Public education in West Virginia

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K-12 Education in West Virginia
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Education facts
State Superintendent: James Phares
Number of students: 282,870[1]
Number of teachers: 20,247
Teacher/pupil ratio: 1:14
Number of school districts: 57
Number of schools: 759
Graduation rate: 79%[2]
Per-pupil spending: $11,846[3]
See also
West Virginia Department of Education
West Virginia school districts
List of school districts in West Virginia
West Virginia
School boards portal
Policypedia
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Education policy project
Public education in the United States
Public education in West Virginia
Glossary of education terms
The West Virginia public school system (prekindergarten-grade 12) operates within districts governed by locally elected school boards and superintendents. In 2012 West Virginia had 282,870 students enrolled in a total of 759 schools in 57 school districts. While the national ratio of teachers to students was 1:16, in West Virginia there were 20,247 teachers in the public schools, or roughly one teacher for every 14 students. There was roughly one administrator for every 251 students, compared to the national average of one administrator for every 295 students.[4] On average West Virginia spent $11,846 per pupil in 2011, which ranked it 15th highest in the nation. The state's graduation rate was 79 percent in 2012. This was the Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate reported to the United States Department of Education for all students in 2011-2012.[5]

State agencies

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State Education Departments

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See also
West Virginia Superintendent of Schools
West Virginia school districts
List of school districts in West Virginia
Public education in West Virginia
School board elections portal
The West Virginia Department of Education is led by the West Virginia Superintendent of Schools. James Phares assumed the role in January 2013.[6]

The West Virginia Board of Education was established by the West Virginia Constitution. The Board of Education supervises the state's public elementary and secondary schools. It is comprised of 12 members. Nine are voting members who are appointed by the governor, and three are nonvoting members, including the West Virginia Superintendent of Schools, the chancellor of the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission and the chancellor of Community and Technical College Education Commission.[7]

The mission statement of the West Virginia Board of Education reads:[8]

The West Virginia Board of Education establishes policies and rules to assure implementation of West Virginia's Education goals and to ensure the general supervision, oversight and monitoring of a thorough and efficient educational system.[9]

Common Core

Common Core, or the Common Core State Standards Initiative, is an American education initiative that outlines quantifiable benchmarks in English and mathematics at each grade level from kindergarten through high school. The West Virginia State Board of Education adopted these standards on June 2, 2010. The standards will be fully implemented during the 2014-2015 school year.[10]

Regional comparison

See also: General comparison table for education statistics in the 50 states and Education spending per pupil in all 50 states

The following chart shows how West Virginia compares to three neighboring states with respect to number of students, schools, the number of teachers per pupil, and the number of administrators per pupil. Further comparisons between these states with respect to performance and financial information are given in other sections of this page.

Regional Comparison
State Schools Districts Students Teachers Teacher/pupil ratio Administrator/pupil ratio Per pupil spending
West Virginia 759 57 282,870 20,247 1:14 1:250.5 $11,846
Kentucky 1,565 194 681,987 41,860 1:16.3 1:215.9 $9,309
Ohio 1,261 221 568,208 26,791 1:21.2 1:364.8 $9,682
Virginia 2,170 221 1,257,883 90,832 1:13.8 1:313.2 $10,364
United States 98,328 17,992 49,521,669 3,103,263 1:16 1:295.2 $10,994
Sources: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey", 2011-12 v.1a.

National Center for Education Statistics, Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Demographics

See also: Demographic information for all students in all 50 states

The following table displays the ethnic distribution of students in West Virginia as reported in the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data for 2011-2012.[11]

Demographic Information for West Virginia's K-12 Public School System
Ethnicity Students State Percentage United States Percentage**
American Indian 327 0.12% 1.10%
Asian 2,000 0.71% 4.68%
African American 14,266 5.04% 15.68%
Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students 100 0.04% 0.42%
Hispanic 3,368 1.19% 24.37%
White 259,435 91.72% 51.21%
Two or More 3,374 1.19% 2.54%
**Note: This is the percentage of all students in the United States that are reported to be of this ethnicity.

Enrollments by region type

See also: Student distribution by region type in the U.S.

A plurality of students in West Virginia attend rural schools. The same is true in Kentucky, but in Ohio and Virginia, students are more likely to attend suburban schools than rural schools.

Student distribution by region type, 2011 - 2012 (as percents)
State City schools Suburban schools Town schools Rural Schools
West Virginia 13.0% 15.5% 21.0% 50.4%
Kentucky 19.6% 14.6% 22.8% 43.1%
Ohio 19.7% 39.6% 13.5% 27.3%
Virginia 23.0% 38.8% 6.9% 31.3%
U.S. average 28.9% 34.0% 11.6% 25.4%
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD)

Academic performance

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Academic bankruptcyAcademic EarthAcademic performanceBlaine AmendmentCharter schoolsCommon CoreDropout rateNAEPProgressive educationRegulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation RateSchool vouchersTeacher merit pay
See also

NAEP scores

See also: NAEP scores by state

The National Center for Education Statistics provides state-by-state data on student achievement levels in mathematics and reading in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Compared to three neighboring states (Kentucky, Ohio, and Virginia), West Virginia had the lowest percentage of students score at or above proficient in math and reading in fourth grade and eighth grade.[12]

Percent of students scoring at or above proficient, 2012-2013
Math - Grade 4 Math - Grade 8 Reading - Grade 4 Reading - Grade 8
West Virginia 35 24 27 25
Kentucky 41 30 36 38
Ohio 48 40 37 39
Virginia 47 38 43 36
U.S. average 41 34 34 34
NAEP assessment data for all students 2012-2013

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Graduation, ACT and SAT scores

See also: Graduation rates by groups in state and ACT and SAT scores in the U.S.

