The Superintendent of Public Instruction is elected to four-year terms. The current officeholder is Kirsten Baesler.[8][9]

The State Board of Public School Education is responsible for "final approval of all school district reorganizations, annexations and dissolution plans." Board members serve six-year terms. The board is comprised of seven members, six of whom are appointed by the governor. The composition of the board is as follows:[10][11]

  • The Superintendent of Public Instruction
  • A representative for Barnes, Cass, Grand Forks, Griggs, Nelson, Steele, and Trail Counties
  • A representative for Benson, Bottineau, Cavalier, McHenry, Pembina, Pierce, Ramsey, Renville, Rolette, Towner, and Walsh Counties
  • A representative for Dickey, Emmons, LaMoure, Logan, McIntosh, Ransom, Richland, and Sargent Counties
  • A representative for Burleigh, Eddy, Foster, Kidder, McLean, Sheridan, Stutsman, and Wells Counties
  • A representative for Burke, Divide, McKenzie, Mountrail, Ward, and Williams Counties
  • A representative for Adams, Billings, Bowman, Dunn, Golden Valley, Grant, Hettinger, Mercer, Morton, Oliver, Sioux, Slope, and Stark Counties

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The North Dakota Department of Public Instruction adopted the standards on June 20, 2011. Full implementation took place during the 2013-2014 academic year.[12][13]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how North Dakota compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
North Dakota 513 223 97,646 8,525 1:11.5 1:216.4 $11,420
Montana 826 500 142,349 10,153 1:14 1:274 $10,639
South Dakota 704 171 128,016 9,247 1:13.8 1:309.8 $8,805
Wyoming 354 61 90,099 7,847 1:11.5 1:248.3 $15,849
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 16 295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in North Dakota as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[14]

Demographic information for North Dakota's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 8,866 9.08% 1.10%
Asian 1,134 1.16% 4.68%
African American 2,549 2.61% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 220 0.23% 0.42%
Hispanic 2,783 2.85% 24.37%
White 81,237 83.20% 51.21%
Two or more 857 0.88% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in North Dakota attend rural schools. More than 65 percent of the state's students attend rural or town schools, compared to approximately 35 percent who attend city or suburban schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
North Dakota 26% 8.9% 20.2% 45%
Montana 23.8% 1.9% 35% 39.4%
South Dakota 25.8% 0.8% 27% 46.5%
Wyoming 22.8% 1.7% 42.3% 33.2%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceAdaptive softwareBlended learningCarnegie unitCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateDual enrollmentEnglish Language LearnersFree or reduced-price lunchGlobal competence learningHomeschoolingImmersion learningKhan AcademyLocal education agencyMagnet schoolsNAEPOnline learningParent trigger lawsProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool choiceSchool vouchersTeacher merit payVirtual charter schools
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming), North Dakota has the highest share of eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in math.[15]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
North Dakota 48 41 34 34
Montana 45 40 35 40
South Dakota 40 38 32 36
Wyoming 48 38 37 38
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for North Dakota and surrounding states.[15][16][17]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
North Dakota 87% First 20.7 100% 1,799 2%
Montana 84% Second 22 61% 1,595 25%
South Dakota 83% Second 21.8 81% 1,760 3%
Wyoming 79% Third 20.3 100% 1,757 4%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for North Dakota was on par with the national average at 3.3 percent in the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout rate was lower than the national average at three percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[18]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in North Dakota

School choice options in North Dakota include: inter-district open enrollment and online learning programs. In addition, about 7.05 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: North Dakota state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 13.8 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 0.70 percentage points, or 4.8 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 14.5 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[19][20][21][22][23]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
North Dakota 13.8% $11,420 14.8% 49.93% 35.27%
Montana 15.5% $10,639 16.35% 44.1% 39.55%
South Dakota 14.3% $8,805 20.26% 28.93% 50.81%
Wyoming 3.9% $15,849 9.41% 53.37% 37.22%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in North Dakota totaled approximately $1.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for North Dakota and surrounding states.[24]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
North Dakota $186,844 $630,430 $445,402 $1,262,676
Montana $264,594 $713,886 $640,138 $1,618,618
South Dakota $262,395 $374,648 $658,100 $1,295,143
Wyoming $154,955 $878,979 $612,931 $1,646,865
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in North Dakota totaled approximately $1.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for North Dakota and surrounding states.[24]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
North Dakota $1,099,271 $124,967 $28,501 $1,252,739
Montana $1,506,467 $103,728 $25,691 $1,635,886
South Dakota $1,105,964 $199,636 $34,799 $1,340,399
Wyoming $1,397,339 $234,408 $10,504 $1,642,251
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.
Note: Salaries given are averages for the state. Within states there can be great variation in salaries between urban, suburban and rural districts. When comparing nominal teachers' salaries it is important to remember that for a true comparison salaries must be adjusted for the cost of living in each area. Thus, for example, when adjusted for cost of living, Los Angeles drops from second highest to 17th highest; New York City drops even further, from third highest to 59th out of 60.[25]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in North Dakota, the average salary increased by 16 percent.[26]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
North Dakota $40,810 $45,862 $46,825 $47,344 16%
Montana $43,896 $48,845 $49,354 $49,999 13.9%
South Dakota $39,728 $41,456 $39,450 $39,580 -0.4%
Wyoming $46,638 $59,628 $58,174 $57,920 24.2%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. North Dakota ranked 24th overall, or "average," which was in the third of five tiers.[27]

The main union related to the North Dakota school system is the North Dakota Education Association (NDEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA). For the 2003 tax period NDEA had: $2.22 million in total revenue, $2.22 million in total expenses and $2.42 million in total assets.[28]

List of local North Dakota school unions:[29]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: North Dakota government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the North Dakota School Boards Association. Another statewide association is the North Dakota Retired Teachers Association.

