Public education in Ohio

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K-12 Education in Ohio
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Richard Ross
Number of students: 1,740,030[1]
Number of teachers: 107,972
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:16.1
Number of school districts: 1,079
Number of schools: 3,714
Graduation rate: 81%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $11,223[3]
See also
Ohio Department of EducationList of school districts in OhioOhioSchool boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Ohio
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Ohio public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Ohio had 1,740,030 students enrolled in a total of 3,714 schools in 1,079 school districts. There were 107,972 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 16 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 329 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Ohio spent $11,223 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 19th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 81 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Ohio Superintendent of Public Instruction
List of school districts in Ohio
Public education in Ohio
School board elections portal
The Ohio Department of Education manages the state's public education system. Specific responsibilities include:[6]
  • "Administering the school funding system"
  • "Collecting school fiscal and performance data"
  • "Developing academic standards and model curricula"
  • "Administering the state achievement tests"
  • "Issuing district and school report cards"
  • "Administering Ohio’s voucher programs"
  • "Providing professional development"
  • "Licensing teachers, administrators, treasurers, superintendents and other education personnel"

The Superintendent of Public Instruction is the chief administrator of the Department of Education. The Superintendent of Public Instruction is appointed by and serves at the pleasure of the State Board of Education. The current officeholder is Richard Ross.[7]

The State Board of Education sets K-12 education policy in Ohio. The board's vision statement reads:[8]

The State Board of Education’s vision is for all Ohio students to graduate from the PK-12 education system with the knowledge, skills and behaviors necessary to successfully continue their education and/or be workforce ready and successfully participate in the global economy as productive citizens. Ultimately, all students will graduate well prepared for success.[9]

The board is composed of 19 members, 11 of whom are elected by district and eight of whom are appointed to serve at-large by the governor.[8]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Ohio State Board of Education adopted the standards on June 18, 2010. Full implementation took place during the 2013-2014 academic year.[10][11]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Ohio compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Ohio 3,714 1,079 1,740,030 107,972 1:16.1 1:328.6 $11,223
Indiana 1,933 394 1,040,765 62,339 1:16.7 1:332.9 $9,370
Michigan 3,550 869 1,573,537 86,997 1:18.1 1:336.2 $10,823
Pennsylvania 3,181 784 1,771,395 124,646 1:14.2 1:334.6 $13,467
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 16 295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Ohio as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[12]

Demographic information for Ohio's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 2,442 0.14% 1.10%
Asian 30,923 1.78% 4.68%
African American 281,996 16.21% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 787 0.05% 0.42%
Hispanic 66,120 3.80% 24.37%
White 1,282,799 73.72% 51.21%
Two or more 74,963 4.31% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Ohio attend suburban schools. More than 59 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 31 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Ohio 19.7% 39.6% 13.5% 27.3%
Indiana 27.9% 23.2% 14.7% 34.1%
Michigan 23.8% 40.2% 11.4% 24.6%
Pennsylvania 19.2% 45.7% 12.1% 23%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD) (timed out)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceAdaptive softwareBlended learningCarnegie unitCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateDual enrollmentEnglish Language LearnersFree or reduced-price lunchGlobal competence learningHomeschoolingImmersion learningKhan AcademyLocal education agencyMagnet schoolsNAEPOnline learningParent trigger lawsProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool choiceSchool vouchersTeacher merit payVirtual charter schools
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Indiana, Michigan, and Pennsylvania), Ohio has the second highest share of eighth graders who scored at or above proficient in reading.[13]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Ohio 48 40 37 39
Indiana 52 38 38 35
Michigan 37 30 31 33
Pennsylvania 44 42 40 42
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

pChart

Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Ohio and surrounding states.[13][14][15]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Ohio 81% Third 21.8 71% 1,635 1,63%
Indiana 86% First 22.3 32% 1,470 70%
Michigan 76% Fourth 20.1 100% 1,782 4%
Pennsylvania 84% Second 22.4 18% 1,480 71%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Ohio was higher than the national average at 4.4 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 4.6 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[16]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Ohio

