Public education in Texas

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K-12 Education in Texas
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Michael Williams
Number of students: 5,000,470[1]
Number of teachers: 324,282
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:15.4
Number of school districts: 1,262
Number of schools: 8,697
Graduation rate: 88%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $8,671[3]
See also
Texas Department of EducationList of school districts in TexasTexasSchool boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Texas
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Texas public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Texas had 5,000,470 students enrolled in a total of 8,697 schools in 1,262 school districts. There were 324,282 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 15 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 232 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Texas spent $8,671 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 43rd highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 88 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Texas Commissioner of Education
List of school districts in Texas
Public education in Texas
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the Texas Education Agency reads:[6]
The mission of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) is to provide leadership, guidance, and resources to help schools meet the educational needs of all students and prepare them for success in the global economy.[7]

The Texas Education Agency is led by the Commissioner of Education. The Commissioner of Education is appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate. The current officeholder is Michael Williams (Texas Commissioner of Education).[8]

The Texas State Board of Education is responsible for overseeing the state's public education system. The board is composed of 15 members elected from districts. Members serve four-year terms.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. As of 2014, Texas had not adopted the Common Core standards.[10]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Texas compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Texas 8,697 1,262 5,000,470 324,282 1:15.4 1:232.4 $8,671
Louisiana 1,437 132 703,390 48,657 1:14.5 1:244.3 $10,723
New Mexico 866 135 337,225 21,957 1:15.4 1:253.4 $9,070
Oklahoma 1,774 575 666,120 41,349 1:16.1 1:303.6 $7,587
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 16 295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Texas as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[11]

Demographic information for Texas's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 22,390 0.45% 1.10%
Asian 177,203 3.54% 4.68%
African American 640,723 12.81% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 6,258 0.13% 0.42%
Hispanic 2,541,966 50.83% 24.37%
White 1,527,763 30.55% 51.21%
Two or more 84,167 1.68% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Texas attend city schools. Approximately 64 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 36 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Texas 39.7% 24.5% 9.8% 26%
Louisiana 20.7% 24.5% 19.6% 35.2%
New Mexico 32.6% 11.9% 27.4% 28.1%
Oklahoma 21.9% 19.4% 22.9% 35.8%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD) (timed out)

Academic performance

Policypedia
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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceAdaptive softwareBlended learningCarnegie unitCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateDual enrollmentEnglish Language LearnersFree or reduced-price lunchGlobal competence learningHomeschoolingImmersion learningKhan AcademyLocal education agencyMagnet schoolsNAEPOnline learningParent trigger lawsProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool choiceSchool vouchersTeacher merit payVirtual charter schools
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Louisiana, New Mexico, and Oklahoma), Texas has the highest share of fourth and eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in math.[12]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Texas 41 38 28 31
Louisiana 26 21 23 24
New Mexico 31 23 21 22
Oklahoma 36 25 30 29
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Texas and surrounding states.[12][13][14]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Texas 88% First 20.8 39% 1,437 59%
Louisiana 72% Fourth 20.3 100% 1,655 5%
New Mexico 70% Fifth 19.9 75% 1,626 12%
Oklahoma 78% Fifth 20.7 80% 1,689 5%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Texas was lower than the national average at 2.4 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 2.5 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[15]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Texas

