Redistricting in Arkansas

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Arkansas

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General Information
Process:   Board of Apportionment
Deadline:   None
Total Seats to be Drawn
Congress:   4
State Senate:   35
State House:   100
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Redistricting in Arkansas is conducted every 10 years following the census population count. The state legislature is responsible for drawing Congressional districts while the Board of Apportionment is in charge of composing new state legislative maps.

Arkansas' population increased by 9.1 percent between 2000 and 2010. After reapportionment, the state retained four congressional seats, with the 1st and 4th Districts expected to grow in geographic size.[1]

Process

The Arkansas Board of Apportionment is responsible for redistricting at the state legislative level. This is one of 11 commissions nationwide that are responsible for redistricting. The following three state officials serve on the Board:

In 2011, the board members was comprised of 2 Democrats and 1 Republican:

The Arkansas Legislature is responsible for redrawing the Congressional district lines.[2]

Leadership

2011

Although the Arkansas Board of Apportionment directs state level redistricting, the House and Senate Committees on State Agencies And Governmental Affairs direct congressional redistricting in the legislature.[3]

Congressional Redistricting Committee

House Committee

Democratic PartyDemocrats (12)

Republican PartyRepublicans (8)

Senate Committee

Democratic PartyDemocrats (4)

Republican PartyRepublicans (4)

Board of Apportionment

In 2011, the Board of Apportionment redrew the state legislative districts. The 3 members of the board were:

Staff

In April 2011, the Board of Apportionment voted 2-1 to hire Joe Woodson as redistricting coordinator. Mark Martin -- the lone Republican -- voted against Woodson.[4]

Expenditures controversy

On March 16, 2011 the Board met for the first time to begin discussing the process.[5] It became evident that Martin (R) had made expenditures that Beebe (D) and McDaniel (D) were unaware of. According to reports, Martin authorized $19,000 to be paid to a consulting group, paid Tim Hutchinson $6,473 (son of former U.S. senator Tim Hutchinson) to be a consultant, and purchased a car for $27,629.[6] Martin said Hutchinson would serve as interim director of redistricting until a permanent hire was made.[7] Beebee and McDaniel voted at the meeting to consider hiring Joe Woodson for the post, though Martin predicted that Hutchinson would still have a role in the event of Woodson’s hiring.[8]

On March 21, a spokesperson for Martin said most of the money he had spent on redistricting would be reclassified to his office instead. Martin had spent about $70,000 of the $200,000 allocated redistricting funds. Of that $70,000, $60,000 was re-categorized, leaving $190,000 in redistricting budget remaining.[9] "The important thing is to begin working on redistricting," said Alice Stewart, Martin's spokesperson.[10]

Census results

The Census Bureau released local population data to Arkansas during the week of February 7, 2011.[11]


State Senator Gilbert Baker (R) explaining why redistricting was expected to be completed earlier than usual in 2011.

The new legislative districts were estimated to be completed by September 2011.[2]

According to Article 8, Section 4 of the Arkansas Constitution, the Arkansas Board of Apportionment is required to draw state legislative districts on or before February 1 of the year when census data is received. However, historically, this deadline has not been adhered to. Senator Gilbert Baker (R) pushed for the Board to stick closer to that deadline. Baker stated that with new technology, district maps can be generated in one day, and the earlier they get to citizens, the better.[12]

On April 6, 2011, a timeline was adopted by the Board of Apportionment. Plans were to finish the map drawing process by the end of June 2011.[13][14] Arkansas received its official, local census data on February 9, 2011.[15] Fort Smith grew by 7.4 percent -- allowing it to remain the second largest city behind Little Rock. The five most populated cities in Arkansas are[15]:

  • Little Rock — 193,524
  • Fort Smith — 86,209
  • Fayetteville — 73,580
  • Springdale — 69,797
  • Jonesboro — 67,263

The largest percentage growth of any city in the state was in Bentonville -- which saw a 79 percent increase to 35,201, likely due to the presence of Wal-Mart's headquarters.[16] The population increases in Arkansas trended toward the northwestern part of the state -- areas that historically lean Republican.[15]