School choice options in Ohio include: charter schools, voucher programs, intra-district and inter-district open enrollment policies and online learning programs. In addition, about 11.26 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Ohio state budget and finances
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 20.6 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is up 1.40 percentage points, or 7.3 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 19.2 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[17][18][19][20][21]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Ohio 20.6% $11,223 11.65% 44.31% 44.04%
Indiana 32.9% $9,370 8.8% 62.12% 29.08%
Michigan 27.2% $10,823 13.75% 55.03% 31.22%
Pennsylvania 18.4% $13,467 12.74% 34.2% 53.06%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Ohio totaled approximately $23.7 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Ohio and surrounding states.[22]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Ohio $2,762,051 $10,510,451 $10,446,108 $23,718,610
Indiana $1,059,777 $7,483,801 $3,503,856 $12,047,434
Michigan $2,677,078 $10,710,646 $6,075,517 $19,463,241
Pennsylvania $3,469,273 $9,309,365 $14,444,802 $27,223,440
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Ohio totaled approximately $23.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Ohio and surrounding states.[22]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Ohio $19,673,291 $2,516,739 $1,068,376 $23,258,406
Indiana $9,769,064 $881,151 $423,657 $11,073,872
Michigan $16,728,164 $1,334,386 $1,269,168 $19,331,718
Pennsylvania $23,541,287 $2,269,812 $1,477,788 $27,288,887
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

pChart

Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.
Note: Salaries given are averages for the state. Within states there can be great variation in salaries between urban, suburban and rural districts. When comparing nominal teachers' salaries, it is important to remember that for a true comparison, salaries must be adjusted for the cost of living in each area. For example, when adjusted for cost of living, Los Angeles drops from second highest to 17th highest; New York City drops even further, from third highest to 59th out of 60.[23]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Ohio, the average salary increased by 2.6 percent.[24]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Ohio $56,626 $59,732 $57,659 $58,092 2.6%
Indiana $57,192 $53,357 $51,357 $51,456 -10%
Michigan $67,023 $61,867 $62,585 $61,560 -8.2%
Pennsylvania $66,035 $63,146 $62,965 $63,521 -3.8%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Ohio ranked 12th overall, or "strong," which was in the second of five tiers.[25]

The main unions related to the Ohio school system are the Ohio Education Association (OHEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and the Ohio Federation of Teachers, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers. For the 2003 tax period OHEA had: $50.9 million in total revenue, $46.9 million in total expenses and $43.78 million in total assets.[26] For the 2003 tax period Ohio Federation of Teachers had: $1.11 million in total revenue, $974,268 in total expenses and $1.24 million in total assets.[27]

List of local Ohio school unions:[28]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Ohio government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Ohio School Boards Association.

Transparency

In the 2007-2008 General Assembly regular session, the legislature approved House Bill 420, which proposed making statewide expenditures available on an online spending database.[29]

Studies and reports

Quality Counts 2014

See also: Quality Counts 2014 Report

Education Week, a publication that reports on many education issues throughout the country, began using an evaluation system in 1997 to grade each state on various elements of education performance. This system, called Quality Counts, uses official data on performance from each state to generate a report card for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report card in 2014 uses six different categories:

  1. Chance for success
  2. K-12 achievement
  3. Standards, assessments and accountability
  4. The teaching profession
  5. School finance
  6. Transitions and Alignment

Each of these six categories had a number of other elements that received individual scores. Those scores were then averaged and used to determine the final score in each category. Every state received two types of scores for each of the six major categories: A numerical score out of 100 and a letter grade based on that score. Education Week used the score for the first category, "chance for success," as the value for ranking each state and the District of Columbia. The average grade received in the entire country was 77.3, or a C+ average. The country's highest average score was in the category of "standards, assessments and accountability" at 85.3, or a B average. The lowest average score was in "K-12 achievement", at 70.2, or a C- average.

Ohio received a score of 78.6, or a C+ average in the "chance for success" category. This was above the national average. The state's highest score was in "standards, assessments and accountability" at 96.1, or an A average. The lowest score was in "K-12 achievement" at 71.3, or a C- average. Ohio had the fourth highest score in the "standards, assessments and accountability" category in the country. The chart below displays the scores of Ohio and its surrounding states.[30]

Note: Click on a column heading to sort the data.