School choice options in Texas include: charter schools, inter-district and intra-district open enrollment policies and online learning programs. In addition, about 5.14 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Texas state budget and finances
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 28.7 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 0.10 percentage points, or 0.35 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 28.8 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[16][17][18][19][20]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Texas 28.7% $8,671 15.34% 39.65% 45.01%
Louisiana 18.4% $10,723 19.11% 41.43% 39.46%
New Mexico 24.7% $9,070 17.66% 65.78% 16.55%
Oklahoma 16.5% $7,587 16.62% 47.01% 36.37%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Texas totaled approximately $52.2 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Texas and surrounding states.[21]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Texas $8,009,703 $20,699,461 $23,502,535 $52,211,699
Louisiana $1,570,393 $3,404,656 $3,242,171 $8,217,220
New Mexico $641,925 $2,390,635 $601,508 $3,634,068
Oklahoma $970,577 $2,745,748 $2,124,039 $5,840,364
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Texas totaled approximately $53.7 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Texas and surrounding states.[21]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Texas $42,782,827 $6,556,210 $4,358,069 $53,697,106
Louisiana $7,440,499 $812,768 $149,430 $8,402,697
New Mexico $3,045,075 $621,504 $66,091 $3,732,670
Oklahoma $5,001,641 $510,611 $91,371 $5,603,623
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.
Note: Salaries given are averages for the state. Within states there can be great variation in salaries between urban, suburban and rural districts. When comparing nominal teachers' salaries, it is important to remember that for a true comparison, salaries must be adjusted for the cost of living in each area. For example, when adjusted for cost of living, Los Angeles drops from second highest to 17th highest; New York City drops even further, from third highest to 59th out of 60.[22]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Texas, the average salary decreased by 6.3 percent.[23]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Texas $51,339 $51,516 $49,178 $48,110 -6.3%
Louisiana $45,246 $52,201 $51,014 $51,381 13.6%
New Mexico $44,488 $49,378 $46,381 $46,573 4.7%
Oklahoma $42,772 $50,907 $45,130 $44,128 3.2%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Texas ranked 44th overall, or "weakest," which was in the fifth of five tiers.[24]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Texas government sector lobbying

Taxpayer-funded lobbyists for the state public schools include:

School official lobbyists include the Texas Association of School Business Officials and Texas Association of Secondary School Principals.

Lobbies concerned with school administrators and school boards include the Texas Association of School Boards and Texas Association of School Administrators.

Transparency

The state's official spending transparency database, which includes information pertaining to public schools, can be accessed here.[25]

Studies and reports

Quality Counts 2014

See also: Quality Counts 2014 Report

Education Week, a publication that reports on many education issues throughout the country, began using an evaluation system in 1997 to grade each state on various elements of education performance. This system, called Quality Counts, uses official data on performance from each state to generate a report card for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report card in 2014 uses six different categories:

  1. Chance for success
  2. K-12 achievement
  3. Standards, assessments and accountability
  4. The teaching profession
  5. School finance
  6. Transitions and Alignment

Each of these six categories had a number of other elements that received individual scores. Those scores were then averaged and used to determine the final score in each category. Every state received two types of scores for each of the six major categories: A numerical score out of 100 and a letter grade based on that score. Education Week used the score for the first category, "chance for success," as the value for ranking each state and the District of Columbia. The average grade received in the entire country was 77.3, or a C+ average. The country's highest average score was in the category of "standards, assessments and accountability" at 85.3, or a B average. The lowest average score was in "K-12 achievement", at 70.2, or a C- average.

Texas received a score of 73.0, or a C average in the "chance for success" category. This was below the national average. The state's highest score was in "transitions and alignment" at 92.9, or an A average. The lowest score was in "school finance" at 67.3, or a D+ average. Texas had the ninth lowest score in the "school finance" category in the country. The chart below displays the scores of Texas and its surrounding states.[26]

Note: Click on a column heading to sort the data.

Public education report cards, 2014
State Chance for success K-12 achievement Standards, assessments and accountability The teaching profession School finance Transitions and Alignment
Texas 73.0 (C) 70.2 (C-) 92.2 (A-) 78.3 (C+) 67.3 (D+) 92.9 (A)
Louisiana 69.9 (C-) 59.8 (D-) 97.2 (A) 79.6 (B-) 74.9 (C) 92.9 (A)
New Mexico 66.6 (D+) 60.3 (D-) 92.0 (A-) 74.3 (C) 70.5 (C-) 89.3 (B+)
Oklahoma 72.2 (C-) 64.2 (D) 93.3 (A) 71.6 (C-) 66.5 (D) 89.3 (B+)
United States Average 77.3 (C+) 70.2 (C-) 85.3 (B) 72.5 (C) 75.5 (C) 81.1 (B-)
Source: Education Week, "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 18, 2015

A full discussion of how these numbers were generated can be found here.

