Public education in Oregon
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- 1 State agencies
- 2 Regional comparison
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Academic performance
- 5 Educational choice options
- 6 Education funding and expenditures
- 7 Organizations
- 8 Taxpayer-funded lobbying
- 9 Transparency
- 10 Studies and reports
- 11 School districts
- 12 Education ballot measures
- 13 Recent news
- 14 See also
- 15 External links
- 16 References
List of school districts in Oregon
Public education in Oregon
School board elections portal
|“||The Oregon Department of Education fosters excellence for every learner through innovation, collaboration, leadership, and service to our education partners.||”|
The Superintendent of Public Instruction is the chief administrative officer of the Department of Education. The Superintendent of Public Instruction is appointed by the governor. The current officeholder is Rob Saxton.
The State Board of Education oversees public education in the state. The board is composed of seven members appointed by the governor and confirmed by the state senate. Members are appointed to four-year terms and can serve no more than two consecutive terms. Five members are selected from the state's congressional districts and two members are selected to represent the state at-large.
Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The Oregon State Board of Education adopted the standards on October 29, 2010. Full implementation is scheduled to be achieved in the 2014-2015 academic year.
- See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
- See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states
The following chart shows how Oregon compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.
|State||Schools||Districts||Students||Teachers||Teacher/pupil ratio||Administrator/pupil ratio||Per pupil spending|
| Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.|
National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Oregon as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.
|Demographic information for Oregon's K-12 public school system|
|Ethnicity||Students||State Percentage||United States Percentage**|
|Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students||3,690||0.65%||0.42%|
|Two or more||26,509||4.67%||2.54%|
|**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.|
Enrollments by region type
A plurality of students in Oregon attend city schools. Approximately 56 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 44 percent who attend rural or town schools.
|Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)|
|State||City schools||Suburban schools||Town schools||Rural schools|
|Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD) (timed out)|
- See also: NAEP scores by state
The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (California, Idaho, and Washington), Oregon has the second smallest share of eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in math.
|Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013|
|Math - Grade 4||Math - Grade 8||Reading - Grade 4||Reading - Grade 8|
|Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014|
|NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013|
Graduation, ACT and SAT scores
|Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*|
|State||Graduation rate, 2012||Average ACT Composite, 2012||Average SAT Composite, 2013|
|Percent||Quintile ranking**||Score||Participation rate||Score||Participation rate|
| *Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).|
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express
- See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states
The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Oregon was lower than the national average at 3.2 percent in the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout rate was higher than the national average at 3.4 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.
Educational choice options
- See also: School choice in Oregon
School choice options in Oregon include: charter schools, inter-district open enrollment policies and online learning programs. In addition, about 8.62 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.
Education funding and expenditures
- See also: Oregon state budget and finances
According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 14.0 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 3.10 percentage points, or 18.1 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 17.1 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.
|Comparison of financial figures for school systems|
|State||Percent of budget (2012)||Per pupil spending (2011)||Revenue sources (2011)|
|Percent federal funds||Percent state funds||Percent local funds|
| Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures |
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Oregon totaled approximately $6.1 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Oregon and surrounding states.
|Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)|
|Federal revenue||State revenue||Local revenue||Total revenue|
|Source: National Center for Education Statistics|
|Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)|
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Oregon totaled approximately $6.2 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Oregon and surrounding states.
|Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)|
|Current expenditures**||Capital outlay||Other***||Total expenditures|
| **Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.|
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
|Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)|
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Oregon, the average salary increased by 1.6 percent.
|Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)|
|**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."|
In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Oregon ranked second overall, or "strongest," which was in the first of five tiers.
The main unions related to the Oregon school system are the Oregon Education Association (OEA), an affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA), and AFT Oregon, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers. For the 2003 tax period OEA had: $18.85 million in total revenue, $16.32 million in total expenses and $34.59 million in total assets. For the 2003 tax period AFT Oregon had: $1.25 million in total revenue, $1.30 million in total expenses and $858,259 in total assets.
List of local Oregon school unions:
- Oregon Education Association
- AFT Oregon
- AFT Clackamas
- AFT Tigard (dead link)
- AFT Portland
- AFT Eugene
- AFT Hillsboro
- See also: Oregon government sector lobbying
The main education government sector lobbying organization is the Oregon School Boards Association.
In February 2009, a group of 27 legislators introduced a bill, the "Open Books Oregon Project," that required the state to create a searchable transparency website by January 1, 2010.The bill was approved by both the House and the Senate. The governor signed the bill on July 28, 2009.
