| Recall campaigns by year
| 2014 • 2013 • 2012 • 2011 • 2010 • 2009 • 2008 • 2007 • 2006 |
2005 • 2003 • 2002 • 1999 • 1996
1995 • 1994 • 1993 • 1992 •1988
1984 • 1983 • 1978 • 1967 • 1952
1949 • 1932 • 1924 • 1921
1916 • 1914 • 1913 • 1911
Currently, nineteen states permit the recall of state officials: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wisconsin.
Officials eligible by state
Many states allow for the recall of all elected officials, while others only allow for recall in limited cases. The map below displays these variations and links to more information on the laws governing recalls in each state.
Prerequisites for recall processes
Some states require that officials commit some offense, or that recall petitioners have a specific rationale for their recall efforts. The map below displays these requirements and links to more information on the laws governing recalls in each state.
Only three United States governors have faced recall elections. Two of them (Lynn Frazier, 1921 and Gray Davis, 2003) were consequently removed from office while the other (Scott Walker, 2012) retained his seat.
Shortly after taking office in 2011, Republican Governor Scott Walker of Wisconsin proposed legislation (Wisconsin Act 10, known as the "Scott Walker Budget Repair Bill") that restricted public workers' collective bargaining abilities. The proposal sparked massive protests statewide, most notably in downtown Madison, as unionized workers gathered to resist the measure.
The bill's opponents targeted Walker for recall, successfully forcing him to face a recall election on June 5, 2012. He ran against Democrat Tom Barrett, whom he had previously faced in the general election, and defeated him 53 percent to 46 percent. He became the first governor to survive a recall.
The legislation also triggered several recalls of State Senators. See below for a list of other Wisconsin officials recalled in the 2012 conflict.
Davis, first elected in 1998, enjoyed popularity for much of his first term, maintaining a 58 percent approval rating. Then in May 2001, in the midst of the California electricity crisis, his numbers began slipping—only to be further aggravated by his middle-of-the-road approach to politics, such that by October 2003 his approval rating was only 27 percent.
|“||We've had a lot of good nights over the last 20 years, but tonight the people did decide it is time for someone else to serve, and I accept their judgment.||”|
North Dakota, 1921
Though a popular governor throughout his first two terms (spanning 1917 to 1920), Republican (Nonpartisan League) Governor Lynn Frazier met political dissonance upon his third election. Economic trouble in North Dakota following poor farming seasons and World War I led to conflict between political forces, especially in light of the newly established Industrial Commission, put in place to oversee state-owned industries.
The state constitution had recently been amended to provide for the recall of public officials, and was immediately used to recall Frazier and the other officials that comprised the Industrial Commission.
- Phil Mastin recall: In 1983, two Democratic State Senators were recalled in Michigan shortly following the election of Governor James Blanchard, who upon taking office earlier that year promised to raise taxes. The State Senator switched hands into Republican control, and no tax increase occurred.
- Leon Drolet recall threats: In Michigan, Leon Drolet, former Michigan State Representative (2001-2007) and Macomb County Commissioner (2007-?), formed a group called the Michigan Taxpayers Alliance which has referred to Michigan's 1983 history with a button "Recall 1983." Drolet has threatened to recall any legislator who votes yes on tax increases in Michigan and has received considerable media attention as a result. Drolet is also known for co-chairing the Michigan Civil Rights Amendment, Proposal 2 (2006) (MCRI) Committee, which successfully passed Michigan's Proposal 2 of 2006, ending race and gender-based types of affirmative action in government hiring, education, and contracting.
- Thurston County Commissioners recall: A recall proceeding is underway in Washington State in regard to Thurston County Commissioners Cathy Wolfe, Karen Valenzuela and Sandra Romero, for alleged illegal expenditures of public funds to a private "Shadow Government" agency, the Washington State Association of Counties.
Recalls by type of political office
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- NNDB, Lynn J. Frazier profile
- CNN, "Davis in defeat: 'We'll have better nights to come'," October 8, 2003
- The Guardian, "Wisconsin governor Scott Walker survives bitterly fought recall election," June 6, 2012
- TMJ4, "Walker Works Last Day as County Executive," December 27, 2010
- UPI.com, "Recall election schedule set in Wisconsin," March 15, 2012
- San Francisco Chronicle, "Voters Well Pleased With Governor's First 100 Days, Poll Finds / 5-to-1 approval rating puts Davis on solid footing out of the gate," March 19, 1999
- CNN.com, "Women supported Schwarzenegger, exit polls show," October 8, 2003
- Note: This text is quoted verbatim from the original source. Any inconsistencies are attributed to the original source.
- The State Historical Society of North Dakota, Exhibits - North Dakota Governors - Lynn J. Frazier
- Facebook Page: Vote Out Corrupt Commissioners of Thurston County