The following table shows the graduation rates and average composite ACT and SAT scores for West Virginia and surrounding states.[12][13][14]

Comparison table for graduation rates and test scores*
State Graduation rate, 2012 Average ACT Composite, 2012 Average SAT Composite, 2013
Percent Quintile ranking** Score Participation rate Score Participation rate
West Virginia 79% Third 20.6 68% 1513 15%
Kentucky 78% Fifth 19.8 100% 1741 5%
Ohio 81% Third 21.8 71% 1635 17%
Virginia 83% Second 22.4 25% 1528 71%
U.S. average 80% 21.1 1498
*Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Rate (except for Idaho, Kentucky, Oklahoma, which did not report “Regulatory Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate,” but instead used their own method of calculation).
**Graduation rates for states in the first quintile ranked in the top 20 percent nationally. Similarly, graduation rates for states in the fifth quintile ranked in the bottom 20 percent nationally.
Source: United States Department of Education, ED Data Express

Dropout rate

The high school event dropout rate indicates the proportion of students who were enrolled at some time during the school year and were expected to be enrolled in grades 9–12 in the following school year but were not enrolled by October 1 of the following school year. Students who have graduated, transferred to another school, died, moved to another country, or who are out of school due to illness are not considered dropouts. The average public high school event dropout rate for the United States remained constant at 3.3 percent for both SY 2010–11 and SY 2011–12. The event dropout rate for West Virginia was higher than the national average at 3.4 percent in the 2010-2011 school year, and lower than the national average at 2.7 percent in the 2011-2012 school year.[15]

Educational choice options

See also: School choice in West Virginia

School choice options in West Virginia include: homeschooling, online learning, private schools and two voluntary public school open enrollment policies.

Education funding and expenditures

See also: West Virginia state budget
Breakdown of expenditures by function in FY 2012.
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers

According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), the state spent approximately 10.8 percent of its fiscal year 2012 budget on elementary and secondary education. This is down 12.3 percentage points, a 53.2 percent decrease in the share of the budget from fiscal year 2008, when the state spent 23.1 percent of its budget on elementary and secondary education.[16][17][18][19][20] Over half of West Virginia's education revenue comes from state funding. Local funding accounts for nearly 30 percent, and federal funding accounts for about 15 percent.

Comparison of financial figures for school systems
State Percent of budget (2012) Per pupil spending (2011) Revenue sources (2011)
Percent federal funds Percent state funds Percent local funds
West Virginia 10.8% $11,846 14.73% 55.64% 29.63%
Kentucky 19.8% $9,309 16.4% 52.15% 31.46%
Ohio 20.6% $11,223 11.65% 44.31% 44.04%
Virginia 16% $10,364 9.9% 37.11% 52.99%
Sources:NASBO, "State Expenditure Report," Table 8: Elementary and Secondary Education Expenditures As a Percent of Total Expenditures
U.S. Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011,Governments Division Reports," issued May 2013

Revenue breakdowns

See also: Public school system revenues in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system revenues in West Virginia totaled approximately $3.5 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including revenue sources, for West Virginia and surrounding states.[21]

Revenues by source, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Federal revenue State revenue Local revenue Total revenue
West Virginia $510,256 $1,927,726 $1,026,593 $3,464,575
Kentucky $1,164,688 $3,704,126 $2,234,478 $7,103,292
Ohio $2,762,051 $10,510,451 $10,446,108 $23,718,610
Virginia $1,427,301 $5,351,177 $7,639,550 $14,418,028
U.S. total $74,943,767 $267,762,416 $264,550,594 $607,256,777
Public school revenues by source, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Expenditure breakdowns

See also: Public school system expenditures in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, public school system expenditures in West Virginia totaled approximately $3.7 billion in fiscal year 2011. The table and chart below present further detail, including expenditure types, for West Virginia and surrounding states.[21]

Expenditures by type, FY 2011 (amounts in thousands)
Current expenditures** Capital outlay Other*** Total expenditures
West Virginia $3,342,238 $269,242 $56,907 $3,668,387
Kentucky $6,264,504 $733,357 $254,031 $7,251,892
Ohio $19,673,291 $2,516,739 $1,068,376 $23,258,406
Virginia $12,964,134 $1,075,067 $425,378 $14,464,579
U.S. total $520,577,893 $52,984,139 $29,581,293 $603,143,325
**Funds spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, including such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy costs, but excluding capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private schools, and payments to public charter schools.
***Includes payments to state and local governments, payments to private schools, interest on school system indebtedness, and nonelementary-secondary expenditures, such as adult education and community services expenditures.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics
Public school expenditures, FY 2011 (as percents)

