Public education in Ohio

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K-12 Education in Ohio
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Richard Ross
Number of students: 1,740,030[1]
Number of teachers: 107,972
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:16.1
Number of school districts: 1,079
Number of schools: 3,714
Graduation rate: 81%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $11,223[3]
See also
Ohio Department of Education
Ohio school districts
List of school districts in Ohio
Ohio
School boards portal
Policypedia
Education policy logo.jpg
Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Ohio
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Ohio public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Ohio had 1,740,030 students enrolled in a total of 3,714 schools in 1,079 school districts. There were 107,972 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 16 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 329 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Ohio spent $11,223 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 19th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 81 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Ohio Superintendent of Public Instruction
Ohio school districts
List of school districts in Ohio
Public education in Ohio
School board elections portal
The Ohio Department of Education manages the state's public education system. Specific responsibilities include:[6]
  • "Administering the school funding system"
  • "Collecting school fiscal and performance data"
  • "Developing academic standards and model curricula"
  • "Administering the state achievement tests"
  • "Issuing district and school report cards"
  • "Administering Ohio’s voucher programs"
  • "Providing professional development"
  • "Licensing teachers, administrators, treasurers, superintendents and other education personnel"

The Superintendent of Public Instruction is the chief administrator of the Department of Education. The Superintendent of Public Instruction is appointed by and serves at the pleasure of the State Board of Education. The current officeholder is Richard Ross.[7]

The State Board of Education sets K-12 education policy in Ohio. The board's vision statement reads:[8]

The State Board of Education’s vision is for all Ohio students to graduate from the PK-12 education system with the knowledge, skills and behaviors necessary to successfully continue their education and/or be workforce ready and successfully participate in the global economy as productive citizens. Ultimately, all students will graduate well prepared for success.[9]

The board is comprised of 19 members, 11 of whom are elected by district and eight of whom are appointed to serve at-large by the governor.[8]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Ohio State Board of Education adopted the standards on June 18, 2010. Full implementation took place during the 2013-2014 academic year.[10][11]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Ohio compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Ohio 3,714 1,079 1,740,030 107,972 1:16.1 1:328.6 $11,223
Indiana 1,933 394 1,040,765 62,339 1:16.7 1:332.9 $9,370
Michigan 3,550 869 1,573,537 86,997 1:18.1 1:336.2 $10,823
Pennsylvania 3,181 784 1,771,395 124,646 1:14.2 1:334.6 $13,467
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 16 295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Ohio as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[12]

Demographic information for Ohio's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 2,442 0.14% 1.10%
Asian 30,923 1.78% 4.68%
African American 281,996 16.21% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 787 0.05% 0.42%
Hispanic 66,120 3.80% 24.37%
White 1,282,799 73.72% 51.21%
Two or more 74,963 4.31% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Ohio attend suburban schools. More than 59 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 31 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Ohio 19.7% 39.6% 13.5% 27.3%
Indiana 27.9% 23.2% 14.7% 34.1%
Michigan 23.8% 40.2% 11.4% 24.6%
Pennsylvania 19.2% 45.7% 12.1% 23%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Indiana, Michigan, and Pennsylvania), Ohio has the second highest share of eighth graders who scored at or above proficient in reading.[13]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Ohio 48 40 37 39
Indiana 52 38 38 35
Michigan 37 30 31 33
Pennsylvania 44 42 40 42
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Ohio and surrounding states.[13][14][15]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Ohio 81% Third 21.8 71% 1,635 1,63%
Indiana 86% First 22.3 32% 1,470 70%
Michigan 76% Fourth 20.1 100% 1,782 4%
Pennsylvania 84% Second 22.4 18% 1,480 71%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Ohio was higher than the national average at 4.4 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 4.6 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[16]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Ohio