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states that spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Issues

Home-rule effort in Dallas

Volunteers with a local group called Support Our Public Schools circulated petitions starting on March 4, 2014, to turn the Dallas Independent School District into a home-rule district. A state law passed in 1995 allows local residents to replace their existing district structure with a home-rule charter. This charter could bypass some state regulations including minimum salary schedules for teachers, curriculum standards and the number of days in a school year. On January 20, 2015, a commission voted 10-5 against granting Dallas a home-rule charter.[27] Commission members had until June 2015 to develop a home-rule charter for the district. If approved by the Texas Commissioner of Education, voters would have approved or rejected the charter at the polls. State law requires a simple majority and at least 25 percent of registered voters to cast ballots in the charter election.[28]

Support Our Public Schools was a group funded by former hedge fund manager John Arnold and several anonymous donors through his non-profit organization, the Action Now Initiative. Arnold worked with local officials, including board member Mike Morath, to form the group due to concerns about the district's record of academic performance. Morath supported Support Our Public Schools but did not serve on the group's board.[29] The organization hoped to complete the entire process in time for the gubernatorial election on November 4, 2014. If successful, Dallas Independent School District would have been the first school district in Texas to use the home-rule charter process.[28]

Support Our Public Schools submitted more than 48,000 petition signatures to the school district in May 2014. District officials certified that enough valid signatures were submitted to proceed to the next step in the process.[30][31] The group had to gather at least 24,459 valid signatures, or five percent of registered voters in the district, to force the creation of a charter commission by the school board. School board members appointed 15 members to the charter commission during a meeting on June 19, 2014.[32]

Two members of the commission were selected by the entire board, four educators were selected by an advisory panel and each trustee selected one commission member. D. Marcus Ranger, the husband of former trustee Carla Ranger, and Lew Blackburn, Jr., the son of trustee Lew Blackburn Sr., were appointed to the commission. The state's home-rule charter law does not restrict spouses or relatives of current board members from serving on commissions. An article published following the failure of the home-rule effort noted that eight of the nine Dallas board members opposed the initiative, which Dallas Mayor Mike Rawlings suggested resulted in anti-initiative appointees. Commission chairman Bob Weiss rejected this argument and stated, "I certainly respect the mayor’s point of view but will politely disagree with the inference that the process was doomed because the commission did not act in good faith. This commission was not responsible for the appointment process."[27]

The following table details the charter commission, including how they were appointed:[32]

Charter commission[32]
Member Appointed by
Bob Weiss Entire board
Stephanie Elizalde Entire board
Melissa Malonson District 1 trustee Elizabeth Jones
Edwin Flores District 2 trustee Mike Morath
Jeff Veazey District 3 trustee Dan Micciche
Ricardo Mendez District 4 trustee Nancy Bingham
Lew Blackburn, Jr. District 5 trustee Lew Blackburn Sr.
D. Marcus Ranger District 6 trustee Carla Ranger
Jerome Garza District 7 trustee Eric Cowan
Danae Gutierrez District 8 trustee Miguel Solis
Shirley Ison-Newsome District 9 trustee Bernadette Nutall
Isaac Freeman Advisory panel
Ron Oliver Advisory panel
Bonita Reece Advisory panel
Julie Sandel Advisory panel

