Public education in Texas

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K-12 Education in Texas
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Education facts
State Superintendent: Michael Williams
Number of students: 5,000,470[1]
Number of teachers: 324,282
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:15.4
Number of school districts: 1,262
Number of schools: 8,697
Graduation rate: 88%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $8,671[3]
See also
Texas Department of Education
Texas school districts
List of school districts in Texas
Texas
School boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in Texas
Glossary of education terms
Note: The statistics on this page are mainly from government sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics. Figures given are the most recent as of June 2014, with school years noted in the text or footnotes.
The Texas public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 Texas had 5,000,470 students enrolled in a total of 8,697 schools in 1,262 school districts. There were 324,282 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 15 students, compared to the national average of 1:16. There is roughly one administrator for every 232 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average Texas spent $8,671 per pupil in 2011, which ranks it 43rd highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 88 percent in 2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
Texas Commissioner of Education
Texas school districts
List of school districts in Texas
Public education in Texas
School board elections portal
The mission statement of the Texas Education Agency reads:[6]
The mission of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) is to provide leadership, guidance, and resources to help schools meet the educational needs of all students and prepare them for success in the global economy.[7]

The Texas Education Agency is led by the Commissioner of Education. The Commissioner of Education is appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate. The current officeholder is Michael Williams.[8]

The Texas State Board of Education is responsible for overseeing the state's public education system. The board is comprised of 15 members elected from districts. Members serve four-year terms.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. As of 2014, Texas had not adopted the Common Core standards.[10]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states
See also: Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how Texas compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
Texas 8,697 1,262 5,000,470 324,282 1:15.4 1:232.4 $8,671
Louisiana 1,437 132 703,390 48,657 1:14.5 1:244.3 $10,723
New Mexico 866 135 337,225 21,957 1:15.4 1:253.4 $9,070
Oklahoma 1,774 575 666,120 41,349 1:16.1 1:303.6 $7,587
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 16 295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in Texas as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[11]

Demographic information for Texas's K-12 public school system
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 22,390 0.45% 1.10%
Asian 177,203 3.54% 4.68%
African American 640,723 12.81% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. students 6,258 0.13% 0.42%
Hispanic 2,541,966 50.83% 24.37%
White 1,527,763 30.55% 51.21%
Two or more 84,167 1.68% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in Texas attend city schools. Approximately 64 percent of the state's students attend city or suburban schools, compared to approximately 36 percent who attend rural or town schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural schools
Texas 39.7% 24.5% 9.8% 26%
Louisiana 20.7% 24.5% 19.6% 35.2%
New Mexico 32.6% 11.9% 27.4% 28.1%
Oklahoma 21.9% 19.4% 22.9% 35.8%
U.S. average 28.9% 34% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

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Education policy terms
Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Louisiana, New Mexico, and Oklahoma), Texas has the highest share of fourth and eighth grade students who scored at or above proficient in math.[12]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
Texas 41 38 28 31
Louisiana 26 21 23 24
New Mexico 31 23 21 22
Oklahoma 36 25 30 29
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state
See also: ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for Texas and surrounding states.[12][13][14]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
Texas 88% First 20.8 39% 1,437 59%
Louisiana 72% Fourth 20.3 100% 1,655 5%
New Mexico 70% Fifth 19.9 75% 1,626 12%
Oklahoma 78% Fifth 20.7 80% 1,689 5%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1,498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

See also: Public high school dropout rates by state for a full comparison of dropout rates by group in all states

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for Texas was lower than the national average at 2.4 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and 2.5 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[15]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in Texas

School choice options in Texas include: charter schools, inter-district and intra-district open enrollment policies and online learning programs. In addition, about 5.14 percent of school age children in the state attended private schools in the 2011-12 academic year, and an estimated 2.67 percent were homeschooled in 2012-13.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: Texas state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 28.7 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. As a share of the budget, this is down 0.10 percentage points, or 0.35 percent, from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 28.8 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[16][17][18][19][20]