Meanwhile, the state's Hispanic population grew by 114.5 percent.[17]

Congressional Maps

Historically, the Democratic supermajority in the Senate and House has helped allow the Democratic Party to re-draw Congressional lines without Republican support. In 2011, there was only one U.S. House district held by a Democratic representative -- Mike Ross -- while the other three Representatives -- Rick Crawford, Timothy Griffin, and Steve Womack -- were Republican. One early estimate was that Democrats would use their control over redistricting to strengthen their hold on District 4, rather than trying to make headway into the three Republican districts.[18] As a result of the election, Republicans were expected to have equal numbers of members on the State Senate Agencies Committee, which is tasked with most of the oversight over Congressional redistricting.[19] Arkansas was the only southern state without a majority-minority district.[20]

State representative Tracy Pennartz (D), who sat on the House State Agencies Committee that oversees Congressional redistricting, said boundaries should be drawn in the people's interests -- not to protect incumbents.[21]

Splitting counties

Legislators received an early briefing on redistricting as they opened session on January 10, 2011.[22] One early theory was that some counties would end up being split among Congressional districts.[23] A.J. Kelly, deputy director of the secretary of state, said the population breakdown might make it impossible to keep with the historical manner of Congressional redistricting. "The math just doesn't work this time," he said.[24] County population figures were expected to be released on February 22, 2011.[23]

Several state legislators also hinted that counties would be split. Senators Robert Thompson (D) described the process "as much art and science" as math. Senator Gilbert Baker (R) also said if the one-person, one-vote mandate was to be met, then counties would have to be split.[25] Clark Hall (D), chair of the House State Agencies committee, said no more than three counties would likely be split.[26]


State Senator Gilbert Baker (R) discusses redistricting and the possibility of moving counties.

Arkansas was one of three states at the time -- along with Iowa and West Virginia -- that split Congressional districts along county lines.[23]

Possible splits

Early census figures showed large population loss in the 4th Congressional District, coupled with high growth in the 3rd Congressional District. Because Arkansas has a law against splitting counties, there was controversy over whether Sebastian County would remain in the 3rd District or move to the 4th.[21] State Senator Gilbert Baker (R) said it was likely that Sebastian County -- and parts of Pulaski County -- would move into the 4th Congressional District.[27]

Other possible county moves:[20]

  • Lonoke County to the 2nd or 4th Congressional district
  • Jefferson County to the 2nd Congressional district

Majority-Minority District

Arkansas has four Congressional districts. At the time of redistricting, none of those were majority-minority districts. However, some black lawmakers pushed for one of those districts to become a majority black district. Representative Darrin Williams (D) said a majority-minority district would provide black residents more of a say at the ballot box. Fifteen percent of the state's population was African-American.[28] The NAACP Arkansas implied there could be a lawsuit if there was no majority-minority district.[29]

Fayetteville relocation possibility

Prior to redistricting, Fayetteville was located in the 3rd Congressional District. One potential redistricting plan would have moved Fayetteville into the 4th Congressional District.[30] On March 1, Steve Clark, president of the Fayetteville Chamber of Commerce, openly opposed such a plan, saying it was not in the community's best interest. Clark is a former Democratic Attorney General and sent an email to the community, requesting assistance in rejecting the proposal. The city of Fort Smith also sent a resolution to oppose being removed from the 3rd Congressional District.[31] On March 17, 2011 the Forth Smith Regional Chamber of Commerce sent a resolution to the Arkansas State Legislature requesting that Fort Smith and Sebastian County be kept in the 3rd Congressional District.[32]

Citizen map

Figure 1. This is a citizen-generated Congressional map using 2010 census figures.

Columbia University maintains a website with a collection of citizen-generated maps for redistricting.

  • Figure 1: Submitted by Kristine VanHamersveld on March 1, 2011.[33]

Maps begin to emerge

In early March 2011, drafts of Congressional maps began to emerge. The State House Agencies Committee met behind closed doors to analyze options. Options included:[34]

  • "The Wedge" which would have completely reshaped the district lines, possibly pitting two Republican incumbents against one another.
  • "Total Reorg" would have cut the Delta in half and brought Little Rock together with West Memphis.
  • "Fayetteville to the Fourth" would have considered moving Hot Springs Village to the 2nd District.