Studies and reports
Quality Counts 2014
- See also: Quality Counts 2014 Report
Education Week, a publication that reports on many education issues throughout the country, began using an evaluation system in 1997 to grade each state on various elements of education performance. This system, called Quality Counts, uses official data on performance from each state to generate a report card for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report card in 2014 uses six different categories:
- Chance for success
- K-12 achievement
- Standards, assessments and accountability
- The teaching profession
- School finance
- Transitions and Alignment
Each of these six categories had a number of other elements that received individual scores. Those scores were then averaged and used to determine the final score in each category. Every state received two types of scores for each of the six major categories: A numerical score out of 100 and a letter grade based on that score. Education Week used the score for the first category, "chance for success," as the value for ranking each state and the District of Columbia. The average grade received in the entire country was 77.3, or a C+ average. The country's highest average score was in the category of "standards, assessments and accountability" at 85.3, or a B average. The lowest average score was in "K-12 achievement", at 70.2, or a C- average.
Oregon received a score of 74.6, or a C average in the "chance for success" category. This was below the national average. The state's highest score was in "transitions and alignment" at 85.7, or a B average. The lowest score was in "the teaching profession" at 63.5, or a D average. Oregon had the lowest score in the "K-12 achievement" category when compared to surrounding states. The chart below displays the scores of Oregon and its surrounding states.
Note: Click on a column heading to sort the data.
|Public education report cards, 2014|
|State||Chance for success||K-12 achievement||Standards, assessments and accountability||The teaching profession||School finance||Transitions and Alignment|
|Oregon||74.6 (C)||64.8 (D)||80.1 (B-)||63.5 (D)||71.0 (C-)||85.7 (B)|
|California||72.4 (C-)||67.8 (D+)||92.8 (A)||71.6 (C-)||69.2 (D+)||82.1 (B-)|
|Idaho||74.2 (C)||69.8 (C-)||86.6 (B+)||60.5 (D-)||60.0 (D-)||71.4 (C-)|
|Washington||79.5 (B-)||74.9 (C)||79.1 (C+)||71.4 (C-)||71.6 (C-)||71.4 (C-)|
|United States Average||77.3 (C+)||70.2 (C-)||85.3 (B)||72.5 (C)||75.5 (C)||81.1 (B-)|
| Source: Education Week, "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 18, 2015|
A full discussion of how these numbers were generated can be found here.
State Budget Solutions education study
State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states that spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.
- See also: School board elections portal
Oregon has three types of school districts: common school districts, joint school districts and union high school districts. All school districts are governed by an elected school board that has the power to levy taxes and issue general obligation bonds with voter approval.
- See also: List of school districts in Oregon
The following table details the top 10 school districts by enrollment and per-pupil spending:
|Student enrollment, 2011-2012||Average spent per pupil from 1999-2009|
|1.) Portland Public Schools||1.) Ashwood School District|
|2.) Salem-Keizer Public Schools||2.) Double O School District|
|3.) Beaverton School District||3.) Troy School District|
|4.) Hillsboro School District||4.) Plush School District|
|5.) North Clackamas School District||5.) Brothers School District 15|
|6.) Eugene School District||6.) Juntura School District|
|7.) Bend-La Pine Schools||7.) Black Butte School District|
|8.) Medford School District||8.) Long Creek School District|
|9.) Tigard-Tualatin School District||9.) Monument School District|
|10.) Gresham-Barlow School District||10.) Jewell School District|
School board composition
School board members in Oregon are elected to office by residents of the school district, either by geographic zone or at-large. School boards can have a total of five or seven members, but if the school district has a population of more than 300,000, the school board must have seven members. School board members serve four-year terms.
Oregon does not impose statewide term limits on school boards.
Here are several quick facts about Oregon's school board elections in 2015:
- The largest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 was Portland Public Schools with 46,748 K-12 students.
- The smallest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 was David Douglas School District with 10,818 K-12 students.
- Seven districts were tied for the most seats on the ballot in 2015 with four seats up for election in each.
- Two districts were tied for the fewest seats on the ballot in 2015 with two seats up for election in both.
The district listed below served 270,159 K-12 students during the 2012-2013 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Click on the district name for more information on the district and its school board elections.
|2015 Oregon School Board Elections|
|District||Date||Seats up for election||Total board seats||Student enrollment|
|Beaverton School District||5/19/2015||3||7||39,691|
|Bend-La Pine Schools||5/19/2015||4||7||16,586|
|David Douglas School District||5/19/2015||3||7||10,818|
|Eugene School District||5/19/2015||4||7||17,029|
|Gresham-Barlow School District||5/19/2015||4||7||12,185|
|Hillsboro School District||5/19/2015||3||7||21,158|
|Medford School District||5/19/2015||4||7||13,394|
|North Clackamas School District||5/19/2015||4||7||17,048|
|Portland Public Schools||5/19/2015||4||7||46,748|
|Reynolds School District||5/19/2015||4||7||11,415|
|Salem-Keizer Public Schools||5/19/2015||3||7||40,360|
|Springfield School District||5/19/2015||2||5||11,066|
|Tigard-Tualatin School District||5/19/2015||2||5||12,661|
Path to the ballot
In order to qualify to be a school board candidate in Oregon, an individual must:
- Not be an employee of the school district the candidate seeks to represent
- Be a registered voter of the school district the candidate seeks to represent for at least one year immediately preceding the election.