School choice options in Ohio include: charter schools, voucher programs, intra-district and inter-district open enrollment policies and online learning programs. In addition, about 11.26 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Ohio state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 20.6 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is up 1.40 percentage points, or 7.3 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 19.2 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[17][18][19][20][21]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Ohio 20.6% $11,223 11.65% 44.31% 44.04%
Indiana 32.9% $9,370 8.8% 62.12% 29.08%
Michigan 27.2% $10,823 13.75% 55.03% 31.22%
Pennsylvania 18.4% $13,467 12.74% 34.2% 53.06%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Ohio totaled approximately $23.7 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Ohio and surrounding states.[22]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Ohio $2,762,051 $10,510,451 $10,446,108 $23,718,610
Indiana $1,059,777 $7,483,801 $3,503,856 $12,047,434
Michigan $2,677,078 $10,710,646 $6,075,517 $19,463,241
Pennsylvania $3,469,273 $9,309,365 $14,444,802 $27,223,440
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Ohio totaled approximately $23.3 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Ohio and surrounding states.[22]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Ohio $19,673,291 $2,516,739 $1,068,376 $23,258,406
Indiana $9,769,064 $881,151 $423,657 $11,073,872
Michigan $16,728,164 $1,334,386 $1,269,168 $19,331,718
Pennsylvania $23,541,287 $2,269,812 $1,477,788 $27,288,887
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Ohio, the average salary increased by 2.6 percent.[23]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Ohio $56,626 $59,732 $57,659 $58,092 2.6%
Indiana $57,192 $53,357 $51,357 $51,456 -10%
Michigan $67,023 $61,867 $62,585 $61,560 -8.2%
Pennsylvania $66,035 $63,146 $62,965 $63,521 -3.8%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Ohio ranked 12th overall, or "strong," which was in the second of five tiers.[24]

The main unions related to the Ohio school system are the Ohio Education Association (OHEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and the Ohio Federation of Teachers, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers. For the 2003 tax period OHEA had: $50.9 million in total revenue, $46.9 million in total expenses and $43.78 million in total assets.[25] For the 2003 tax period Ohio Federation of Teachers had: $1.11 million in total revenue, $974,268 in total expenses and $1.24 million in total assets.[26]

List of local Ohio school unions:[27]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Ohio government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Ohio School Boards Association.

Transparency

In the 2007-2008 General Assembly regular session, the legislature approved House Bill 420, which proposed making statewide expenditures available on an online spending database.[28]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Ohio ballot measures


Ballotpedia staff have tracked 12 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Ohio Boards of Education Organization, Amendment 27 (September 1912)
  2. Ohio Bonds for Public Improvements, Issue 1 (1963)
  3. Ohio Higher Education Amendment, Issue 3 (1994)
  4. Ohio Issue 1, Bonds for Education (1999)
  5. Ohio Issue 1, Higher Education Loans (May 1965)
  6. Ohio Issue 1, Lottery Proceeds for Education (1987)
  7. Ohio Issue 1, School Bonds Act (May 1998)
  8. Ohio Issue 2, Sales Tax Increase Act (May 1998)
  9. Ohio State Board of Education, Amendment 1 (1939)
  10. Ohio State Board of Education, Issue 2 (1953)
  11. Ohio Superintendent of Public Instruction, Amendment 28 (September 1912)
  12. Ohio Tax Increase for School Foundation Program, Issue 1 (1965)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Ohio + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Ohio Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Ohio Department of Education, "About ODE," accessed June 3, 2014
  7. Ohio Revised Code, "Title 33, Chapter 3301, Section 8," accessed June 3, 2014
  8. 8.0 8.1 Ohio Department of Education, "About the State Board of Education," accessed June 3, 2014
  9. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
  11. Ohio Department of Education, "Ohio's New Learning Standards," accessed June 17, 2014
  12. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  13. 13.0 13.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  15. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  16. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  22. 22.0 22.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  25. Center for Union Facts, "Ohio Education Association," accessed March 28, 2010
  26. Center for Union Facts, "Ohio Federation of Teachers," accessed March 28, 2010
  27. Center for Union Facts, "Ohio teachers unions," accessed March 28, 2010
  28. Ohio Legislature, "HB 420 Bill Analyses," accessed March 28, 2010