State senator Johnny Key (R) proposed a map that would have:

  • Moved Scott and Logan counties from the 3rd to 4th Congressional District
  • Moved Marion County from the 3rd District to the 1st Congressional District
  • Moved Van Buren and White counties from the 2nd to the 1st Congressional District
  • Moved Prairie, Monroe, Lee, Phillips and Arkansas counties from the 1st to the 4th Congressional District.
  • Move Newton and Pope counties from the 3rd to the 2nd Congressional District.

"My aim was to get a map that looked like it made sense. It got the population deviation to where we needed it to be," Key said. There were 17 redistricting bills filed as of March 2011.[35]

First Introduced Map

Figure 2: This map was dubbed "Fayetteville to the 4th" and was the first proposal to emerge from committee.
Figure 3: This map is the amended version of the "Fayetteville to the 4th" which was altered on March 30, 2011.

The final map is referred to as "Fayetteville to the Fourth" (See Figure 2) and emerged from the State House Agencies Committee via an 11-7 vote on March 22.[36] The party-line vote included all 11 Democrats voting in favor of the plan, which would move Fayetteville from the 3rd Congressional District to the 4th District. Republicans argued that the move would help carve districts in favor of Democratic candidates.[37] The bill has been nicknamed the "Pig Tail Gerrymander." Two Republican proposals in the committee were rejected, which would have kept Fayetteville in the 3rd District.[38]

Some reactions to the plan:

  • Current U.S. House Representative Steve Womack (R-3rd) called the map absurd. "With this plan, we have a very low seed that is apparently still in the game against several top seed teams. You can say that this redefines March madness," he said.[39]
  • Representative Justin Harris said, "We do not want to be put in the fourth district," Harris said. "We want to be left in the Third District to be part of the region of northwest Arkansas."[40]

Attorney General Dustin McDaniel (D) said he expected the map to end up in court.[41] The Republican Party state chairman, Doyle Webb, said he is prepared to file a lawsuit if the "Fayetteville to the Fourth" map is passed by the Arkansas House of Representatives.[42]

Amendment to map

On March 30, 2011, "Fayetteville to the Fourth" was amended (See Figure 3 for comparisons to the original, in Figure 2).[43] Among other things, the changes would have:[44]

  • Returned some southeastern counties to the 4th Congressional District rather than moving them to the 1st.
  • Moved the southern half of Madison County from the 3rd District to 4th.
  • Left Franklin in the 3rd District.
  • Split Van Buren County between the 1st District and the 2nd.
  • Moved Searcy County from the 1st District to the 3rd.
  • Split Baxter County between the 1st District and the 3rd.
  • Moved all of White County to the 1st District.
  • Moved Lonoke County from the 1st District to the 2nd.
  • Moved part of Pope County from the 3rd District to the 2nd.
  • Moved Lincoln, Desha and Chicot counties from 4th District to the 1st.
  • Left all of Garland County in the 4th District.

Senate Introduced Maps

The Senate maps differed from the House maps. On March 30, 2011, three Republican-sponsored proposals were rejected in two different legislative committees. The Senate Agencies and Governmental Affairs Committee rejected two bills -- one each by Bill Pritchard (R) and Johnny Key (R) -- while the House Agencies and Governmental Affairs Committee rejected a proposal from Andrea Lea (R).[45]

Session Extended

Figure 4: This is one version of a compromise map that was proposed in the Senate on April 5, 2011.
Figure 5: This is the final compromise map that passed the Senate on April 5, 2011.