Public education report cards, 2014
State Chance for success K-12 achievement Standards, assessments and accountability The teaching profession School finance Transitions and Alignment
Ohio 78.6 (C+) 71.3 (C-) 96.1 (A) 76.4 (C) 77.2 (C+) 78.6 (C+)
Indiana 77.3 (C+) 72.8 (C) 97.8 (A) 63.1 (D) 71.6 (C-) 89.3 (B+)
Michigan 75.3 (C) 63.8 (D) 91.6 (A-) 74.8 (C) 74.9 (C) 82.1 (B-)
Pennsylvania 82.6 (B) 75.6 (C) 77.7 (C+) 74.6 (C) 82.0 (B-) 78.6 (C+)
United States Average 77.3 (C+) 70.2 (C-) 85.3 (B) 72.5 (C) 75.5 (C) 81.1 (B-)
Source: Education Week, "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 18, 2015

A full discussion of how these numbers were generated can be found here.

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states that spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

School districts

See also: School board elections portal

District types

Ohio has a number of different types of school districts, including:[31]

  • City school districts
  • Local school districts
  • Exempted village school districts
  • Joint vocational school districts

City, local and exempted village school districts are governed by elected school boards with the power to levy taxes and issue bonds with voter approval. Joint vocational school districts are established by two or more regular school districts. The joint vocational school district board can either be governed by members from the participating school districts' boards or, if it located within one county, by the county's educational service center board.[31]

District statistics

See also: List of school districts in Ohio

The following table displays the state's top 10 school districts by total student enrollment, Academic Performance Index (API) scores and per-pupil spending:[32][33][34]

Student enrollment, 2011-2012 Academic Performance Index scores, 2011-2012 Per-pupil spending, 2010-2011
1.) Columbus City 1.) Wyoming City 1.) Put-in-Bay Local
2.) Cleveland Metropolitan 2.) Madeira City 2.) Orange High
3.) Cincinnati 3.) Solon City 3.) Switzerland of Ohio Local
4.) Toledo 4.) Indian Hill Exempted Village 4.) Beachwood City
5.) Akron 5.) Rocky River City 5.) Cleveland Heights-University Heights
6.) South-Western City 6.) Ottawa Hills Local 6.) Cuyahoga Heights
7.) Lakota Local 7.) Mason City 7.) Danbury Local
8.) Olentangy Local 8.) Oakwood City 8.) East Cleveland City
9.) Hilliard City 9.) Marion Local 9.) Shaker Heights City
10.) Dayton 10.) Sycamore Community 10.) Youngstown City

School board composition

School board members are most often elected to their positions, although there are some cases, such as a vacancy on a board, in which a member will be appointed to the position.[31] Most school boards have five members, but larger school districts have seven. They are elected during odd-numbered years, and serve four-year terms. The terms are staggered so that nearly half of the members are up for election each election year.[35]

Term limits

Ohio does not impose statewide term limits on school boards.[36]

Elections

See also: Ohio school board elections, 2014 and Ohio school board elections, 2015

A total of 19 Ohio school districts among America's largest school districts by enrollment will hold elections for 47 seats in 2015. All of the districts will hold their elections on November 3, 2015.

Here are several quick facts about Ohio's school board elections in 2015:

  • The largest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 is Columbus City Schools with 50,384 K-12 students.
  • The smallest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 is Northwest Local School District with 9,197 K-12 students.
  • Columbus City Schools and South-Western City Schools are tied for the most seats on the ballot in 2015 with four seats up for election each.
  • Twelve districts are tied for the fewest seats on the ballot in 2015 with two seats up for election each.

The districts listed below served 320,378 K-12 students during the 2012-2013 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Click on the district names for more information on the district and its school board elections.