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Personnel salaries

See also: Public school teacher salaries in the U.S.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average national salary for classroom teachers in public elementary and secondary schools has declined by 1.3 percent from the 1999-2000 school year to the 2012-2013 school year. During the same period in West Virginia, the average salary decreased by three percent.[22]

Estimated average salaries for teachers (in constant dollars**)
1999-2000 2009-2010 2011-2012 2012-2013 Percent difference
West Virginia $47,843 $49,059 $46,074 $46,405 -3.0%
Kentucky $49,717 $52,884 $50,558 $50,326 1.2%
Ohio $56,626 $59,732 $57,659 $58,092 2.6%
Virginia $52,947 $53,388 $49,514 $49,869 -5.8%
U.S. average $57,133 $58,925 $56,340 $56,383 -1.3%
**"Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. The CPI does not account for differences in inflation rates from state to state."

Organizations

Unions

In 2012, the Fordham Institute and Education Reform Now assessed the power and influence of state teacher unions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Their rankings were based on 37 different variables in five broad areas, including: resources and membership, involvement in politics, scope of bargaining, state policies and perceived influence. West Virginia ranked 13th overall, or strong, which was in the second tier of five.[23]

The main unions related to the West Virginia school system are the West Virginia Education Association, an affiliate of the National Education Association, and the West Virginia Federation of Teachers, an affiliate of the American Federation of Teachers.

List of local West Virginia school unions:[24]

Taxpayer-funded lobbying

See also: West Virginia government sector lobbying

The main education government sector lobbying organization is the West Virginia School Boards Association.

Education ballot measures

See also: Education on the ballot and List of West Virginia ballot measures

As of June 2014, there were no education ballot measures in West Virginia.

Studies and reports

State Budget Solutions education study

See also: State spending on education v. academic performance (2012)

State Budget Solutions examined national trends in education from 2009 to 2011, including state-by-state analysis of education spending, graduation rates, and average ACT scores. The study showed that the states which spent the most did not have the highest average ACT test scores, nor did they have the highest average graduation rates. A summary of the study is available here. The full report can be accessed here.

Recent news

This section displays the most recent stories in a Google news search for the term "West Virginia + Education "

All stories may not be relevant to this page due to the nature of the search engine.

Virginia+education&um=1&ie=UTF-8&output=rss West Virginia Education News Feed

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See also

External links

References

  1. National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 2. Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011–12," accessed March 18, 2014
  2. ED Data Express, "State Tables Report," accessed March 17, 2014 The site includes this disclaimer: "States converted to an adjusted cohort graduation rate [starting in the 2010-2011 school year], which may or may not be the same as the calculation they used in prior years. Due to the potential differences, caution should be used when comparing graduation rates across states."
  3. United States Census Bureau, "Public Education Finances: 2011," accessed March 18, 2014
  4. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD); Table 2.—Number of operating public schools and districts, state enrollment, teacher and pupil/teacher ratio by state: School year 2011-12," accessed May 12, 2014
  5. United States Department of Education, "ED Data Express," accessed May 12, 2014
  6. West Virginia Department of Education, "State Superintendent of Schools," accessed June 4, 2014
  7. West Virginia Department of Education, "West Virginia Board of Education," accessed June 4, 2014
  8. West Virginia Department of Education, "West Virginia Board of Education MISSION and GOALS," accessed June 4, 2014
  9. Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
  10. Common Core State Standards Initiative, "Core Standards in your State," accessed July 12, 2014
  11. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Nonfiscal Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey, 2011-2012," accessed May 7, 2014
  12. 12.0 12.1 United States Department of Education, ED Data Express, "State Tables," accessed May 13, 2014
  13. ACT, "2012 ACT National and State Scores," accessed May 13, 2014
  14. Commonwealth Foundation, "SAT Scores by State 2013," October 10, 2013
  15. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Common Core of Data (CCD), State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File, School Year 2010-11, Provision Version 1a and School Year 2011-12, Preliminary Version 1a," accessed May 13, 2014
  16. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2011-2013," accessed February 21, 2014
  17. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009-2011," accessed February 24, 2014
  18. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditures Report, 2010-2012," accessed February 24, 2014
  19. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2009," accessed February 24, 2014
  20. National Association of State Budget Officers, "State Expenditure Report, 2008," accessed February 24, 2014
  21. 21.0 21.1 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2010–11," accessed May 13, 2014
  22. United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Table 211.60. Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Selected years, 1969-70 through 2012-13," accessed May 13, 2014
  23. Thomas E Fordham Institute, "How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions? A State-By-State Comparison," October 29, 2012
  24. Center for Union Facts,"West Virginia teachers unions," accessed May 20, 2010