Although the deadline for completing Congressional redistricting was supposed to be April 1 when the legislative session ended, the Senate members did not vote on a plan in time and amended the Sine Dine resolution to allow legislators to return and finish the process. The Arkansas House of Representatives passed a map by a 52-46 vote on March 31 and sent it to the Senate for approval.[46] But with only one day to consider the map and strong resistance from Republican legislators, the "Fayetteville to the Fourth" map remained unapproved.[47] The Senate committee in charge of redistricting is split with four Democrats and four Republicans, which makes it difficult for any bill to emerge without a consensus opinion.[48]

The Senate returned on Monday, April 4 to continue debating the maps.[49]

Senate rejects "Fayetteville Finger"

On Monday, April 4, the Arkansas State Senate State Agencies Committee rejected the "Fayetteville to the 4th" map. Once again, the vote was 4-4, with five votes needed to send the map to the full Senate.[50] On Tuesday, April 5, the Senate met again briefly but once again adjourned to negotiate a compromise map. A poll of Fayetteville residents found that 83 percent were opposed to moving from the 3rd to the 4th Congressional District.[51]

One option Democrats considered was pulling the map directly out of committee. Only 18 votes would have been needed -- Democrats had 20 members in the chamber. "We're trying to find a map that can get five votes in the committee. My sense is the Senate wants to work through the committee process and wants to avoid pulling something out of committee," said Sen. Gilbert Baker, (R), the Senate panel's vice chairman.[52] However, the option was ultimately not exercised.

Senate passes compromise map

On April 5, 2011, the Senate approved a new compromise map (See Figure 5) that would keep Fayetteville in the 3rd Congressional District.[53][54] The amended map passed on April 6, 2011 by a 20-13 vote and was sent to the House. One representative -- Andrea Lea (R) indicated she might further amend the map in the House.[55][56]

House rejects Senate map

On April 7, 2011, the House State Agencies Committee rejected the Senate's amended map. Speaker of the House Robert Moore (D) maintained that he wanted to see the Senate approve the initial "Fayetteville to the Fourth" map.[57] Both chambers returned on Monday, April 11 to continue negotiating in order to reach a compromise.[58]

Figure 6. This is the final map, as approved by the Legislature on April 12, 2011.

Final Map Implemented

After the House rejected the Senate map, the legislature adjourned for the weekend of April 12-13 to negotiate on a compromise.[59] On April 14, the House approved a new map[60] and the Senate approved a companion piece of legislation (See Figure 6 for map).

The final map kept Fayetteville in the 3rd District, but split five separate counties, including Sebastian County. House Speaker Robert Moore (D) said that the map was a fair compromise. "If we stay here another week, another month, another year is everybody going to be satisfied? No. The diversity of the opposition suggests we've done as good a job as we can do."[61]

Each map passed its respective chamber with bipartisan support. The bill passed the House by a 64-28 vote and the Senate by a 24-9 vote.[62]

Once the chambers approved each other's legislation on April 12, an error was found in the map, as two precincts were left unattached to any district. This oversight forced the chambers to return on April 13 -- at a cost of $20,700 to taxpayers -- in order to hold a follow-up vote.[63]

On April 14, 2011, Governor Mike Beebe (D) signed the Congressional redistricting law into effect. Beebe called the map "status quo." "I think both parties think that probably the congressional districts that are in play are still in play, and those that aren't, aren't," Beebe said.[64]

State Legislative Maps

This map displays the population variance by Senate district after the 2010 census data was released. Green colored districts will need to add population while red colored districts need to subtract population.
This map displays the population variance by House district after the 2010 census data was released. Green colored districts will need to add population while red colored districts need to subtract population.

Republican gains

After the November 2010 elections, Democrats lost their supermajority in both houses of the Arkansas Legislature. At the state legislative level, population gains in northwest Arkansas were expected to lead to Republican gains in that portion of the state. It was thought the Board of Apportionment might draw a Latino-majority district as well, owing to a large growth of the Hispanic population.[19] According to Jay Barth, political science professor at Hendrix College, the demographic shift was a large factor in the Republican strong showing in the 2010 elections. "We are now getting closer and closer to that point where the combination of Northwest Arkansas and the suburban counties around Little Rock have enough votes to really guide the outcome of statewide elections, and those tend of course to be more Republican than almost any other counties in the state," Barth said.[26]