Local officials and advocates debated the group's efforts during the petition drive. Mayor Rawlings supported the effort in order to bring change to the district while board members Lew Blackburn and Bernadette Nutall questioned the motivations of Support Our Public Schools. Superintendent Mike Miles neither endorsed nor rejected the movement but argued the home-rule effort was unnecessary since the district had already initiated reforms.[33] Alliance-AFT president Rena Honea argued that this effort was "part of a plan to underfund our schools, declare them a failure, and contract out to private operators the control of our neighborhood schools, disenfranchising parents and community stakeholders and de-professionalizing teaching."[28][34]

Mark Melton, a local attorney and charter supporter, published a seven-page constitution in May 2014 intended to guide the charter commission. This constitution developed by Melton and four colleagues would have left the district largely unchanged. The document proposed a three-term limit on all board members, a provision for recalling board members and an earlier start date for district schools. Melton's proposal would have allowed a recall election to take place if 15 percent of residents in a trustee district signed petitions. He offered the proposals as a reaction to the rancorous debate taking place between Support Our Public Schools volunteers and some district residents.[31]

School districts

See also: School board elections portal

District types

Texas contains multiple types of school districts. Independent school districts administer K-12 schools separately from municipal and county governments. Consolidated school districts are typically formed when two or more school districts combine into a single governing body.[35]

District statistics

See also: List of school districts in Texas

The following table displays the state's top 10 school districts by total student enrollment:[36]

Enrollment, 2011-2012
1.) Houston Independent School District
2.) Dallas Independent School District
3.) Cypress-Fairbanks Independent School District
4.) Northside Independent School District
5.) Austin Independent School District
6.) Fort Worth Independent School District
7.) Fort Bend Independent School District
8.) North East Independent School District
9.) Arlington Independent School District
10.) Aldine Independent School District

School board composition

Texas school board members are generally elected by residents of the school district, although some school board members are appointed to fill vacancies until the next election for the seat is held. Texas school board elections typically follow one of these three methods, or a mixture thereof:[37]

  • At-large: All voters residing in the school district may vote for any candidates running, regardless of geographic location.
  • Trustee area: Only voters residing in a specific geographic area within the school district may vote on certain candidates, who must also reside in that specific geographic area.
  • Trustee area at-large: All voters residing in the school district may vote for any candidates running, but candidates must reside in specific geographic areas within the school district.

School boards can consists of five, seven or nine members. Board members serve terms of three or four years.[37]

Term limits

Texas does not impose statewide term limits on school board members. However, terms limits on school board members can still be imposed on the local level.[37]

Elections

See also: Texas school board elections, 2014 and Texas school board elections, 2015

A total of 79 Texas school districts among America's largest school districts by enrollment will hold elections in 2015 for 214 seats. Board elections in 68 districts will be held on May 9, 2015. The remaining 11 districts will hold their elections on November 3, 2015.

Here are several quick facts about Texas's school board elections in 2015:

  • The largest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 is Houston Independent School District with 203,354 K-12 students.
  • The smallest school district by enrollment with an election in 2015 is Canyon Independent School District with 9,224 K-12 students.
  • Seven districts are tied for the most seats on the ballot in 2015 with four seats up for election in each district.
  • Thirty-seven districts are tied for the fewest seats on the ballot in 2015 with two seats up for election in each district.

The districts listed below served 2,564,165 K-12 students during the 2012-2013 school year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Click on the district names for more information on the district and its school board elections.