To get on the ballot, school board candidates must file a petition and a declaration of candidacy. The petition must be signed by registered voters of the school district the candidate seeks to represent, and if the candidate is seeking a seat elected by geographic zone, the petition must be signed by registered voters in that geographic zone.
School board candidates who do not intend to spend or receive more than $750 for the calendar year, including personal funds, do not have to file campaign finance reports. If candidates do not intend to spend or receive more than $3,500 for the calendar year, including personal funds, they must only file a Statement of Organization, a campaign account information form and a Certificate of Limited Contributions and Expenditures. Those expecting to receive or spend more than $3,500 must file a Statement of Organization, a campaign account information form and file all campaign finance transactions electronically. Candidates who are required to file a Statement of Organization must do so within three days of receiving a contribution or making an expenditure after filing for office.
Education ballot measures
Ballotpedia has tracked the following statewide ballot measures relating to education.
- Oregon $125,000 for the University of Oregon, Measure 8 (June 1908)
- Oregon 5% Sales Tax for Public Schools, Measure 1 (1993)
- Oregon Anti-Compulsory Vaccination, Measure 7 (1920)
- Oregon Appointment of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Measure 1 (1952)
- Oregon Appropriations for the University of Oregon, Measure 36 (1912)
- Oregon Appropriations for the University of Oregon, Measure 37 (1912)
- Oregon Bonds for Education Building Program, Measure 1 (May 1964)
- Oregon Bonds for Educational Facilities, Measure 2 (1966)
- Oregon Bonds for Higher Education, Measure 3 (May 1968)
- Oregon Bonds for Higher Education, Measure 6 (1960)
- Oregon Bonds for School Districts, Measure 7 (1970)
- Oregon Cigarette Tax for Public Education, Measure 2 (June 1945)
- Oregon College Student Activity Fees, Measure 4 (January 1936)
- Oregon Common School Fund, Measure 1 (May 1968)
- Oregon Common School Fund Investments and Revenues, Measure 2 (1988)
- Oregon Compulsory Public Education, Measure 6 (1922)
- Oregon Consolidating and Moving Public Higher Education Institutions, Measure 9 (1932)
- Oregon Credit and Indebtedness for Higher Education Buildings, Measure 2 (1950)
- Oregon Distribution of Surplus Revenues to School Districts, Measure 7 (1942)
- Oregon Education Stability Fund, Measure 19 (2002)
- Oregon Educational Aid to Veterans of World War II, Measure 5 (1944)
- Oregon Educational Financial Aid for Veterans, Measure 8 (June 1919)
- Oregon Fund for Post-Secondary Education, Measure 86 (2014)
- Oregon Funding for Psychiatric Hospitals, Schools and Prisons, Measure 1 (June 1906)
- Oregon Guaranteed Bonds for School Districts, Measure 54 (1998)
- Oregon Guaranteed Earnings on Tuition Trust Fund, Measure 55 (1998)
- Oregon Higher Education Appropriations, Measure 6 (1932)
- Oregon Higher Education Funds, Measure 69 (May 2010)
- Oregon Hiring of State Judges by National Guard and State Universities, Measure 87 (2014)
- Oregon Increase in State Income and Corporate Taxes for Education, Measure 1 (May 1974)
- Oregon Investment of Higher Education Donations, Measure 4 (1970)
- Oregon Limits on School District Property Taxes, Measure 2 (May 1987)
- Oregon Lottery Bonds for Public Schools, Measure 52 (1997)
- Oregon Lottery Revenues for Education, Measure 21 (May 1995)
- Oregon Maintain Funding for Schools and Community Colleges, Measure 15 (1994)
- Oregon Merged School Tax Bases, Measure 2 (1990)
- Oregon Military Service Requirements for College Degrees, Measure 4 (1936)
- Oregon Modification of School Finance System, Measure 5A (May 1990)
- Oregon New Building Appropriation for the University of Oregon, Measure 2 (1913)
- Oregon New Property Tax Bases for Schools, Measure 10 (1970)
- Oregon Oil and Gas Taxes for School Fund, Measure 3 (1980)
- Oregon Private Investment in Public University Technology, Measure 10 (May 2002)
- Oregon Prohibition of Property Taxes for Education, Measure 9 (1972)
- Oregon Prohibition of Public School Instruction on Homosexual Behaviors, Measure 9 (2000)
- Oregon Property Tax for School Support, Measure 4 (1950)
- Oregon Public School English Immersion, Measure 58 (2008)
- Oregon Public School Funding and Equalization, Measure 1 (2000)
- Oregon Qualifications to Vote in School Elections, Measure 5 (1948)
- Oregon Repeal Election of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Measure 1 (1980)
- Oregon Repeal of School District Reorganization, Measure 9 (1962)
- Oregon Required Testing of Public School Students, Measure 42 (1996)
- Oregon Revision of Taxes for Education, Measure 1 (May 1973)