Early maps

Four early versions of the Senate maps were released in late March 2011.[65] In May, the Board of Apportionment released five proposed House maps. One legislator -- Bubba Powers (D) said the maps "gut" his district. Public hearings were held starting May 24 and ending July 6.[66]

Northwest Arkansas was expected to go from six to seven Senate districts.[67]

An initial House map would have split Van Buren, which rested entirely within District 66. Under a May 10 version of the map, Van Buren would have been split between Districts 85 and 86. "As it stands right now, the drafts they have for Crawford County are a total nightmare. Just like the congressional districts were," said Crawford County Clerk Teresa Armer.[68]

GOP reaction

Some Republican leaders expressed dissatisfaction at the fact that the two Democratic members of the Board delayed the release of their versions of draft maps. "Arkansans aren’t getting a fair shake on the redistricting process without seeing the maps of McDaniel and Beebe. Their self-serving behavior is destructive to the process and demonstrates an utter disregard for transparency in government," said Katherine Vasilos, Republican Party of Arkansas spokeswoman. McDaniel and Beebe -- both Democrats -- represent 2/3 of the Board of Apportionment and have a majority over the lone Republican, Mark Martin. Beebe and McDaniel said they were not ready to release maps.[69]

Rural Counties Lose Population


Lieutenant Governor Mark Darr (R) discusses the prospects of Sebastian County's move from the 3rd Congressional District during redistricting.

In 1960, 34 legislators represented the 24 counties of the Arkansas rural delta. If the 100 House seats were divided up evenly, only 23 legislators would represent the delta. Of the 75 counties in Arkansas, 10 counties alone account for more than half of the state's population.[70]

In a USA Today article, Thomas Paradise, a professor at the University of Arkansas, said the state's population growth would likely create a "radically different constituent" for the current politicians.[16] Some of the local population growth could also be attributed to retirees -- "Northwest Arkansas is the new Florida" -- said Janine Parry, political science professor at the University of Arkansas.[16]

Wesley Woodard, President of the Hempstead County Economic Development Corporation, said most of the gains in population occurred in northern counties. Woodard expected areas like Hempstead County to "lose some representation in the legislature."[71]

Board of Apportionment Maps

Senate map

Proposed map to redraw Senate districts by Governor Mike Beebe (D) from July 2011.

Governor Mike Beebe (D) and Attorney General Dustin McDaniel (D) released their initial map proposals in late July 2011. The two maps were largely similar and drew criticism from some incumbents. Bruce Holland (R) said of the maps: "It pretty much destroys my district." According to Beebe spokeswoman Stacey Hall, the proposed map would not place any two existing incumbents in the same district. Kim Hendren also expressed displeasure at the proposed map. Another Senator, Jack Crumbly (D), was displeased to see the African-American population decrease in his district.[72]

House map

Governor Mike Beebe (D) and Attorney General Dustin McDaniel (D) released maps that differed from the proposed map from Secretary of State Mark Martin (R). Notably, the number of majority-minority districts varied. At the time there were 13 such districts. The Beebe and McDaniel maps would have created 11 majority-minority districts. Meanwhile, the Martin map created 15 districts.[73] Representative David Sanders (R) was drawn into what would become a majority-minority district in Little Rock, likely leaving him without a chance of winning the district.[74]

Maps approved

On July 29, 2011, the Board of Apportionment approved new state legislative maps by a 2-1 vote. Attorney General Dustin McDaniel (D) and Governor Mike Beebe voted for the maps while Secretary of State Mark Martin (R) was the lone dissenting vote.[75] Among the changes the new maps made:

  • Alpena, a town of 392 residents, was split between three separate Senate districts.[76]
  • The number of majority-minority districts in the House was reduced from 13 to 11.[75]
  • Most of Fort Smith remains the same. Some of the districts in its area will pick up or lose cities/counties, but the incumbents were largely unaffected. Senator Bruce Holland (R) had a newly created district 6.[77]
  • The new map pitted five House Democrats and eight House Republicans to square off against sitting incumbents in a re-election bid. House representatives Linda Collins-Smith (D) and Lori Benedict (R) were drawn into the same district. Had they both run for re-election in 2012 they would have faced one another in the general election (assuming they survived the primary).[78]

New website

In late February, the Secretary of State launched a new website geared toward engaging Arkansas citizens in the redistricting process.[79] The new website included all relevant redistricting information as well as a forum to submit public input. "Arkansans have a vested interest in how their district lines are drawn and I urge them to share their ideas and concerns. Time is of the essence and we want to hear from Arkansans on our blog, message board, or at our soon-to-be-scheduled public hearings," said Mark Martin, Secretary of State.[80] According to the site, April 4, 2011 was the target date for filing a new redistricting plan.