2015 Texas School Board Elections
District Date Seats up for election Total board seats Student enrollment
Allen Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 19,894
Alvin Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 18,886
Amarillo Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 33,327
Arlington Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 65,001
Bastrop Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 9,302
Belton Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 9,932
Birdville Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 24,190
Brazosport Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 12,542
Burleson Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 10,581
Canyon Independent School District 5/9/2015 4 7 9,224
Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 26,385
Clear Creek Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 39,635
Comal Independent School District 5/9/2015 4 7 18,693
Coppell Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 10,999
Crowley Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 15,060
Deer Park Independent School District 5/9/2015 4 7 12,826
Denton Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 25,775
Dickinson Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 9,746
Duncanville Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 13,271
Eagle Mountain-Saginaw Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 17,728
Ector County Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 29,649
El Paso Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 63,210
Fort Bend Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 69,591
Fort Worth Independent School District 5/9/2015 4 9 83,503
Frisco Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 42,707
Galena Park Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 22,113
Garland Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 58,059
Georgetown Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 10,370
Goose Creek Consolidated Independent School District 5/9/2015 4 7 21,821
Grand Prairie Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 26,921
Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 13,388
Harlandale Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 15,175
Harlingen Consolidated Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 18,509
Hays Consolidated Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 16,568
Humble Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 37,095
Hurst-Euless-Bedford Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 21,814
Irving Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 35,030
Judson Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 22,606
Katy Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 64,562
Keller Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 33,367
Killeen Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 41,756
Lamar Consolidated Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 26,135
Leander Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 34,381
Lewisville Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 52,528
Magnolia Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 11,990
Mansfield Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 32,879
McAllen Independent School District 5/9/2015 4 7 24,931
McKinney Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 24,443
Mesquite Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 39,127
Northside Independent School District 5/9/2015 4 7 100,159
Northwest Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 17,811
Pasadena Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 53,665
Pearland Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 19,650
Pflugerville Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 23,347
Plano Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 55,185
Richardson Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 38,043
Rockwall Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 14,486
San Angelo Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 14,758
San Antonio Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 54,268
San Benito Consolidated Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 11,171
Sharyland Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 10,232
Socorro Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 44,259
Southwest Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 13,024
Spring Branch Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 34,857
Tyler Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 18,263
Victoria Independent School District 5/9/2015 2 7 14,513
Waco Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 15,221
Ysleta Independent School District 5/9/2015 3 7 43,680
Aldine Independent School District 11/3/2015 4 7 65,684
Alief Independent School District 11/3/2015 3 7 45,783
Bryan Independent School District 11/3/2015 2 7 15,624
College Station Independent School District 11/3/2015 2 7 11,178
Cypress-Fairbanks Independent School District 11/3/2015 4 7 110,013
Houston Independent School District 11/3/2015 4 9 203,354
Klein Independent School District 11/3/2015 3 7 47,045
Los Fresnos Consolidated Independent School District 11/3/2015 3 7 10,424
New Caney Independent School District 11/3/2015 3 7 11,551
Schertz-Cibolo-Universal City Independent School District 11/3/2015 3 7 13,594
Spring Independent School District 11/3/2015 2 7 36,098

Path to the ballot

To qualify for the ballot as a school board candidate in Texas, a person must be:[38]

  • 18 years of age or older
  • A registered voter
  • A resident of the district for at least six months prior to the election

Candidates file applications for placement on the ballot with the school district clerk.

Campaign finance

Candidates can claim exemption from campaign finance reporting requirements if they do not anticipate spending or receiving $500 during the election. If they receive or spend in excess of $500, they must file amended paperwork with the school district clerk detailing contributions and expenditures.[38]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Texas ballot measures