Transparency

In May 2009, legislation (Senate Bill 2018) passed that mandated the creation of a statewide spending transparency website by June 30, 2011.[30]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of North Dakota ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked 55 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. North Dakota Acquiring School Lands Referendum (1912)
  2. North Dakota Agricultural College Name Change Initiative, Amendment 3 (1960)
  3. North Dakota Agricultural and Educational Funding Separation, Referendum 1 (1964)
  4. North Dakota Agricultural and Educational Funding Separation, Referendum 2 (1962)
  5. North Dakota Basis of Need Payments State Equalization Fund Initiative (1940)
  6. North Dakota Board of Administration Referendum (1919)
  7. North Dakota Board of Higher Education, Measure 2 (1988)
  8. North Dakota Board of Higher Education, Measure 2 (1994)
  9. North Dakota Board of Higher Education Initiative (1938)
  10. North Dakota Board of Higher Education Members, Measure 3 (1990)
  11. North Dakota Board of Higher Education Membership, Measure 1 (1996)
  12. North Dakota Board of Higher Education Nominating Committee Referendum, Measure 5 (1982)
  13. North Dakota Board of Higher Education Qualifications and Compensation Referendum, Amendment 1 (1976)
  14. North Dakota Boards of Education Referendum, Amendment 5 (1976)
  15. North Dakota Change Name of Agricultural College, Initiative 4 (1958)
  16. North Dakota Commission of Higher Education Amendment, Measure 3 (2014)
  17. North Dakota Common Schools Trust Fund, Constitutional Measure 1 (2006)
  18. North Dakota County Superintendents Referendum, Number 2 (1966)
  19. North Dakota Dickinson Normal School Referendum (1916)
  20. North Dakota Earmarking Sales Tax for Schools and Relief Initiative (1940)
  21. North Dakota Ellendale Branch Repeal Referendum, Amendment 2 (1972)
  22. North Dakota Final Offer Resolution, Measure 3 (1992)
  23. North Dakota Healthcare Education Program, Measure 8 (1989)
  24. North Dakota Higher Education Costs Referendum, Number 1 (1968)
  25. North Dakota Higher Education Institution References, Measure 1 (1998)
  26. North Dakota Investment of Institutional Trust Funds Referendum, Amendment 3 (1970)
  27. North Dakota Investment of Permanent School Fund Referendum, Amendment 2 (1950)
  28. North Dakota Investment of School Fund Referendum (1908)
  29. North Dakota Junior College Control Initiative, Measure 4 (1984)
  30. North Dakota Location of School for the Blind Referendum, Amendment 3 (1952)
  31. North Dakota Maximum School Taxes Initiative (1934)
  32. North Dakota Minot Normal School Referendum (1910)
  33. North Dakota Minot State College Name Change Referendum, Measure 3 (1984)
  34. North Dakota Prohibiting School Teachers Religious Dress, Initiative 1 (1948)
  35. North Dakota Reallocating Basis of Need Payments Initiative (1940)
  36. North Dakota Reform School Referendum (1920)
  37. North Dakota Removal School for the Blind Referendum, Amendment 1 (1950)
  38. North Dakota Repeal of Teachers Minimum Training and Salary Initiative (1922)
  39. North Dakota Sales Tax Increase for Education, Measure 4 (1990)
  40. North Dakota Sales Tax for Schools and Relief Initiative (1940)
  41. North Dakota Scholarship Board and Fund, Initiative 2 (1956)
  42. North Dakota School Board Proceedings Publication Initiative, Number 5 (1966)
  43. North Dakota School District Reorganization, Initiative 5 (1958)
  44. North Dakota School District Taxes, Referendum 5 (1963)
  45. North Dakota School Funds Referendum (1920)
  46. North Dakota School Trust Fund Deposit and Use Referendum, Measure 3 (1982)
  47. North Dakota School Year Begins After Labor Day Initiative, Measure 8 (2014)
  48. North Dakota School for the Blind Construction Appropriation, Initiative 3 (1958)
  49. North Dakota State Board of Higher Education Membership, Measure 1 (2000)
  50. North Dakota State Loan Fund Issue (1955)
  51. North Dakota Tax Allocation, Initiative 4 (1954)
  52. North Dakota Teacher Certification Initiative (1920)
  53. North Dakota University "Fighting Sioux" Referendum, Measure 4 (June 2012)
  54. North Dakota Williston Educational Institution, Referendum 6 (1956)
  55. North Dakota Youth Initiative, Initiated Statutory Measure 3 (2002)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

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All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

North Dakota Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, "About DPI," accessed June 3, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. North Dakota Constitution, "Article V, Section 2," accessed June 3, 2014
  9. North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, "State Superintendent," accessed June 3, 2014
  10. North Dakota Century Code, "Title 15.1, Chapter 15.1-01-01," accessed June 3, 2014
  11. North Dakota Office of the Governor, "Boards and Commissions, State Board of Public School Education," accessed June 3, 2014
  12. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
  13. North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, "Common Core State Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
  14. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  15. 15.0 15.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  17. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  18. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  23. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  24. 24.0 24.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  25. Maciver Institute, "REPORT: How much are teachers really paid?," accessed October 29, 2014
  26. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  27. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  28. Center for Union Facts, "North Dakota Education Association," accessed April 20, 2010
  29. Center for Union Facts, "North Dakota teachers unions," accessed April 20, 2010 (dead link)
  30. North Dakota Policy Council, "State to post expenditures online," May 10, 2009