Legal issues

Legislative map lawsuit

State senator Jack Crumbly and a group of residents from eastern Arkansas sued the three-member Board of Apportionment on January 23, 2012. The suit was filed in federal court.[81] The lawsuit alleged that the new boundaries diluted the black vote in Crumbly's district, as the number of voting-age blacks was lowered from 58 percent to 53 percent. The maps were defended by Board of Apportionment members Governor Mike Beebe (D) and Attorney General Dustin McDaniel (D).[82] Crumbly (who is black) lost to state Rep. Keith Ingram (who is white) in the May primary.

The hearing began on May 7.[83] A panel of three federal judges on May 9 dismissed Secretary of State Mark Martin (R) from the suit.[84] The court ruled it would not delay the May 22 primary as it considered the case.[85]

On September 17, a three-judge panel upheld the new districts, rejecting Crumbly's allegations. The judges stated that the decrease was an unintended consequence, not purposeful discrimination, saying, "This may be regrettable, but it is not unconstitutional." The ruling went on to say, "We find credible Governor Beebe's and Attorney General McDaniel's testimony that they did not engage in intentional discrimination or know that Representative Ingram, or any other white incumbent, would run for senator against Senator Crumbly in Senate District 24 at the time that the district map was drawn."[86]

Crumbly's lawyer, James Valley, filed a notice of appeal with the court on October 17.[87]

Public input

In May 2011, the Board of Apportionment began hosting public forums across the state to gather input from citizens. "Of course, there’s no way to please everyone, but to some degree, no one is going to get exactly what they want. Everyone is going to have to share in the discomfort if there is any. We just want to make sure every effort is made to ensure the districts make sense and they’re legal and fair. At the end of the day, hopefully everyone will understand why we did it the ways we did," said Joe Woodson, redistricting coordinator. The board visited seven cities.[88]

Schedule of public meetings:

  • May 24: Jonesboro
  • May 31: Hope
  • June 7: Monticello
  • June 14: Fayetteville
  • June 21: Little Rock
  • June 28: Helena
  • July 6: Fort Smith

Ballot measures

The following measure has appeared on the Arkansas ballot pertaining to redistricting.

History

2001 redistricting

Figure 1: This map shows the Arkansas Congressional Districts after the 2000 census.

Awaiting detailed Census data, due in March 2001, were Governor Mike Huckabee, Secretary of State Sharon Priest, and Attorney General Mark Pryor. The legislature, already in session, was keen to have a plan in time for their 2002 midterm election campaigns. The Republican Governor along with Priest and Pryor, both Democrats, had a map ready to present to County Clerks just after the Independence Day holiday in 2004.

Northwestern Arkansas, a heavily white area, lost some legislative representation to the largely black Eastern region, in keeping with an order to increase minority representation. By early autumn, a final map was making the rounds. Dissent was minimal, owing in part to an adherence to keep counties un-split. With five seats, four in the House and one in the Senate, where incumbents would have to challenge each other, the greatest anger over the plan was predictably concentrated. Some Senate Democrats, representing Little Rock, alleged the Secretary of State and Attorney General had backed out of promises to protect their districts.

The final vote was set for the end of September 2001, but Governor Huckabee, the lone Republican, asked for numerous changes at the local level. To accommodate Huckabee, the Board of Apportionment's staff was given a week to research and prepare a state level map reflecting the Governor's wishes. While staff worked to render a visual of Huckabee's theoretical suggestions, the NAACP pursued its own set of changes to give greater weight to black voters.[89] Though the plan would ultimately pass, in the spring of 2002, the NAACP would officially bring a lawsuit.