2015 Ohio School Board Elections
District Date Seats up for election Total board seats Student enrollment
Akron Public Schools 11/3/2015 3 7 22,394
Canton City Schools 11/3/2015 3 5 9,612
Cincinnati Public Schools 11/3/2015 3 7 31,615
Columbus City Schools 11/3/2015 4 7 50,384
Dayton Public Schools 11/3/2015 3 7 14,357
Dublin City Schools 11/3/2015 2 5 14,627
Fairfield City School District 11/3/2015 2 5 9,703
Hamilton City School District 11/3/2015 2 5 9,868
Hilliard City Schools 11/3/2015 2 5 15,435
Lakota Local Schools 11/3/2015 2 5 16,526
Mason City School District 11/3/2015 2 5 10,836
Northwest Local School District 11/3/2015 2 5 9,197
Olentangy Local School District 11/3/2015 3 5 17,383
Parma City School District 11/3/2015 2 5 11,315
Pickerington Local School District 11/3/2015 2 5 10,061
South-Western City Schools 11/3/2015 4 5 20,906
Toledo Public Schools 11/3/2015 2 5 22,107
Westerville City School District 11/3/2015 2 5 14,629
Worthington Schools 11/3/2015 2 5 9,423

Path to the ballot

In order to qualify as a school board candidate in Ohio, an individual must be:

  • A U.S. citizen
  • At least 18 years old
  • A resident of the state and the corresponding school district for at least 30 days before the election
  • A registered voter in the school district the candidate seeks to represent

To get on the ballot, a school board candidate must file a petition by the 90th day prior to the election with the local board of elections and pay a filing fee.[35][37]

Campaign finance

Candidates must file itemized statements disclosing campaign contributions and expenditures. In addition to that, any member or candidate of a school board that has 12,000 or more students enrolled in the school district must file an annual financial disclosure statement with the Ohio Ethics Commission. This statement is due by April 15 each year for members not up for election and due 30 days before the election for those running, both new candidates and incumbents.[35]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Ohio ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked the following statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Ohio Boards of Education Organization, Amendment 27 (September 1912)
  2. Ohio Higher Education Amendment, Issue 3 (1994)
  3. Ohio Higher Education Loans, Amendment 1 (May 1965)
  4. Ohio Issue 1, Bonds for Education (1999)
  5. Ohio Issue 1, Lottery Proceeds for Education (1987)
  6. Ohio Issue 1, School Bonds Act (May 1998)
  7. Ohio Issue 2, Sales Tax Increase Act (May 1998)
  8. Ohio State Board of Education, Amendment 1 (1939)
  9. Ohio State Board of Education, Amendment 2 (1953)
  10. Ohio Superintendent of Public Instruction, Amendment 28 (September 1912)
  11. Ohio Tax Increase for School Foundation Program, Initiative 1 (1965)

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Ohio + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Ohio Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Ohio Department of Education, "About ODE," accessed June 3, 2014
  7. Ohio Revised Code, "Title 33, Chapter 3301, Section 8," accessed June 3, 2014
  8. 8.0 8.1 Ohio Department of Education, "About the State Board of Education," accessed June 3, 2014
  9. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
  11. Ohio Department of Education, "Ohio's New Learning Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
  12. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  16. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014 (timed out)
  23. Maciver Institute, "REPORT: How much are teachers really paid?," accessed October 29, 2014
  24. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  25. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  26. Center for Union Facts, "Ohio Education Association," accessed March 28, 2010
  27. Center for Union Facts, "Ohio Federation of Teachers," accessed March 28, 2010
  28. Center for Union Facts, "Ohio teachers unions," accessed March 28, 2010
  29. Ohio Legislature, "HB 420 Bill Analyses," accessed March 28, 2010
  30. Education Week "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 19, 2015
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 United States Census Bureau, "Ohio," accessed July 10, 2014
  32. Ohio Department of Education, "Download Data," accessed August 12, 2013
  33. Ohio Department of Education, "Enrollment Data," accessed August 12, 2013
  34. StateImpact, "See How Much Each Ohio School District Spends Per Student," accessed August 12, 2013
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Ohio School Boards Association, "Candidate for School Boards," accessed July 10, 2014
  36. National School Boards Association, "Survey of the State School Boards Associations on Term Limits for Local Board Members," accessed July 10, 2014
  37. Ohio Revised Code, "Section 3513.254: Nomination for members of board of education," accessed July 10, 2014