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
Texas 28.7% $8,671 15.34% 39.65% 45.01%
Louisiana 18.4% $10,723 19.11% 41.43% 39.46%
New Mexico 24.7% $9,070 17.66% 65.78% 16.55%
Oklahoma 16.5% $7,587 16.62% 47.01% 36.37%
Sources: NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in Texas totaled approximately $52.2 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for Texas and surrounding states.[21]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
Texas $8,009,703 $20,699,461 $23,502,535 $52,211,699
Louisiana $1,570,393 $3,404,656 $3,242,171 $8,217,220
New Mexico $641,925 $2,390,635 $601,508 $3,634,068
Oklahoma $970,577 $2,745,748 $2,124,039 $5,840,364
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in Texas totaled approximately $53.7 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for Texas and surrounding states.[21]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
Texas $42,782,827 $6,556,210 $4,358,069 $53,697,106
Louisiana $7,440,499 $812,768 $149,430 $8,402,697
New Mexico $3,045,075 $621,504 $66,091 $3,732,670
Oklahoma $5,001,641 $510,611 $91,371 $5,603,623
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in Texas, the average salary decreased by 6.3 percent.[22]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
Texas $51,339 $51,516 $49,178 $48,110 -6.3%
Louisiana $45,246 $52,201 $51,014 $51,381 13.6%
New Mexico $44,488 $49,378 $46,381 $46,573 4.7%
Oklahoma $42,772 $50,907 $45,130 $44,128 3.2%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012 the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. Texas ranked 44th overall, or "weakest," which was in the fifth of five tiers.[23]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: Texas government sector lobbying

Taxpayer-funded lobbyists for the state public schools include:

School official lobbyists include the Texas Association of School Business Officials and Texas Association of Secondary School Principals.

Lobbies concerned with school administrators and school boards include the Texas Association of School Boards and Texas Association of School Administrators.

Transparency

The state's official spending transparency database, which includes information pertaining to public schools, can be accessed here.[24]

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of Texas ballot measures

Ballotpedia staff have tracked 21 statewide ballot measures relating to education.

  1. Texas Education Loans Finance Amendment, Proposition 3 (2011)
  2. Texas Permanent School Fund Amendment, Proposition 6 (2011)
  3. Texas Proposition 1, Ad Valorem Tax Exemptions in Education Districts (August 1991)
  4. Texas Proposition 11 (2001)
  5. Texas Proposition 12, Bonds Aiding School DIstricts (1989)
  6. Texas Proposition 13, the "Texas Tomorrow Tuition Trust Fund" (1997)
  7. Texas Proposition 13 (1993)
  8. Texas Proposition 13 (1999)
  9. Texas Proposition 13 (2001)
  10. Texas Proposition 17 (1999)
  11. Texas Proposition 1 (1995)
  12. Texas Proposition 1 (2007)
  13. Texas Proposition 1 (May 1993)
  14. Texas Proposition 2, Higher Education Assistance Fund (1984)
  15. Texas Proposition 2, School Land Patents (1981)
  16. Texas Proposition 2, Student Loan Bonds (August 1991)
  17. Texas Proposition 2 (May 1993)
  18. Texas Proposition 3 (May 1993)
  19. Texas Proposition 4 (2009)
  20. Texas Proposition 5 (1991)
  21. Texas Proposition 9, Permanent School Fund Act (September 2003)

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "Texas + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Texas Education News Feed

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See also

External links

Additional reading

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. Texas Education Agency, "TEA Mission and Responsibilities," accessed June 5, 2014
  7. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  8. Texas Education Agency, "Commissioner of Education," accessed June 5, 2014
  9. Texas Education Agency, "SBOE History and Duties," accessed June 5, 2014
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed June 12, 2014
  11. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  15. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  22. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. Thomas E Fordham Institute, " How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  24. Texas Transparency, "Home page," accessed June 5, 2014