Deviation from "Ideal Districts"

2000 Population Deviation[90]
Office Percentage
Congressional Districts 0.04%
State House Districts 9.87%
State Senate Districts 9.81%
Under federal law, districts may vary from an 'Ideal District' by up to 10%, though the lowest number achievable is preferred. 'Ideal Districts' are computed through simple division of the number of seats for any office into the population at the time of the Census.

Constitutional explanation

With respect to redistricting, the Arkansas Constitution provides authority to and outlines the duties of The Board of Apportionment in Article 8, which is entitled "Apportionment-Members in General Assembly."

See also

External links

References

  1. The City Wire, "Census: Arkansas population up 9.1%," December 21, 2010
  2. 2.0 2.1 Arkansas House News Release
  3. [http://archive.fairvote.org/redistricting/reports/remanual/ar.htm Fair Vote, "Arkansas' Redistricting Information," 2001]
  4. News Times, "Redistricting panel aims to finish work in July," April 6, 2011
  5. Arkansas Business, "Arkansas Redistricting Panel Works on Funds, Seeks Staff," March 16, 2011
  6. The Republic, "Beebe, McDaniel learn at redistricting meeting Ark. secretary of state already hired director," March 16, 2011
  7. The City Wire, "Board of Apportionment organizes, expenses questioned," March 16, 2011
  8. SW Times Online, "Beebe Cites Board Expenses In First Redistricting Meeting," March 17, 2011
  9. KSPR "After criticism, Martin reclassifying $60K in redistricting expenses; sum includes automobile," March 21, 2011
  10. Arkansas News, "Martin reclassifying most of redistricting expenses," March 22, 2011
  11. Tolbert Report, "Arkansas Census Data Set For Release Next Week," February 4, 2011
  12. Tolbert Report, "Brummett and Baker Talk Redistricting Business," January 29, 2011
  13. Today's THV 11 "Update: Timeline adopted for Ark. legislative redistricting," April 6, 2011
  14. Arkansas News, "Panel sets late July as target to complete legislative redistricting," April 6, 2011
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 The City Wire, "Census data released; Fort Smith population up 7.4%," February 10, 2011
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 USA Today, "Redistricting is probably ahead for Arkansas," February 10, 2011
  17. Jacksonville Patriot, "Census shows state’s population shift; Jacksonville loses 1,552 people," February 17, 2011
  18. Swing State Project, "Redistricting Outlook: Alabama-Arkansas," January 1, 2011
  19. 19.0 19.1 The City Wire, "Arkansas Legislative Preview: Taxes, redistricting and prisons," January 4, 2011
  20. 20.0 20.1 The City Wire, "Ethics, redistricting, and tax cuts may take center stage," January 27, 2011
  21. 21.0 21.1 Times Record Online, "Congressional District Changes Eyed," January 3, 2011
  22. The City Wire, "Legislative Preview: Redistricting, ‘open camera’ and health care" January 18, 2011
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Arkansas News, "Counties may be split for congressional redistricting," January 18, 2011
  24. Bloomberg, "Ark. senator: Nixing pay hike for workers possible," January 18, 2011
  25. The City Wire, "Congressional redistricting could split counties," January 18, 2011
  26. 26.0 26.1 The Cabin, "Population shift in Arkansas favors Republicans," February 12, 2011
  27. The City Wire, "Sebastian County redistricting possibility discussed," January 31, 2011
  28. Arkansas Democrat Gazette, "A black House district pushed," February 22, 2011
  29. Arkansas Democrat Gazette, "State redistricting draws lawsuit risk," February 20, 2011
  30. Arkansas News, "The Pig Trail gerrymander," March 2, 2011
  31. [The City Wire, "Redistricting plan meets 3rd District resistance, uncertainty," March 1, 2011]
  32. The City Wire, "Fort Smith chamber board endorses 3rd District stay," March 18, 2011
  33. Draw Congress Arkansas Congressional Redistricting Map, March 1, 2011