- Oregon Rural School Districts, Measure 3 (1946)
- Oregon Sales Tax Increase for Education, Measure 5 (May 1934)
- Oregon Sales Tax for Education and Other Tax Reductions, Measure 1 (September 1985)
- Oregon School District Reorganization, Measure 11 (1952)
- Oregon School District Tax Base Limitations, Measure 3 (May 1974)
- Oregon School District Tax Base Limits, Measure 1 (May 1989)
- Oregon School Property Tax Equalization, Measure 6 (May 1970)
- Oregon State Normal School at Ashland, Measure 21 (1910)
- Oregon State Normal School at Ashland, Measure 7 (1914)
- Oregon State Normal School at Monmouth, Measure 10 (1910)
- Oregon State Normal School at Pendleton, Measure 5 (1916)
- Oregon State Normal School at Seaside, Measure 5 (1926)
- Oregon State Normal School at Weston, Measure 19 (1910)
- Oregon State Normal School at Weston, Measure 9 (1914)
- Oregon State Normal School in Eastern Counties, Measure 6 (1926)
- Oregon State Normal Schools in Southern and Eastern Oregon, Measure 1 (1918)
- Oregon State Proceeds from Forfeited Property, Measure 1 (June 1989)
- Oregon State University Repair Fund, Measure 1 (1913)
- Oregon Superintendent of Public Instruction, Measure 2 (May 1966)
- Oregon Tax Levies for Large School Districts, Measure 2 (June 1927)
- Oregon Tax Revenues for Public School Fund, Measure 8 (1944)
- Oregon Tax for Portland School District, Measure 2 (1926)
- Oregon Tax for School Support Fund, Measure 9 (1946)
- Oregon Tax for University and Agricultural College, Measure 10 (1912)
- Oregon Taxes for Educational Aid for Veterans, Measure 7 (May 1920)
- Oregon Taxes for Elementary Schools, Measure 8 (May 1920)
- Oregon Taxes for Higher Education, Measure 6 (May 1920)
- Oregon Taxes for School for the Blind, Measure 9 (May 1920)
- Oregon Teacher Pay Determined by Student Learning, Measure 95 (2000)
- Oregon Teachers Performance Pay, Measure 60 (2008)
- Oregon Utilization of Education Fund Principle, Measure 13 (2002)
- Oregon Veterans' Fund to Common School Fund, Measure 2 (1952)
This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Oregon + Education"
- All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.
- Oregon state budget and finances
- Oregon Department of Education
- List of school districts in Oregon
- School choice in Oregon
- Charter schools in Oregon
- Education Policy in the U.S.
- Oregon Department of Education
- Oregon State Board of Education
- Oregon State Board of Higher Education
- Oregon Virtual School District
- National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
- ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
- United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
- United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
- Oregon Department of Education, "Home page," accessed June 3, 2014
- Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
- Oregon Department of Education, "Office of Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction," accessed June 3, 2014
- Oregon Department of Education, "About the Oregon State Board of Education," accessed June 3, 2014
- Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
- Oregon Department of Education, "Common Core Standards - District Resources," accessed June 17, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
- United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
- ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
- Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
- National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014 (timed out)
- Maciver Institute, "REPORT: How much are teachers really paid?," accessed October 29, 2014
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
- Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
- Center for Union Facts, "Oregon Education Association," accessed March 27, 2010
- Center for Union Facts, "AFT Oregon," accessed March 27, 2010
- Center for Union Facts, "Oregon teachers unions," accessed March 27, 2010 (dead link)
- USA Today, "States put spending details online," February 23,2009
- The Oregonian, "House Bill 2500," accessed March 27, 2010
- Education Week "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 19, 2015
- United States Census Bureau, "Oregon," accessed July 10, 2014
- State of Oregon, "Average Cost Per Student by District," accessed July 10, 2014
- Oregon Revised Statutes, "Chapter 332 — Local Administration of Education," accessed July 10, 2014
- National School Boards Association, "Survey of the State School Boards Associations on Term Limits for Local Board Members," accessed July 10, 2014
- Oregon Secretary of State, "County, City and District Initiative and Referendum Manual," accessed July 10, 2014
- Oregon Secretary of State, "Run for Public Office," accessed July 10, 2014
State of Oregon
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