Ballotpedia has tracked the following statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Texas Angelo State University Governance, Proposition 1 (2007)
  2. Texas Appointment of the State Board of Education, Proposition 1 (1928)
  3. Texas Arlington State College, Proposition 3 (1966)
  4. Texas Bonds for Educational Loans, Proposition 13 (1991)
  5. Texas Bonds for Educational Loans, Proposition 13 (1999)
  6. Texas Bonds for Educational Loans, Proposition 1 (1995)
  7. Texas Bonds for Educational Loans, Proposition 2 (2007)
  8. Texas College Savings Bonds, Proposition 21 (1989)
  9. Texas County Student Loan Fund, Proposition 4 (July 1915)
  10. Texas Donation of School District Property, Proposition 13 (2001)
  11. Texas Education Constitutional Provisions, Proposition 4 (1975)
  12. Texas Education Loans Finance Amendment, Proposition 3 (2011)
  13. Texas Educational Loan Bonds, Proposition 2 (August 1991)
  14. Texas Free Textbooks, Proposition 4 (August 1935)
  15. Texas Funding for Institutions of Higher Learning, Proposition 13 (1993)
  16. Texas Higher Education Assistance Fund, Proposition 2 (1984)
  17. Texas Homestead Exemption for School District Property Taxes Amendment (2015)
  18. Texas Homestead Exemption from Taxation for Public Schools Amendment (2015)
  19. Texas National Research University Fund, Proposition 4 (2009)
  20. Texas Opportunity Plan, Proposition 6 (1965)
  21. Texas Permanent School Fund Amendment, Proposition 6 (2011)
  22. Texas Property Tax for Schools, Proposition 2 (1918)
  23. Texas Reorganization of University Funds, Proposition 5 (May 1919)
  24. Texas Salaries for Military Officers, Proposition 2 (1942)
  25. Texas School District Bonds, Proposition 1 (August 1909)
  26. Texas School District Bonds, Proposition 3 (May 1993)
  27. Texas School District Boundaries, Proposition 2 (August 1909)
  28. Texas School Officer Term Limits, Proposition 2 (1928)
  29. Texas Separation of University of Texas and Agricultural College, Proposition 6 (July 1915)
  30. Texas Special School Districts, Proposition 2 (1926)
  31. Texas State Educational Mandates, Proposition 2 (May 1993)
  32. Texas State Lottery Revenue for Public Education Amendment (2015)
  33. Texas State Medical Education Fund, Proposition 2 (1952)
  34. Texas Student Loans, Proposition 8 (August 1969)
  35. Texas Tax Exemption for Higher Education Technology Corporations Amendment (2015)
  36. Texas Tax Exemptions for Higher Education, Proposition 2 (1906)
  37. Texas Tomorrow Fund, Proposition 13 (1997)

Recent news

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See also

External links

Additional reading

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Texas Education Agency, "TEA Mission and Responsibilities," accessed June 5, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. Texas Education Agency, "Commissioner of Education," accessed June 5, 2014
  9. Texas Education Agency, "SBOE History and Duties," accessed June 5, 2014
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
  11. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  15. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014 (timed out)
  22. Maciver Institute, "REPORT: How much are teachers really paid?," accessed October 29, 2014
  23. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  24. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  25. Texas Transparency, "Home page," accessed June 5, 2014
  26. Education Week "Quality Counts 2014 report cards," accessed February 19, 2015
  27. 27.0 27.1 The Dallas Morning News, "Dallas ISD home-rule commission votes against writing charter," January 21, 2015
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Dallas Morning News, "Group pushes for election to remake Dallas ISD as freer home-rule district," March 2, 2014
  29. Dallas Morning News, "Dallas ISD trustee Mike Morath explains his role in home-rule group," March 10, 2014
  30. Dallas Morning News, "Dallas ISD trustees struggle with how to form home-rule commission," May 30, 2014
  31. 31.0 31.1 Dallas Morning News, "Dallas attorney Mark Melton's group releases proposed home-rule charter for Dallas ISD," May 21, 2014
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Dallas Morning News, "Dallas ISD trustees name 15-member commission to write home-rule charter," June 20, 2014
  33. Dallas Morning News, "Superintendent Mike Miles: Home rule not key to a better Dallas ISD," March 19, 2014
  34. "Dallas Observer," "Dallas ISD Trustees Are Skeptical of Shadowy Home-Rule District Push," March 4, 2014
  35. Texas Education Code, "Texas Education Code - Chapter 13 Creation, Consolidation, And Abolition Of A District," accessed July 10, 2014
  36. National Center for Education Statistics, "ELSI Table Generator," accessed July 11, 2014
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Texas Association of School Boards, "Resources for Board Candidates," accessed July 10, 2014
  38. 38.0 38.1 Texas Association of School Boards, "Policy: Eligibility/Qualifications," October 19, 2011