  34. The City Wire, "Congressional redistricting maps begin to surface," March 18, 2011
  35. SW Times Online, "Lawmaker's Redistricting Plan Revised," March 17, 2011
  36. The City Wire, "'Fayetteville to the Fourth' Congressional map released," March 23, 2011
  37. KSPR "Arkansas House committee backs redistricting proposal that moves Fayetteville to 4th District," March 23, 2011
  38. Arkansas News, "UPDATE: Panel backs ‘Fayetteville Finger’ redistricting plan," March 23, 2011
  39. The City Wire, "Womack: Proposed Congressional map is ‘absurd’" March 23, 2011
  40. KUAR "Redistricting Plan Draws Cries of Partisanship," March 24, 2011
  41. Tolbert Report, "AG McDaniel Weighs in on Redistricting," March 24, 2011
  42. The City Wire, "Congressional Redistricting: The Aftermath," March 24, 2011
  43. The City Wire, "Congressional redistricting maps change again," March 30, 2011
  44. Arkansas News, "Legislators struggle with redistricting plan as session’s end looms," March 30, 2011
  45. Today's THV 11 "Update: Ark. committees reject 3 GOP redistricting bills," March 30, 2011
  46. Talk Business, "'FAYETTEVILLE TO THE FOURTH' MAP CLEARS HOUSE," March 31, 2011
  47. News Times, "Bookout: Redistricting unlikely to be completed," March 31, 2011
  48. Talk Business, "ALL EYES ON THE SENATE AS SESSION WRAPS UP," March 31, 2011
  49. The Republic, "Arkansas Senate President says Legislature will return Monday to work on redistricting," April 1, 2011
  50. The City Wire, "Senate committee rejects 'Fayetteville to the Fourth'" April 5, 2011
  51. Arkansas News, "Senate panel rejects House-approved redistricting plan," April 4, 2011
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  60. Talk Business, "House Approves Latest Congressional Map," April 12, 2011
  61. Arkansas Times, "Redistricting compromise headed to law books," April 12, 2011
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  63. AP News, "Ark. lawmakers return to Capitol for redistricting," April 13, 2011
  64. My San Antonio, "Beebe signs Ark. redistricting plan into law," April 14, 2011
  65. Tolbert Report, "New Arkansas Senate Map Drafts," March 23, 2011
  66. Hope Star, "State redistricting off to iffy start," May 12, 2011
  67. Tolbert Report, "New Senate Map Spurs Debate, Creates Opportunity in Northwest Arkansas," May 10, 2011
  68. Crawford County Press Argus-Courier, "Redistricting plan splits Van Buren," May 20, 2011
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  70. Washington Examiner, "Ark. rural Delta loses people, political clout," February 11, 2011
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  75. 75.0 75.1 Arkansas News UPDATE Governor’s redistricting maps adopted by panel, 29 July 2011]
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  77. Southwest Times Record, "Redistricting means few changes for Fort Smith voters," August 4, 2011
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  80. THV 11 "State secretary launches redistricting website to receive public comment," February 28, 2011
  81. Rockford Register Star, "Ark. lawmaker sues over redistricting map," January 23, 2012
  82. The Republic, "Ark. lawmaker, others sue state over redistricting map, claim black vote diluted in district," January 23, 2012
  83. Helena Arkansas News, "May 7 hearing set for Arkansas redistricting lawsuit," February 15, 2012
  84. Today’s THV "Judges toss Mark Martin from part of redistricting suit," May 9, 2012
  85. The Republic, "Federal judges won't halt east Ark. Senate primary as they weigh redistricting suit," May 11, 2012
  86. NECN, "Judges uphold east Ark. Senate redistricting," September 17, 2012
  87. KATV, "Notice of appeal filed in Ark. redistricting case," October 17, 2012
  88. Paragould Daily Press, "Apportionment board to host public meetings," May 23, 2011
  89. Fairvote Archive, "Arkansas Redistricting News," accessed February 1, 2011
  90. National Conference of State Legislatures, “Redistricting 2000 Population Deviation Table”, accessed February 1, 2011